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How can we Overcome Electricity Crisis in Pakistan

Updated on February 12, 2011

An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and electricity or other natural resources.

The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs. For the consumer, the price of different goods and products rises, leading to reduced consumer confidence and spending, higher transportation costs and general price rising.

Electricity is not only the energy resource which is facing shortfalls. Some people argue that world is heading towards energy crisis. Energy resources have depleted. Whatever resources are available are simply too expensive to buy or already acquired by countries which had planned and acted long time ago. Delayed efforts in the exploration sector have not been able to find sufficient amounts of energy resources. Nations of the world which have their own reserves are not supplying energy resources anymore; only the old contracts made decades ago are active.

Pakistan has been especially facing an unprecedented electricity crisis since the last few years. The problem becomes more severe during summers. However, this winter was no different. During the peak crisis there was a power outage of 3-4 hours everyday. Those without generators and UPS faced tremendous problems. The prices of both continued to increase due to a sharp increase in their demand. Many industries have closed due to insufficient power supply. At domestic level, alternate methods like solar, biogas and other methods are being tried for mere survival.

Sector Organization:

The electric power sector in Pakistan is operated by the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), and the Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation (KESC), with additional generation contribution from Independent (private) Power Producers (IPPs). WAPDA is responsible for supplying power to all of Pakistan, with the exception of Karachi, which is supplied by KESC. Currently, 15 IPPs operate in Pakistan under a Build-Own-Operate (BOO) basis. The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) regulates the power sector in Pakistan, which includes power generation, transmission and distribution. NEPRA is also responsible for determining electricity rates in Pakistan.

Growth in Pakistan’s Economy:

Robust economic growth-rates over the past several years have encouraged Pakistan to ignore fundamental weaknesses in the economy. Yes, Pakistan’s economy is growing; that’s the good news. Pakistan’s economy is performing at a very high note with GDP growing at an exceptional rate, touching 8.35% in 2004-05. In its history of 58 years, there has been only a few golden years where the economy grew above 7%. This year official expectations are that GDP growth rate will be around 6.5 – 7.0%. For the coming years, the government is targeting GDP growth rate above 6%. The bad news is that with this growth comes higher electricity consumption and greater pressure on the country’s electricity resources. Unless Pakistanis — the government, but individual citizens as well— act now, the country’s future will indeed be dark, in more ways than one.

Consumption of Electricity:

The survey said household sector has been the largest consumer of electricity accounting for 44.2 per cent of total electricity consumption followed by industries 31.1 per cent, agriculture 14.3 per cent, other government sector 7.4 per cent, commercial 5.5 per cent and street light 0.7 per cent. As per Pakistan Economic Survey 2003-04, electricity consumption has increased by 8.6 per cent during first three-quarter of last fiscal year. However, a top level WAPDA official maintained that electricity demand surged up to 13 per cent during last quarter.
Current Scenario of Electricity Supply in Pakistan:

At present, demand for electricity exceeds supply. Power outages and planned power cuts (euphemistically termed “load-shedding”) are, for many, an everyday occurrence. In addition to their economic costs, electricity shortages foster political instability. Last summer angry public protests in Karachi and riots in Liaquatabad demonstrated how close many Pakistanis are to reaching the limits of their patience. A widespread power outage affecting much of the country last September triggered panicky rumours of a coup. This unrest may be only a foretaste of things to come. Absent drastic action, Pakistan’s electricity situation is expected to get far worse in the years ahead.Keeping in view the past trend and the future development, WAPDA has also revised its load forecast to eight per cent per annum as against previous estimates of five per cent on average. Even the revised load forecast has also failed all assessments due to which Authority has left no other option but to start load management this year, which may convert into scheduled loadshedding over a period of two year, sources maintained.
The country needs a quantum jump in electricity generation in medium-term scenario to revert the possibilities of loadshedding in future due to shrinking gap between demand and supply of electricity at peak hours.
According to an official report, the gap between firm supply and peak hours demand has already been shrunk to three digit (440 MW) during this fiscal and will slip into negative columns next year (-441 MW) and further intensify to (-1,457 MW) during the financial year 2008-09.
No power generation projects were commissioned during this fiscal year and the total installed capacity of electricity generation remained 19,478 MW to meet 15,082 MW firm supply and 14,642 MW peak demands.
Malakand-lll (81MW), Pehur (18MW) and combined cycle power plant at Faisalabad (450MW) were planned to be commissioned during the year 2007. Besides this, Khan Khwar (72MW), Allai Khwar (121MW), Duber Khwar (130MW) and Kayal Khwar (130MW) are expected to be completed in 2008 along with Golan Gol (106MW) and Jinnah (96MW). Moreover, Matiltan (84MW), New Bong Escape (79MW) and Rajdhani (132MW) are expected by 2009 while Taunsa (120MW) is likely to be completed by 2010. WAPDA had also planned to install a high efficiency combined cycle power plant at Baloki (450MW), which is expected to be completed by 2010. In addition of these, power plant 1 & 2 of 300 MW each at Thar Coal with the assistance of China are also planned for commissioning in 2009. Moreover, efforts are also under way with China National Nuclear Corporation for the construction of a third nuclear power plant with a gross capacity of 325 MW at Chashma, they added.Meanwhile, provincial rivalries and widespread public opposition have significantly slowed the government’s plans to build dams capable of generating electricity. Many Pakistanis argue that large hydroelectric projects should be a last resort, after low-cost energy conservation measures have been fully utilised.

Alternative Energy Resources:

The policy makers of Pakistan have so far failed to understand one thing. They do talk about making dams and setting up nuclear power plants but why do they not understand the importance and benefits of alternate energy sources such as solar, windmill energy etc. They are cheap and quick methods for producing electricity. Pakistan is a very blessed country because solar energy is available in most cities all year round similarly wind energy is readily available in the coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap.On the other hand, hydropower and coal are perhaps under-utilised today, as Pakistanhas ample potential supplies of both, at a time when these resources provide for relatively little of Pakistan’s energy needs. Pakistan’s proven coal reserves are the world’s sixth largest, and the government intends to increase the share of coal in the overall energymix from 7 to 18 percent by 2018 — a course that may make sense from an energystandpoint, but which carries troubling environmental implications.Nuclear power at this point accounts for barely one percent of Pakistan’senergy consumption. The government has announced plans to develop a generatingcapability of 8,800 megawatts (MW) of nuclear energy by 2020, compared to thecountry’s current output of less than 450 MW. But this goal is unlikely to bereached unless Islamabad is able to persuade the United States and other western countries to help it develop civilian nuclear technology, an idea certain to meet with resistance in the West.Nonetheless, renewable energy labours under severe handicaps in competing with conventional energy — hidden subsidies that allow for lower conventional energy generation costs, for example, and policies that permit conventional energy to disregard the costs of the pollution it creates when pricing power. Unless renewable energy is given a level playing field, a major expansion of renewable energy generation is unlikely, and the government’s goal of 10 percent by 2015 will not be met.Rural areas across India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal have all implemented successful clean and renewable energy initiatives. Bangladesh, for instance, has experienced considerable success with solar home systems financed through micro-financing. Pakistan’s neighbours have something to teach Pakistan, if only it will listen.But solemn promises and soaring rhetoric will not do the job. Preparing for Pakistan’s energy needs over the next quarter century will require long-term vision, a national commitment widely shared among the country’s political and business leaders, inspired leadership sustained from one government to the next, and most of all, political will to make and carry out difficult choices.Pakistan — the country, not just the government of the day — needs to decide thatmuddling through is not enough. Pakistan, as a country, has to get serious about creating an energy strategy, and then — and this is the hard part — about implementing it.


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    • profile image

      mahnoor malik 3 years ago


      government should pay inttantion :0

    • SEEMA AQUA profile image

      SEEMA AQUA 5 years ago

      energy resources in Pakistan.

