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Fascism begins to take root in Amerika

Updated on December 16, 2015

The Trumping of America

Today we are witnessing something that we've never seen before on the political landscape in America; it's the rise of Fascism. Donald Trump has grabbed hold of the term "political correctness" by the throat and serves up a heaping plate of insults, arrogance, and a healthy dose of racism, and then justifies his bullying attitude by claiming that he has no time for his critics political correctness. And his followers love it. They can't get enough of it.

Trumping America

The face of the Republican Party; 2015
The face of the Republican Party; 2015

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Let's be clear about something. Donald J. Trump is not a conservative. This may explain why the Republican candidates are having such a difficult time in dealing with him. All of the other candidates in the campaign proudly declare their "conservative" label. So why are they all being mowed down by Trump? I think that it's because all the other candidates made a wrong assumption about their base of support. In today's Republican Party, Conservatism, is no longer important. Trump represents a segment of the population that is seething in anger, hate, and fear, and that's a particularly toxic mixture. Republicans today are all conservative, and conservatism is an ideology. Trump really isn't an ideologue but his followers are. Trump is an entertainer. He doesn't give speeches. He does "stand up". Shtick. There is no policy that Trump can explain in any detail. So he makes appearances at various halls, and arena's and does his shtick. Any protest at one of his events is met with ferocious hostility from his crowd. People are "roughed up" and Trump thinks they probably deserved it.

He tosses out lies that are demonstrably provable, but his followers don't care. They actually think that the media is lying about Trump, so they completely dismiss any criticism over what Trump might say, as a product of the lying media. Trump claims that thousands and thousands of Muslims were dancing in the streets of Jersey City on 9/11. He claims that he saw it on TV. Except that there was non-stop coverage of everything that was taking place around NYC on that day, and there is no video of any such celebration going on. I, like probably 300 million other Americans, was glued to the TV on that day, and I never saw any such thing taking place. There were celebrations in Gaza on the West Bank by Palestinians, but nothing of the sort happened anywhere near NYC. Trump claims that he saw it on TV and that he's got the greatest memory in the world...except he can't remember what network he was watching when he saw this. Other supporters of his claim to have seen this event that never happened as well. Of course, they didn't, but that doesn't matter. If Donald says he saw it, then they saw it too.

There is a difference between Ideology and Philosophy, and we see it play out in American politics. Conservatism is an ideology. Liberalism is a philosophy. Conservatism is born out of the traditionalism that was at the core of Edmund Burke's attitude. The philosophical giant of the anti-Enlightenment was the Irishman Edmund Burke. He is the father of modern Conservatism.

Burke was the primary anti-Enlightenment thinker in modern political theory. Liberalism was born out of the Enlightenment and it's prominent advocate was John Locke. Burke believed that the authority of tradition lies at the core of Christian practice.This stands in stark contrast to Locke’s workmanship ideal, with its emphasis on the sovereignty of each individual’s subjective relationship with God. Burke believed that conserving an imperfect inherited world from the worse imperfections that human beings are capable of contriving is the business of political leadership; hence his emphasis on preserving tradition.
He is famous for propounding the doctrine that a Member of Parliament— which he was for a good part of his life— owes it to his constituents not to sacrifice his judgment to conform to their opinions. He was unimpressed by the human capacity for reason to understand much, let alone to reshape the world in accordance with the particular wills of any generation.

Burke is well known for his pamphlet; "On the Revolution in France", Thomas Paine famously wrote a response to Burke with his own "Rights of Man". Paine was a liberal of the Enlightenment tradition.

This brings us to examining the differences between ideology and philosophy.

Philosophy vs Ideology

There are very fundamental differences between philosophy and ideology. Ideology refers to a set of beliefs, doctrines that back a certain social institution or a particular organization. Philosophy refers to looking at life in a pragmatic manner and attempting to understand why life is as it is and the principles governing behind it.

Ideology expresses dissatisfaction with the current state and aspires to be some future state whereas philosophy tries to understand the world in its current state. In other words, ideology is aimed at changing the world whereas philosophy is aimed at seeking the truth.

