- Politics and Social Issues
Contributions of Mughal Empire to Indian Union: [Part-I]
The Mughal Empire was an imperial power in South Asia that ruled over India for about three hundred years before the British captured India. It began in 1526 and lasted till the mid-19th century. They were the descendants of the Timurids. They were at the height of their power around 1700, when the Mughal controlled a territory of India extending from Bengal in the East to Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the North to the Kaveri basin in the south. The real activity of the Empire started in 1556 with the accession of Babur and ended with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707.
Since 1725, the Mughal Empire began to decline rapidly. The wars of succession were the primary cause of decline weakening the Empire and that followed by local revolts with rise of Maratha, Durrani, and Sikh empires. The growth of religious intolerance also contributed in reducing the strength of Mughal Empire. Finally British colonialism began to set up its power to occupy slowly and gradually the whole of Mughal Empire. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, British imprisoned the last Emperor, Bahadur ShahII, who was confined with the city of Delhi only. List of Mughal Emperors and their period followed by achievement:
Babur- 11526-1530, [Father of Mughal Dynasty],
Humayun 1530-1540, 1555-1556, [Lost his Emperor in his time period]
Akbar 1556-1605, [He married a Hindu Rajput princess]
Jahangir 1605-1627, [He first established relation with British East India Company against Mughal Emperor]
Shah Jahan 1627-1658, [He built Taj Mohal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir Mausoleum, Shalimar Garden in Lahor]
Aurangzeb, 1658-1707, [He expanded Emperor, but lost to Nawabs]
Who were Mughals?
Who were Mughals?
A vast area of Central Asia around Farghana (present Uzbekistan) was once conquered by Genghis Khan and the land was known as Moghulistan, as the Land belongs to Mongols and subsequently the name Mughal came into being. Babur came to power at his early age but he had to leave Farghana. Later he came down to capture Kabul but again he had to give up Kabul. He was attracted to come to India as he was invited by Hindu Rajput to establish his influence in India. However in India he had to fight with many kings to establish his Empire. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi Sultanate in the first battle of Panipath in 1526. Mughals spoke the local language at the beginning but later they took up Persian literacy. Mughals became Persianized and transferred the Persian literacy and high culture to India. It was the reason why Indo-Persian culture prevailed in some pockets of the territory of India still to-day. The spectacular achievement of Mughal period was in the creation of monuments and expansion in the sphere of culture. The influence of Persian culture over Indian territory was remarkable. More over the period was characterized with brilliant literary, artistic, and architectural results.
The history records that all the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great builders. It is also noticeable that Indian architecture during the Mughal period was greatly influenced by Persian styles showing a uniform pattern both in structure and character. The remarkable features of architecture were visible with the construction of bulbous domes, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar brought a change in the construction of splendid edifices. During his reign, the architecture showed a change of style in the features of construction. The architecture showed free use of both Hindu and Persian styles. Numerous forts, towers, palaces, mosques, mausoleums and gateways were constructed by Akbar. To-day the Humayun’s Tomb that we find in Delhi was built during his time.