Poverty in India
Poverty in India
Poverty refers to not having sufficient material possessions or income for a person's needs or having lack of means which are necessary for personal needs like food,clothing and shelter.Poverty includes social,economic and political elements. It is widespread in country like India like a disease as most of the population is poor and are forced to beg and fulfill their essential needs.Poverty affects country's economic,social growth.It is measured by number of people who fall below a certain level of income known as a poverty line that also defines a level of income needed for a basic standard of living.
TYPES OF POVERTY
Situational- This type of poverty is temporary because it includes occurring a loss or crisis.Events connected with this type of poverty are environmental disasters, severe health problems etc.The fall of the economy can also be considered as situational type of poverty.
Generational-The poverty which includes two generation's birth into it because they are born into this situation and usually do not have any tools to help themselves get out of it.
Absolute-People in absolute poverty don't have basic necessities like shelter,food and shelter. Their main focus is on surviving each day as it comes. This type of poverty is rare in United states of America.
Relative- It is relative to average standard of living in a person's society. If a family's income is not enough to meet basic needs of family members, they are considered to be in a relative type of poverty.
Urban- This type of poverty is for metropolitan areas having over 50,000 population.The overcrowding,violence,noise,poor community help programs to make it even more difficult for people suffering of this type of poverty to come out of it.
Rural- It occurs in specific areas types. These are non metropolitan areas having population below 50,000. The low population limits the services available for people who are financially struggling and also lack of job opportunities only compounds the problem.
CAUSES OF POVERTY
Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food- Many people suffer from lack of access to clean water and food which is the biggest cause why people struggle to escape from poverty. Lack of access to clean water and food leads to various preventable diseases like diarrhea.
Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs- Without job or way to make money, people have to face poverty. Dwindling access to productive land due to overpopulation,conflict, climate change etc and over-exploitation of resources like minerals are putting pressure on many traditional livelihoods. Inconsistent work and low paying jobs can land person or family into poverty and no work means that a family or a person can't get out of poverty without any assistance.
Inequality- There are many different types of inequalities from social to economic and so on. It means unequal access to resources which is needed to lift a family or person out of poverty. For example-the voices of certain community of people are not heard in a meeting held as they do not have a say in the decision making process regardless of their importance in society.The tools they need are not accessible to them and for already vulnerable families which means the difference of being poor and living in extreme poverty.
Poor Education- There are lots of barriers stopping children from going to school as families can't afford to send their children to school and need them to work in fields and factories which promotes child labor. The people also not see benefits in educating girls. Education is considered to be an equalizer which opens door to jobs and various resources and skills needed on which a family can survive.
Climate Change- Sudden climate events occurring like floods,droughts,storms affects people already living in poverty as most of the poor population depends upon farming,gathering and hunting for food and earn for living. So natural disasters affects large number of people without food,pushes them further into poverty and make recovery more difficult.
Lack of Infrastructure-The lack of infrastructure like roads,bridges, cables for light and housing facilities etc isolate communities living in rural areas.It leads to inability to go to school,for work or go to market to buy or sell goods.The isolation limits opportunity and without opportunity it leads to difficulty in coming out of the extreme poverty and people are forced to live in slums rather than in a properly built house.
EFFECT OF POVERTY ON SOCIETY
A major cause of social tension or threatens to divide a nation because of issue of inequalities particularly in income inequality in which wealth in a country is unequally distributed among people.For example, the presence of middle class in society as recently in western countries, middle class is gradually vanishing and there is increase in number of riots and clashes. In a society, poverty is a very dangerous factor which destabilizes the entire country.
INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE POVERTY IN INDIA
Various initiatives in form of schemes are being launched by government which are as follows:-
National rural employment guarantee scheme in which 100 days of work is given to rural people across the country which helps them in increasing their income level and provides work opportunities.
Integrated rural development scheme-It looks to provide asset by dint of income to poorest people in India. The objective is to provide sustainable asset to targeted families so that they can be brought above the poverty line.Self employment is major component of self assistance provided by this scheme.
National rural employment programme
National maternity benefits scheme
National family benefit scheme
National old age pension scheme and many more.
Poverty has been major social problem of our country and it needed to be reduced.The number of organizations which are helping to reduce poverty by educating people of developed countries to be organized and take actions related to this matter and encouraging people who work as a volunteers by providing poor to poorest people of basic essential needs by organizing charity functions and offering special rewards.