Crimes involving Violence - Criminology Diploma 3.
Assignment 3 Violence.
***Before you continue to read this Hub may I mention that this is my work, written in my words for my Criminology Diploma. By all means read the Hub and absorb it's content but please don't plagiarize my work and present it as your own work towards your own diploma. This has been added as a request from a tutor/examiner of the Criminology Diploma program.***
3.1 Describe different forms of violence.
For the purpose of this exercise, forms of violence are being separated into the following six categories: -
1. Domestic Violence
2. Firearms and other Weapons
4. Occupational Violence
6. Sexual Violence
Domestic Violence refers to any form of physical, psychological, emotional, financial or sexual abuse committed by one member of a family or household against another, it can be actual or in the form of threats and intimidation. It can happen to anyone in any kind of relationship whether heterosexual, gay/lesbian or bi-sexual regardless of social group, class, age, race, disability, sexuality or lifestyle.
A victim of domestic violence may encounter intentional physical force such as hitting, kicking, pushing, shaking, restraining, forced sex or even the use of weapons that could possibly cause harm, injury, disability or even death. Psychological or emotional abuse could be in the form of threats aimed directly at the victim or at the victim’s relatives, friends or pets used to gain control of the victim. Direct abuse could include humiliating the victim, withholding vital information from the victim, making the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from family and friends or denying the victim access to finances or other necessities.
Firearms and other Weapons. Any item that can be used threateningly to cause harm or damage can be classed as a weapon, these can include guns (firearms), knives, swords, sticks and even everyday objects that normally have perfectly legitimate uses such as screwdrivers or hammers. A firearm can be any weapon capable of propelling a bullet, pellet (or pellets) or dart. Firearm related violence could intimidate, maim and even kill. Terrorism could be classed as a form of violence where the intent is to create terror.
Homicide covers the offences of murder, manslaughter and infanticide. According to the CPS, manslaughter can be committed in one of three ways: -
(1) Killing with the intent for murder but where a partial defence applies, namely provocation, diminished responsibility or killing pursuant to a suicide pact.
(2) Conduct that was grossly negligent given the risk of death, and did kill, is manslaughter ("gross negligence manslaughter"); and
(3) Conduct, taking the form of an unlawful act involving a danger of some harm, that killed, is manslaughter ("unlawful and dangerous act manslaughter").
The term 'involuntary manslaughter' is commonly used to describe a manslaughter falling within (2) and (3) while (1) is referred to as 'voluntary manslaughter'.
Subject to these three exceptions, the crime of murder is committed where a person of sound mind and discretion, a sane person, intentionally and unlawfully kills another human being.
Occupational Violence could be any incident where a worker (or student) is physically attacked or threatened either in the workplace (school) or during work (school) activities. A threat could be a verbal statement or an action that causes a reasonable person to believe that he/she is at risk of being physically attacked. A physical attack is the attempt or actual exercise of any force by a person to the body or clothing or equipment worn by another person where that exercise creates a risk to health and safety. Occupational violence can occur between work colleagues or could occur between a member of the public directed towards a person doing their duty such as a policeman or taxi driver.
Robbery is the crime of seizing property through threats of violence or intimidation prior to or during the theft. Robbery covers a wide range of incidents from bank robbery to street mugging therefore victims can be organisations or individual persons. Should any robbery be conducted with the use of a weapon as a threat to cause fear or injury, then the crime becomes armed robbery. A weapon can be any object capable of causing injury, even replica guns or implied weapons where a robber claims to possess a weapon concealed but not actually possess one. Unarmed robbery is conducted without the use or threat of any weapon.
Sexual Violence covers a range of acts that could take place in various circumstances and settings. Rape, either by a stranger, within a marriage or relationship (being married or in a relationship does not guarantee one the right to sex without the partners consent) or war rape. Unwanted sexual advances or sexual harassment including demanding sex in return for favors. Sexual abuse of children, and of mentally or physically disabled persons. Denial of the right to use contraception or to adopt other measures to protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Forced abortion. Violent acts against sexual integrity, including genital mutilation and obligatory inspections for virginity. Forced prostitution and trafficking of people for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
Any unwanted or forced sexual act or contact with another person is a sexual assault.
One can be charged with sexual assault if they:
· Insert their finger, penis or tongue, or any other object into another person’s vagina, anus or mouth against that persons will.
· Force another person to insert objects into their own vagina or anus.