Ideology is rigid and once fixed on certain beliefs, refuses to change its stance irrespective of any change in the surrounding environment. Challenging an ideologue can be the most difficult task. A philosopher, on the other hand, may arrive on some construct for the basis of life and other things but will be willing to discuss and ponder other philosophies. A philosopher is open minded and willing to listen to criticism whereas an ideologue will refute anything challenging his or her ideology outright. This also suggests that while philosophy encourages people to think, ideology discourages any thinking that goes against the basic doctrines that govern the ideology.
The above definitions and differences clearly indicate that philosophy and ideology, if measured on a scale, would occupy two extreme ends of the scale. The purpose of any philosopher is to seek knowledge for the sake of wisdom and truth whereas an ideologue’s sole aim is to advocate and enforce his or her ideology wherever he can.

Philosophy is objective whereas an ideologue will always impose his or her ideology’s vision and discard anything against it. Philosophy requires structured thinking whereas ideology has lot of personal emotions in play.

Philosophy is neither harmful nor helpful as there is no advocacy behind it. On the other hand, an ideology can bring both harm and good to the society. This is because the set of doctrines that govern the ideology may always not serve universal interests and ideology demands advocacy and conversion of other beliefs and thoughts to that particular ideology in order to reign supreme. However, every ideology is born out of some philosophy.

In conclusion, here is a summary of differences between philosophy and ideology.
1.Philosophy refers to a pragmatic approach of looking and analyzing life. Ideology refers to a set of beliefs and rules belonging to a particular group or set of people
2.Philosophy aims at understand the world as it exists whereas ideology is born out of a vision for the future and aims at changing the current state to that particular vision
3.Philosophy is objective whereas ideology is dogmatic and refuses to participate in any discussion that does not agree with that ideology
4.Philosophy does not have as much impact as an ideology would have on the world ‘“ for ideology aims at spreading the beliefs and imposing them on the rest of the society irrespective of its relevance
5.All ideologies have some underlying philosophy but it is not vice versa.

Conservatism is an ideology. The most fundamental aspect of it is preserving existing institutions. Burke was a Traditionalist Conservative. That label doesn't really fit Donald Trump.

Trump is a populist and his populism appeals to those with no comprehension of American Values. It's roots are found in Germany in the 1930's and it's fueled by fear and scapegoating..

Trump has based his entire campaign on making the most outrageous claims and then attacking his critics with his disdain for their Political Correctness. His first attack was on Mexicans, and the suggestion of a police state that would round up people and deport them breaking up families in the process. He takes issue with what he calls "Anchor Babies", otherwise known as American Citizens. It's known as Birthright Citizenship and it's protected by the 14th Amendment, something Trump calls “stupid” and promises to end, though that is not actually within the scope of presidential power. In other words, he tells people he'll end that, but there is no way that he could do it. His followers don't care. Their nativistic attitudes are not based in reason. It's all emotion for them.

He proceeded from there to attacking a religion. His pronouncement that he would call for a ban on allowing any Muslim entry into the United States played well with his followers, but was met with fierce blow-back from other conservative candidates as well as leaders from around the world. England proposed banning Trump from entrance into the UK. Netanyahu of Israel denounced the idea. Even Dick Cheney denounced the idea. But his followers ate it up. And his popularity grew among the Republicans. He then proposed closing off portions of the Internet. There are serious problems with both of those ideas that have to do with violating the Constitution and the First Amendment's religious clause, and the free speech clause. First of all, Donald Trump couldn't issue an executive order assuming that he was president, because the president cannot issue an order that violates the Constitution. Secondly, House Speaker Paul Ryan denounced the idea stating that this is not conservatism. This is not what the Republican Party stands for, and it's not what the country stands for. For Trump to accomplish either the Muslim ban or the censorship of the Internet would require a law passed by congress. Ryan would never allow such a bill to be brought to the floor of the House. In fact, the Constitution would prevent such a law from being passed.

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

If congress attempted to pass a law banning Muslims from entering the country, they would be establishing religion as the basis for the law. Even if such a law passed, it would be challenged and no doubt ruled unconstitutional. Clearly the same issue would come up with his idea of closing off the Internet. It's that thing that we value in this country called freedom of speech.