      Please tell me the answer

    • profile image

      Dost Muhammad 5 years ago

      Pakistan Govt should also think of solar energy as alternate source for domestic consumers.Major portion of Electricity produced from other sectors be used in industrial sector to give boost to the economy of the country.Govt's mere try to lure in investers of solar domestic plants would certainly change the destiny of the country

    • ttylersmithh profile image

      Tyler Smith 5 years ago from USA

      i am completely agree with pearlplegirl . yes the govt of pakistan should also use of atomic physics and nuclear power is a good source of electricity but wastes of nuclear is a big concern to ecosystem.

    • profile image

      abc 5 years ago


      The info is good. Interest in Science???You must check out you luck!!!


    • profile image

      PearlpleGirl 5 years ago

      • Nuclear power may be an answer for a good source of electricity but safe disposal of nuclear wastes is a big concern to the ecosystem of this densely populated country.

    • profile image

      PearlpleGirl 5 years ago

      The Government of Pakistan should also use the knowledge of atomic physics to help us overcome load-shedding...Only if the Government cares for Pakistanis!!!

    • profile image

      sidra 6 years ago

      biils pury pay kro. tab fan chalta ha.

    • profile image

      jawad ali 6 years ago

      Its true that Pakistan has a lot of resources to produce electricity,as installing micro hydal projects,replacing old equipments in dams by new units,facilitate alternate energy sources and also pvt firms to produce electricity on any basis,independent power production etc,but alas who will give any piny site to view al the aspects,thr credit goes to Our Great Zardari,

      If our govt support Dr.Sammar Mubarak Mand view and encorage him and his team,give funds for Ricodic Project then there is no load shedding in Pakistan for next hundred of years

    • gulnazahmad profile image

      gulnazahmad 6 years ago from Pakistan

      Government is not interested in the betterment, development and prosperity of our country to be very truthful so no hope for any change from them:(

    • profile image

      alamgir 6 years ago

      do any one know,wht respond govt gaaved to chinese compnay who ready to invest 15$ billion in this sector ...April 20,2011,.

    • profile image

      bijli khan 7 years ago

      bijli is truly impresed by your hub......very good information..

    • profile image

      qamaredttuystu 7 years ago

      hey hummingbird- loved you pictures and am so glad you enjoyed lahore:)- i see that you have put up a few pictures of the wazir khan baradari that you describe as the 'reading halls' next to the punjab library..the monument has a avery rich history- please do check out my hub page- to read about it and tell me what you thin

    • profile image

      qamarfjfj 7 years ago

      Congrats on the awesome hub, butterflies are definitely one of the most amazing creatures on the planet. Nice pics as well.

    • gulnazahmad profile image

      gulnazahmad 7 years ago from Pakistan

      Kamran thanks for the comment, nobody wants to have terrorist attacks on innocent people, murder and other crimes to prevail but still it is part of our life because we have develop a habit of staying silent regardless of whatever happen.

    • VENUGOPAL SIVAGNA profile image

      VENUGOPAL SIVAGNA 7 years ago from India.

      Pakistan is sending onions to India; they are sending sugar; they are sending we are in short. But Pakistani rulers seems unfavourable to trade links as per the wishes of their masters in Washington and London. Let people rule Pakistan. Let Pakistan's military be aware of its responsibility towards their security. Let them not take cover under terrorists and give eternal trouble to India. We in India dont like people there to suffer. But we wish that they be their own masters.

    • Kamran100 profile image

      Kamran100 7 years ago

      INSHALLAH, You have very great thought there is need peace and love among all peoples in india or pakistan,

    • gulnazahmad profile image

      gulnazahmad 7 years ago from Pakistan

      Yeah we know that Indian and Pakistani people are not enemy to each other but this is all because of the political problems. Nobody wants to kill innocent people and curse them. We all pray for the peace of the whole world not just for our part of the world. I hope we will have a peaceful world one day. InshaAllah.

    • VENUGOPAL SIVAGNA profile image

      VENUGOPAL SIVAGNA 7 years ago from India.

