ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Human Trafficking Legislation- Part 2: Federal Provisions

Updated on February 17, 2013

The federal human trafficking legislation comes to us in the form of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA); passed in the year 2000 in order to combat trafficking on a domestic and international level. It was established that the Secretary of State would be the chief executive officer in delegating and implementing the provisions of the TVPA. Five agencies are responsible for carrying out the mandate of the TVPA; they are U.S. Agency for International Development, Department of Justice, Department of State, Department of Labor, and Health and Human Services. The Department of State established an official Global Trafficking in Persons

(GTiP) office which is responsible for monitoring and reporting trafficking activity in the United States and other appointed countries receivin

The TVPA provisions are as follows:an interagency task force, prevention efforts, protection and assistance, and financial assistance. I will now offer a more detailed outline of the objectives in each section.

The interagency task force is appointed by the president and chaired by the secretary of state. The task force is responsible for the researching and monitoring of trafficking activity, which takes place in the Gtip offices. It is also responsible for

  • Efforts to strengthen countries in trafficking prevention, trafficking prosecution, and facilitating efforts between destination countries and countries of origin to reintegrate victims

  • Consulatation and advocacy of governmental and non-governmental agencies to further the purposes of the agency

The prevention objective mainly includes financial opportunities to potential victims of human trafficking in the way of micro-loans, skillls training, job development, and special programs for women. The prevention objective also includes public awareness education and campaigns.

The protection and assistance objective provides for programs that aid in the reintegration of human trafficking victims.

And finally, financial assistance is provided on a domestic, but mostly international level to aid those countries in their efforts to combat trafficking.

The following pie chart displays the amount of money designated by the TVPA in the fiscal year 2009 for anti-trafficking efforts internationally and nationally. The purple slice of the chart represents the amount which is used for domestic TIP (trafficking in persons) programs, and the blue slice represents the amount which goes toward international TIP programs. Notice that the amount of money allocated to national funding is approximately one quarter of the total amount that is designated to nearly ninety countries worldwide.




U.S. Government Anti-Trafficking in Persons Project Funding (Fiscal Year 2009)

Source

This next pie chart uses the total amount from the above pie chart, $103, 462,681 and states the percentages that are distributed to certain seven different regions of the world. As can be seen, the top two regions receiving United States aid are Africa and East Asia Pacific. The GLOBAL section represents other parts of the world not included in the other specified regions.

U.S. Government Anti-Trafficking in Persons International Project Funding by Region in Fiscal Year 2009

Source

The TVPA Tier List

The TVPA rates ninety different countries according to how prevalent the crime is and how much it complies with the minimum standards set by the TVPA. Each country is rated as Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List (represented as WL), or Tier 3. Tier 1 rated countries are those countries which fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards. Tier 2 rated countries are those countries which do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Tier 2 WL rated countries are those countries which do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance and the country a) has a significant number of trafficking victims or there has been a significant increase in trafficking victims or b) the country made a commitment to make significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance over the next year, but there is a failure to provide evidence of these efforts from the previous year. Tier 3 rated countries are those countries which have governments which do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. Often, these countries are marked with corruption in the form of government involvement in trafficking.

The TVPA appropriates its funding so that it focuses on countries that are on the Tier 3 list or Tier 2 WL. The money goes toward funding certain projects, but it is not identified what these projects are. The TVPA does provide incentives for the countries to cooperate with its efforts, such as trade sanctions placed on countries like India and China. However, despite non-compliance, these sanctions are rarely, if ever, carried out.

The criminal sentences for domestic crimes of human trafficking are no more than twenty years for trafficking for the purpose of involuntary servitude and a minimum sentence is not set. For the crime of the sex trafficking of children the sentence is no less than ten years or for life.

There are several disadvantages of the TVPA. According to the professionals that were interviewed, the money given to these countries rarely reaches the actual victims of trafficking. It was also agreed that, on a domestic level, the TVPA law is very hard to prosecute under seeming as there were fewer than 100 prosecutions last year. Since it is hard to prosecute under, it lacks a criminal deterrence factor. All of those interviewed, suggested harsher sentences of human trafficking criminals.



Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)