Trump does not share core American values. Nor do his followers. And this is why;

The Declaration of Independence stated our values.

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

After gaining our independence, in order to insure that those values were protected the constitution provided a Bill of Rights that would serve to protect the core values of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

The first Amendment protects those inalienable rights. What are inalienable rights? They are rights that come from God. These are your birthrights. And if rights are inalienable then they are not limited to Americans. They are God given. Even if you don't believe in God, they are human rights that all men have.

Religious Freedom is the very first clause in the first Amendment. In order to hold Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, all men must have the freedom to think and believe whatever they choose to think or believe. That means freedom of religion and freedom FROM religion, because I cannot have religious freedom if I am not free from YOUR religion in order to practice my own.

The Freedom of speech is next. And with that you are free to speak your mind. Free to speak what it is that you think or believe.

The Freedom of the press means that you can publish what it is that you have to say about what you think or believe so that others may hear new ideas.

The right of Assembly means that people may gather together to hear these ideas or debate these ideas.

The right to petition your government for redress of grievances means that you can sue the government if your rights have been denied to you.

All of these are necessary to insure Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness which are the core American values.

For Donald Trump to call for a ban of one particular religion from coming into this country violates the most basic values that are essential to what American is built upon. What Trump does is "gin" up fear within the population, to the point in which his followers are willing to abandon the very things that make America the country that is so Exceptional while at the same time declaring American Exceptionalism.

Earlier I mentioned that Trumps ideas come straight out of 1930's Germany. Trumped called for the registration of Muslims in this country. Possibly wearing some form of ID. Although he didn't mention this, some of his followers picked up on that theme and suggested Internment (concentration) camps. ( This is probably why Netanyahu was so appalled by Trumps suggestion. Israelis know a little bit about registration, ID's and concentration camps) It is, impossible to separate the Trump movement from the racism and anti-Semitism that animate a nontrivial portion of its foot soldiers.

Now, here is the most revealing thing about the conservative ideology and why the Republican candidates are ALL hopeless ideologues. All of them except for Ted Cruz have condemned the call by Trump to ban Muslims from entering the country. All of them know that it's un-American. They've stated that. They know that it violates the core principles of this country. And yet...all of them have signed a pledge to support the candidate of the Party, even if it's Trump. And the only explanation for that, is that loyalty to the Party ideology is the prime objective and that comes before the most basic American Values. Republicans do not care about American values although they'll tell you that they are the greatest defenders of American Values. But that's not a convincing argument when all the candidates are willing to abandon those American values and principles for the sake of party loyalty and ideological purity. The ideology and the party is clearly placed before American values. They're willing to sacrifice those to support a candidate that is poison to American values.

I've heard it said by many "so-called" conservative pundits that today's liberals are socialists, or "statists". But it's clear that today's Republicans are not the party of Eisenhower. Their conservatism has taken such an extreme shift to the right, that Trump has taken it into the realm of Fascism.



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    • fpherj48 profile image

      Paula 19 months ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

      Adagio~ Thank you for this priceless education in a perfectly presented work of art. Your voice of reason is music to my ears (and my heavy heart as of late)

      The mere mention of fascism beginning to take root in America leaves me utterly shattered. I will be glad to translate your title as a brutal warning. In that case I am better able to understand that the stunning need for "us" to wake up and take action, acting accordingly is most dire. but we CAN do it.

      Donald Trump? Where to start? Prior to his infamous announcement for candidacy, IMO, Trump was just another blow hard, narcissistic maniac in need of Universal adoration. This is pretty much how I see him now, adding only "dangerous."

      Like so many, at first I believed it was all a prank, bad joke or at worst, a nightmare about to unfold. Now of course I have to wonder when we'll get to the joke's punchline.

      I surely could not say it better than your mention of "the toxic mixture" he plays to. Yes, no doubt people (we) are angry, bitter and fearful. Trump opened some fairly crazy-angry doors and the restless natives took to a full stampede.