      Any crisis in Pakistan, be it electricity, food shortage, terrorism, Indians are concerned very much. We never think they are our enemies. Only their rulers, just to satisfy their American and British masters, they treat us as enemy. The people never hate us. Even while a lot of trouble is brewing, local trade, is going on. It is better for the Western world to assist Pakistan in overcoming the electricity crisis.

    • profile image

      Pakistani music 7 years ago

      God knows when we can make such decisions.

    • gulnazahmad profile image

      gulnazahmad 7 years ago from Pakistan

      Someone you told facts that many of us would not know. Energy crisis is increasing day-by-day but government is silent spectator. In Pakistan we have so many alternative energy resources that once utilized could give lots of benefits but government is least interested in utilizing those resources.

      A group of university students have recently developed a mechanism by which energy can be stored once electricity is supplied to households and other areas it can be stored there after use and transferred back to the Electricity Supply Company so that it can be used again but who is interested in implementing such things. Off course this is governments responsibility.

    • someonewhoknows profile image

      someonewhoknows 7 years ago from south and west of canada,north of ohio

      Phil Stone: Engine Runs on Water

      During the 1950’s, Phil Stone, a retired Florida college physics professor, had a patent for a device to run an engine on water. The U.S. government then unfairly classified his patent, and this prevented him from developing his device. The United States Patent Office has classified 5000 patents, an unknown number of which relate to energy. Their helplessly shackled inventors will be jailed for 20 years if they work on, develop, make, sell, write about, or even simply talk about their inventions.







      Nikola Tesla invented the alternating current electrical system we use today, and dozens of other technologies. Many of his other inventions are fundamental to the modern electrical world. The US Patent Office has 1,200 patents from Tesla, and it is estimated that he could have patented an additional 1,000 or so inventions from memory! Nikola Tesla was undoubtedly one of the greatest scientists who ever lived.

      Tesla’s "Magnifying Transmitter", built in 1895 at Wardencliff on New York's Long Island, has been suppressed (largely by ignoring and disdaining it), but in recent years it has received new attention for its potential to power civilization with radio-broadcast electricity, possibly even without fuel. The project was financed by John Pierpont Morgan. But Tesla was not an astute business man, and he affected a disdain for money. It is popularly believed that when J.P. Morgan learned that Tesla’s system would provide free energy, he stopped funding the work. As reported by Robert Nelson, (see his comprehensive energy inventions web site the fact of the matter is that, rather than arranging a comprehensive financial agreement for development of the system, Tesla simply dunned Morgan for relatively small sums of money at regular intervals. The personal nature of their financial relationship is evident to anyone who takes the time to read Tesla’s correspondence with Morgan (not an easy task, as Tesla’s handwriting is difficult to read). For more history, see Leslie R. Pastor’s Introduction in Electromagnetic Generator. Tesla also built and drove a Pierce-Arrow car during the 1930’s which ran on a free energy device without refueling.

      Benjamin Fulford in a stunning early July 2007 interview by Jeff Rense (see interview transcript in article=15376) claimed that his great-grandfather George Taylor Fulford was one of the richest men in the world. He also was the largest stockholder in General Electric. When he learned J.P. Morgan had abruptly backed out of supporting Tesla, Mr. Fulford pressured General Electric to step in. He was going to finance Nikola Tesla, but he was murdered by the Rockefellers in 1905. It was made to look like a car accident. And the family fortune was stolen by the Rockefellers. Benjamin Fulford’s grandfather was only three years old at the time. His grandfather didn’t know how to suspend his assets.

      After Morgan died, his heirs and managers, who did not have a working relationship with Tesla, stopped supporting construction of the transmitter. The tower was demolished during World War II, allegedly because it could serve as a landmark for German submarines. Some modern conspiracy theorists have claimed that it was destroyed in order to suppress the technology. Perhaps so, but in any case, now we suffer with a monstrous grid system that is controlled at many levels, rather than enjoying the energy freedom Tesla had envisioned.

