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President Herbert Hoover

Updated on January 6, 2017

Herbert Clark Hoover (1874-1964) was the 31st president of the United States.

Born in West Branch, Iowa he graduated from Stanford University in 1895.

In 1899 he married Lou Henry; they had two sons. Hoover was a highly successful mining engineer and operated as an international mining consultant in many parts of the world.

During World War I and in the postwar period, he was widely acclaimed for his humanitarian work in relief for war refugees. He headed numerous relief organizations and was US Food Administrator.

Hoover served as secretary of commerce in the administrations of both Presidents Harding and Coolidge.

He won the Republican nomination for president in 1928 and easily defeated Democrat Alfred E. Smith.

Hoover's presidency began only months before the Great Depression, which was triggered by the stock market crash of October 1929. As a conservative who believed the economy to be in basic good health, he opposed massive government intervention, although he did establish the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

As the economy worsened, Hoover's popularity decreased.

In 1932 about 15,000 veterans, known as the Bonus Marchers, converged in protest against Washington, and Hoover used federal troops to disperse them. He ran for reelection in 1932 but was soundly defeated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

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