      I keep hearing (everywhere) that "Trump is saying what we all want to say, what we all really think and feel....he's RIGHT!" The man has taken mob mentality to a new and not so acceptable level. However, if we're to believe the polls and his sheer number of devotees, shouldn't someone, somewhere come up with a plan (? please?) I would feel badly for the Republicans caught in this mess, but I cannot honestly say they have not earned every pang of it. Shame on them for coming to this sad point.

      Adgio....don't be cruel and leave us this way. I'm begging..LOL. Please come back and tell us something "good." My heart can't take much more of the insanity. I'm actually feeling (there's those emotions) like my Dad would describe as the way a boxer feels "punch drunk" just before he hits the mat. This is a damned political plot against us all, isn't it. Just say yes. Be a politician. Lie to me.

    • bradmasterOCcal profile image

      bradmasterOCcal 19 months ago from Orange County California

      Adagio

      It is ironic that your hubs exhibits are your complaints about Trump, and it applies passive aggressive hate against him. You associate him with Hitler, Fascism. That implies that Trump is going to kill millions of people and start a world war.

      Trump hasn't made any such vile comparisons to his opponents.

      The US Constitution is not the pity words written by the founders, it is the volumes of case law and decisions made by the SCOTUS over the years.

      The Declaration of Independence is filled with puff, and none of it was applied

      The first U.S. national government began under the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781. This document said nothing about slavery. It left the power to regulate slavery, as well as most powers, to the individual states. After their experience with the British, the colonists distrusted a strong central government. The new national government consisted solely of a Congress in which each state had one vote.

      Slavery is hardly Equal as the black slaves were a sizable portion of the US population when the constitution was created. And many of the founders were slave owners.

      For population purposes Blacks were considered 3/5 of person.

      Where were their God given rights under the constitution?

      ----

      The 14th Amendment didn't give Blacks the right to vote, and voting is crucial in our Democratic Republic.

      The Black men didn't get the right to vote until the 15th Amendment, so this tells us of the narrow power of the 14th Amendment. If the 14th was powerful there would be no need for the 13th, of 15th Amendment, as well as the 19th Amendment that gave women the right to vote in 1920. Or the Civil Rights Acts of the 1960s.

      ----

      Anchor Babies don't make sense today with our population at more than 320 million people and rising. Pregnant foreign women are coming over from their countries just in time to deliver their babies on American soil.

      If you look back at American history, you will see many mistakes and injustices that were upheld by the courts. So, the American Way has a shaded history..

      ----------

      The fact that we needed several amendments and civil rights laws tells us how weak was the writing of the constitution.

      ---------

      Trump is right to not reward illegal aliens, while at the same time punishing legal immigrants. The immigrants into the US during the late 1800s and early 1900s went through a vetting at Ellis Island, they didn't swim ashore illegally. The illegals have a home country, and when you balance their working contribution here against the benefits that they get from the American Taxpayer, we are frought with debt from providing them with free education, free medical, welfare, and treating them like de facto American citizens.

      --------

      During WWII, the American government put all Japanese Americans into camps for the duration of the war. While, at the same time not doing this to the German Americans. That was part of the American Way.

      -----

      As to Trump's statement that he d/n want any Muslims to be let into the country. He made the statement based on a temporary condition, that until the congress and the president had the domestic terrorism under control. We have no way to determine which Muslims are extremists, and it only takes a few of them to create chaos, deaths and injuries.

      -----

      You mention that Trumps lies, but you seem to think that other politicians both dems and repubs have told the truth.

      What specific lies are you implying?

      ------

      Consider that the country got to this dismal condition by electing democrats and conservative experience and polished politicians.They have accomplished very little, as they grid lock congress, and the president becomes the de facto legislative arm of the government.

      If you read any of my hubs, you would know that I don't support either party, or any party in fact.

      Your very limited understanding of the constitution and the laws of the US have made your hub more passionate than realistic. This is a criticism of your writing and not you personally.

      When a presidential candidate says, and most if not all have done this, that he will do something, it is implied that he will accomplish it within his powers as president, and by convincing congress to help him.

      Nothing is unconstitutional until the SCOTUS decides that it is unconstitutional, as these are developed from case law, and the arguments presented to the SCOTUS.