      In a speech presented in 1988 on the subject of “Climate Change Factors, Ozone Layer Crisis, and Zero Point Energy Technologies” (see below for complete text) Adam Trombly reported information from a contact that Tesla was poisoned and died in 1943 the night before he was scheduled to go to Washington, DC to meet with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Tesla had intended to propose to Roosevelt that perhaps we should look carefully at the fact that we can get all the energy we need from any space we happen to be in. The U.S. Government’s Federal Bureau of Investigation confiscated two truckloads of Tesla's written work after his death, much of which remains classified.

      Robert Golka: High-Powered Tesla-Type Energy Tower

      In 1981 in Wendover, UT, Robert Golka, a well-known Tesla researcher, was victimized by an attack on his workshop which has, for years, been in a deactivated Air Force hanger. His high-powered energy tower outside the hanger was partially destroyed. A witness said insulators and sections of the tower were laying around the base. In the meantime the rent on the Air Force hanger has been raised 1000 percent! These new difficulties now threaten to bring an end to his research with Tesla devices. (Source:

      Bruce DePalma: N-1 Homopolar Generator

      Harvard-educated Bruce DePalma, who taught physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for 15 years, invented the homopolar electricity generator, also called the “N-Machine”, that could provide cheap, inexhaustible, self-sustaining and non-polluting energy. The N-Machine uses principles that flout conventional physics and are still not fully understood. A 100-kilowatt N-1 homopolar generator prototype sat in his garage. It could power his whole house. But DePalma was afraid to turn it on for fear the U.S. Government may confiscate it.

      In early November 1980, the night before Bruce DePalma was scheduled to leave for Germany to be the featured presenter at Hans Nieper's Gravity Field Energy Conference in Hanover Germany, DePalma got a phone call from US astronaut Edgar Mitchell claiming "The CIA has information to the effect that if you go to Germany you will not be coming back. And you better watch out what you do there in Santa Barbara, or you might get your head blown off." Mitchell was "best friends with George H.W. Bush" – at that time directing the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). DePalma eventually left the USA to live in New Zealand.

      BRUCE DePALMA: Free Energy Update 11/14/90. Audio cassette #A1009-90 $9.00.

      Live on Something's Happening. Bruce DePalma, inventor of the "N Machine" (so-called "free energy") presents an update on its development including U.S. Navy development, a letter by U.S. astronaut Edgar Mitchell on the validity of the invention, and the forced imprisonment of DePalma's chief backer.

      For more information about George H. W. Bush’s involvement with the CIA, read the Truthout article “Bush Senior Early CIA Ties Revealed” in 2006/010907P.shtml (9 January 2007). Newly released internal CIA documents assert that the former US President's original oil company, Zapata Petroleum, was established in 1953 by joint efforts with Thomas J. Devine, a CIA staffer.

      Devine and Bush visited Saigon early January 1968 shortly before the North Vietnamese launched their Tet offensive. Marshall Douglass Smith in his book Black Gold Hot Gold –The Rise of Fascism in the American Energy Business (see below) exposes how the war in Vietnam was not allowed to end until the very day that Standard Oil had completed using the US Navy to explore Vietnam’s off-shore oil fields for ten bloody years at nearly no expense to the company. The war was needlessly prolonged by months of silly wrangling over the shape of the Paris peace negotiation table, and by Henry Kissinger’s obfuscations.

      ??????: Mixed Chemical Stone

      A mixed chemical stone was found in England and secretized by the Queen. It generated its

    • gulnazahmad profile image

      gulnazahmad 7 years ago from Pakistan

      yeah that is true actually I wrote it 1 year back for one of my assignment so did not updated it. Government is least worried about the country and its people, the mean grin on the face of zardari clearly shows how wicked he is.

    • profile image

      Hasnain 7 years ago

      Very nicely covered Electric shortage problem in Pakistan, but few things must be added, like during shortfall times there is loadshading of almost 10 to 12 hours not 3 to 4 hours.

      This problem is caused because Government is not investing in alternative ways of electricity production method, like wind energy....Government mut spent huge budget on the research of these methods so that we able to produce our on energy instead of Rental power..

      Whole article is very deeply writen on the facts of Pakistani electric crises issues....Keep it up.