D. Afonso Henriques - First King of Portugal
D. Afonso Henriques chronological biography:
1109 is the probable year of D. Afonso Henriques birth. D. Afonso Henriques borns in Coimbra.
The Prince Afonso Henriques, the son of Henry of Burgundy and Teresa, bastard of King Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon dies that same year Alfonso VI. Top of the dispute between Urraca, the legitimate heir, and Teresa and several other pretenders to the throne. The power struggle going on for years.
In 1122, Afonso Henriques anticipates seven centuries in a gesture of Napoleon Bonaparte. Ignoring the cardinal who presided over the ceremony, a knight weapon in the cathedral of Zamora.
In 1128, Afonso Henriques fight against the mother, Teresa, and his ally, the Earl Galician Fernão Peres de Trava. The troops of Afonso Henriques and the troops of Teresa fighted in the field of São Mamede, near the castle of Guimarães. The Galician army is defeated. This win takes Teresa to give up the idea of annexing the Portuguese region to the kingdom of Galicia.
In 1129, on April 6, Afonso Henriques said a letter that proclaimed sovereign of Portuguese cities and in 1135, Alfonso VII, son of Urraca, is crowned "Emperor of all Spain" at the Cathedral of León Afonso Henriques refuses to pay homage to his cousin.
In 1137: Peace of Tui. After struggling with Alfonso VII in Alto Minho, Afonso Henriques promises the emperor "fidelity, security and assistance against all enemies."
In 1139: Battle of Ourique. Afonso Henriques won five Moorish kings.
1140: Afonso Henriques begins to use the title of King
1143: Probable Treaty of Zamora in which he makes peace with his cousin Alfonso VII. First step to Portuguese independence. Afonso Henriques writes to Pope Innocent II and declares himself - and all the children - "censual" of the Church of Rome. The word "censual" means that Prince is obliged to render obedience only to the Pope. In the ruling, therefore, no other power is greater than his.
1147: Afonso Henriques expels the Moors from Lisbon and several other Portuguese cities. -
1169: Afonso Henriques was taken prisoner by the King of Leon Ferdinand II.
1179: The Catholic Church recognizes formally the royalty of Afonso Henriques.
1180: Final conflict with Ferdinand II of León, the possession of land along the border and coast of Andalusia.
1185: Afonso Henriques died in the city of his birth. His legacy, as well as great wealth, is the County of Portugal, first European territory to establish their national identity.