      The Civil War was not about Slavery, it was about Economics. Slavery was constitutional until the end of the Civil War.

      --------

    • adagio4639 profile image
      Author

      adagio4639 19 months ago from Brattleboro Vermont

      Thanks for the response, but I really didn't need a history lesson. I've very aware of all the things you posted.

      "The US Constitution is not the pity words written by the founders, it is the volumes of case law and decisions made by the SCOTUS over the years."

      That would be wrong. The Constitution precedes case law and in fact it precedes the SCOTUS, which I'm sure you know, didn't exist under the Articles.

      " You associate him with Hitler, Fascism. That implies that Trump is going to kill millions of people and start a world war. Trump hasn't made any such vile comparisons to his opponents."

      Trumps suggestion that all Muslims be registered, that they carry ID cards, that some of the Mosques be closed, that they be banned from coming into the US, and that other GOP politicians refer to internment camps is enough for my ears to recognize the direct comparisons to what took place in Germany. I'd prefer to not let that attitude gain any more momentum than it already has.

      "The Declaration of Independence is filled with puff, and none of it was applied"

      The D of I is not "puff" . It's a statement of our values as Americans. ""We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." That is a statement of values. I have never once stated that it substitutes for the Constitution. What I've pointed out is that the statement of values in the Declaration is enforced by the Bill of Rights which are in the Constitution.

      "The first U.S. national government began under the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781. This document said nothing about slavery."

      As I said before, I'm aware of the Articles of Confederation. It seems as though most Republicans today assume we are governed by them. But why are you bringing up slavery in this. I never mentioned slavery at all in my article.

      "Where were their God given rights under the constitution?"

      They didn't have them. Obviously that was a major flaw in that we could hardly declare that "All men are created equal", and yet maintain slavery. The 13, 14, and 15th Amendment's ( the Civil War amendments) solved that glaring problem. Nevertheless, the values stated in the Declaration still hold true. It took us another 70 years or so to fully realize that.

      "The 14th Amendment didn't give Blacks the right to vote, and voting is crucial in our Democratic Republic."

      I know that. It was the 15th. And even then, it took a Voting Rights Act in 1965 to make it real. But again, why are you bringing up slavery? What does that have to do with my Hub?

      "The Black men didn't get the right to vote until the 15th Amendment, so this tells us of the narrow power of the 14th Amendment. If the 14th was powerful there would be no need for the 13th, of 15th Amendment, as well as the 19th Amendment that gave women the right to vote in 1920. Or the Civil Rights Acts of the 1960s."

      No it doesn't. That's a non sequitur. Your conclusion doesn't follow from your premise. At the time of the 13th Amendment we were in a Civil War. There were certain sentiments within the country that would never accept the 14th Amendment at the time when the 13th was enacted. The slaves would have to be freed before the 14th could apply to them. Until no argument could be made that they were only 3/5 of a person, the 14th could be argued that it didn't apply to them. After the 14th, the 15th would be the next logical step in the full emancipation of the slaves. Why it took so long for women to get the vote is a result of conservative opposition.

      "Anchor Babies don't make sense today with our population at more than 320 million people and rising."

      There is no such thing as an "Anchor Baby". They're American citizens as stated under the 14th Amendment. It's a vile term created by Republican/Conservatives that don't happen to like Brown people.

      "If you look back at American history, you will see many mistakes and injustices that were upheld by the courts. So, the American Way has a shaded history.."

      That's very true, but we've always looked toward extending freedom and rights to people. Not taking freedom and rights away from people.

      "The fact that we needed several amendments and civil rights laws tells us how weak was the writing of the constitution."

      There is no such thing as perfection, especially when it comes to creating a governing system. The idea was to create a "more perfect union". Not a perfect one. That's why we have amendments. Even with amendments and civil rights laws, there are those that opposed these very measures and were willing to resort to violence to prevent them from becoming law. Those attitudes still exist and those people will always look for a way around the law.

      "During WWII, the American government put all Japanese Americans into camps for the duration of the war. While, at the same time not doing this to the German Americans. That was part of the American Way."