· Perform oral sex on another person against their will, or force another person to perform oral sex on them.
3.2 Analyse the reasons for it.
Violence can be termed as a functional behaviour, adopted by an individual to achieve what they want or to gain some kind of benefit. They may feel cheated and require a product or service better or faster. They may require attention and use certain behaviours to attract that attention or they may wish to be left alone and could use violence to scare others away. They may have a desire for cash, drugs or other items and use violence as a threat to obtain these. Violence could be used to satisfy ones craving for excitement or even notoriety, or could be simply used to express ones feelings. Violence is often used to influence or control. Some people bow to pressures exerted by others encouraging them to change their attitude or behaviour; this is known as peer pressure.
In relation to domestic violence, the abusers violent behaviour is used to gain power and control, believed to originate from a sense of entitlement supported by a sexist, racist or other discriminatory attitude. Intimate partner violence, especially in the case where the male is violent towards the female could be connected the societal oppression of women, the male believing that he is the dominant one. The oppression of women, children, ethnic minorities, people who are disabled or people who are gay creates targets for violent attitude to be aimed at, therefore the fight to end domestic violence must include the fight to end all oppression.
Children living in an environment and society where violence is rife and have been abused or neglected and have witnessed and experienced domestic violence could be influenced by their experiences and follow the violent pattern.
Stress also can contribute to domestic violence as can alcohol and drugs but as violence is considered as a learned intentional behaviour, then stress, alcohol and drugs, are triggers for as opposed to reasons for the violence. Money is something that none of us can live without and the lack of money creates many problems that can contribute to domestic violence, the main reasons for the crimes of robbery and armed robbery is solely to get money.
A simple argument or disagreement could also trigger violence, even to a point where violent rage could lead to manslaughter or even murder.
To kill someone intentionally and unlawfully is murder, whether it be with the use of a weapon such as a knife or gun, or even with ones bare hands. So why would one commit murder? Again, as in most types of violence, power and control are main factors in the answer to this but there are other reasons that may or may not be reasons for other types of violence. Money is obviously a common reason, this could be a simple matter of to kill someone and take their money or to kill someone and eventually inherit what was theirs. Indirectly, money would be the motive to kill a blackmailer or to kill a person who one is in debt to, so as to end the debt. Another reason for murder could be revenge, to retaliate against a past wrongdoing towards one, or to claim payback. Love is another common reason why murder would be committed, a husband or wife who is aware that their partner has cheated could either murder their partner, their partners lover or both. Similarly, the third party could murder the husband or wife so that the other would be free. Some people even commit murder in belief that they are doing the right thing and are not committing any crime such as in crimes of religion.
There are many different types of occupational violence each that can have many different reasons as to why they occur. Within work, a superior intimidating or bullying one of his workers is a form of violence; the reasons for this type of violence could be a general dislike of the victim with intention of humiliating or forcing the victim to leave, or it could be a show of power or status. On the other hand, a worker could be violent towards his superior either as a dislike to the person, as a rebel against his status or in retaliation. Two workers on the same status can also be violent towards one another for reasons such as to gain promotion, because one is paid more that the other or because one is respected more than the other. Any unfair treatment within a working environment could trigger a violent reaction.
Another form of occupational violence occurs due to the workers position or duty, the most obvious in this category being the police force. The police deal with all other crimes and in such will encounter violence towards them due to their position and authority. The simplest examples of this could be retaliation in resistance to arrest, a rebel against authority, presence at sporting events or as a mediator between disputes. Nursing and care workers are prone to violent attacks from patients as are prison officers from the prisoners.
Some factors that increase a worker’s risk of occupational violence include: positions that come into contact with the public, a service or price may not be agreed by a member of the public who may retaliate with violent conduct, positions that evolve around cash and expensive goods attract the risk of theft and therefore have a risk of violent attack, working in dark hours and in high crime areas could attract muggings or even pointless violence and working where alcohol is served obviously due to the fact that alcohol can fuel violence.
Relating to sexual violence, there are many proposed theories attempting to explain its occurrence but as the category of sexual violence varies significantly and the offences that fall into this category are vast, there is no one specific theory that can explain all sexual violence. Offences that are sexually violent may include rape, sexual assault, paedophilia and incest and each individual case could have significant variables, it is therefore impossible to generalise reasoning for such crimes. Though lust and alcohol could fuel such sexual violence each individual case would need to be psychiatrically examined to determine the exact reason.
Any comments appreciated!