      Actually that's not the American way. To this day it's viewed as a black mark on our history. To say that is the American way is like saying that slavery was the American way. I suppose it was during it's time, but it's been the original sin of this country and we live with the consequences to this day. Again, we aren't perfect, but hopefully we learn from our mistakes.

      "As to Trump's statement that he d/n want any Muslims to be let into the country. He made the statement based on a temporary condition, that until the congress and the president had the domestic terrorism under control. We have no way to determine which Muslims are extremists, and it only takes a few of them to create chaos, deaths and injuries."

      Ahhh.... Temporary. And just how long might this temporary condition last? It's open ended isn't it? If Trump were to have his way, it could last indefinitely. In fact, considering the nature of terrorism, which will never be defeated, it could last forever. I'm afraid I'm not about to trust Trump or anybody with that kind of open ended condition.

      "We have no way to determine which Muslims are extremists, and it only takes a few of them to create chaos, deaths and injuries."

      We have no way to determine which Christians are extremists and willing to shoot up or bomb a clinic. The shooting at Planned Parenthood was a terrorist act. It was a political statement. The point is that you can't ban a religion of 1.7 Billion people from coming here because of the extremism of a fraction of that number. First of all, it's a violation of the first Amendment. It's unconstitutional from the outset. It would require a law to do that, and you can't make a law based on religion.

      "You mention that Trumps lies, but you seem to think that other politicians both dems and repubs have told the truth. What specific lies are you implying?"

      That's a tu quoque argument. You're suggesting that two (or more) wrongs make a right. Whatever lies others may have told is no justification for Trump to lie. Specifically he lied about that thousands and thousands of Muslims cheering the fall of the towers on 9/11. That never happened. And yet when confronted with that, he simply doubled down on it and insisted it's true. He saw it on TV. I watched TV on that day just as million of Americans did. There was no such event. There was a lot of chaos that day, but that alleged incident never took place. If he saw it on TV, there would be archived footage and most definitely the public would be watching it on Fox News. Trump lied about that for one purpose; to stir up hate, anger and fear toward Muslims.

    • adagio4639 profile image
      Author

      adagio4639 19 months ago from Brattleboro Vermont

      "Consider that the country got to this dismal condition by electing democrats and conservative experience and polished politicians."

      No. We got into this dismal condition because we invaded Iraq and toppled that regime. ISIS would not exist today if Saddam Hussein were still in power. Iran would not have the influence that it does today if we had not gone into Iraq. Despite Saddams brutality, no faction could ever have risen to challenge him in Iraq. The leaders of ISIS are all former generals in Saddams Army.

      "Your very limited understanding of the constitution and the laws of the US have made your hub more passionate than realistic. This is a criticism of your writing and not you personally."

      My understanding of the Constitution comes from both Penn Law and Yale Law. Where does yours come from? I would say that my own understanding of the Constitution is quite solid. In fact, I'd go as far as to say that your own lacks depth. For example, I would argue that we actually have three constitutional periods. The first being the Articles of Confederation, the second being the Framers Constitution of 1789, and finally, the Civil War Constitution that we've been living under since that time.

      "Nothing is unconstitutional until the SCOTUS decides that it is unconstitutional, as these are developed from case law, and the arguments presented to the SCOTUS."

      Right. Except that to some that are very familiar with both the constitution and with case law can recognize when a law or argument would be seen as unconstitutional and having no chance of making it through the SCOTUS. Banning a religion from coming into this country would be among those laws that would never stand.

      "The Civil War was not about Slavery, it was about Economics. Slavery was constitutional until the end of the Civil War."

      I don't know why you keep bringing up slavery but you're wrong on that. If we are to take the Articles of Secession from the southern states that formed the Confederacy seriously, then slavery was the issue. That's what the war was about. This is from Mississippi:

      "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-- the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin. That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove."

      Conservatism is always about preserving existing institutions. The South has always been Conservative. It still is today. The institution of slavery was threatened by the election of Lincoln. The War was about slavery. That may not have been Lincolns reasons but it was the reason for the Confederates.

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