Hypothesis of Indus delta's Jat and Fishermen
Different Problems with poor peoples
Hypothesis of Indus delta's Jat and Fishermen
In the light of the above principles following hypothesis are accordingly formulated:
1. Decline of fish catch especially palla fish is related to the decrease of sweet and fresh water in the IndusRiver
2. Present settlements of fisher folk communities are related with their poverty.
3. Low income and unemployment are related with poverty of coastal communities.
4.Physical health of deltaic communities is related with sweet and clean drinking water.
5.Treatment methods in case of sickness are related with educational status of coastal communities.
6.Roaming life of deltaic communities is related with the problems caused due to shortage of sweet drinking water.
7.The problems of live stock herders are related with the problems caused due to decrease of sweet and fresh water flow in Indus Delta.
8.Settlement pattern of Jat and Fishermen communities is related with the nature of their job.
9.Working of female members of coastal communities is related with their low monthly income.
10.Community opinion about present educational facilities is related with their educational status.
OPERATIONAL DEFINATIONS OF THE CONCEPTS
Decline of fish catch:There has been significant decrease in fishing catch. The major catch of fish comes from the sea, the IndusRiver, Lakes and canals, which is the main source of income generation for coastal communities.
The main fresh water fisheries resources of Thatta District include IndusRiver and about 100 small and large lakes. Most valuable species palla fish is only caught in IndusRiver. Fresh water fish production in Sindh suffered a severe set back due to shortage of water.
Settlement of fisher folk communities: People of fisher folk communities mostly lives in pakha huts and kacha houses. They like pakha huts because they are so poor that they cannot afford pakka houses. Communities who live on the fringes of the creeks construct temporary pakha huts. Except few in permanent settlement all the population lives in pakha huts. That is why they like this type of settlement.
Low Income: Deltaic people depend on income earning from agriculture, fishing and live stock. Mostly peoples are laborer and work on pati system. Small portion of population is the owner of agricultural land or boats. On the contrary large population is land less and works as hari in Agriculture field. In fishing sector mostly people are engaged in fishing or fishing related activities as a khalasi or lobour. They earn less than three thousand per month. In Joint family system situation is worse off than expected where a single person is on job and five to seven jobless depends on one member. Due to low-income unemployment and poverty the life of coastal communities is tough and hard.
Physical Health: Health of the coastal population is very poor. The main cause of ill health is lack of clean drinking water. Saline and dirty water brings with it a variety of diseases. Continuous consumption of dirty and saline water brings health and associated problems. There are almost no sufficient health facilities available in coastal areas. In these circumstances the overall physical condition of the human being may be considered very poor.
Treatment methods: Poor health in coastal zone is a matter of concern. Rural society is mostly uneducated. In the case of sickness they becomes self medicate and take easy available tablets such as paracitamole and basoquine etc. In case of delivery they prefer their house instead of hospital.
Roaming life: Camel browser and other live stock herders use to graze their animals on various mudflats and banks of the creeks. Mangrove forests are ideal places for grazing. Shortage of sweet drinking water also compels them to take their animals from one grazing area to an-other.
Problems of live stock herders:
Live stock herders face several problems;
1. Shortage of sweet drinking water.
2. Short flow of fresh water in Indus delta.
3. Decrease in grass and grazing areas.
4. Decline in mangrove forests.
5. Cyclones, diseases and other natural disasters.
Settlement pattern: Mostly the people of coastal zone lives in pakha huts. They spent roaming life either for the food and fodder of their live stock or fishing purpose. Due to their nature of job they construct pakha huts made of poles and sticks of tamarix and straw grass.
Gender: Women are involved in pre-fishing and post-fishing activities such as repairing of the nets and fishing tools and preparation of food. Women also collect the fodder for their live stock. The male have upper hand in the family and social affairs. It is society the culture and community that associate power to a specific gender. Low income of the household compels the women to work.
Educational facilities: Where as Pakistan as a whole has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. In coastal zone probably 99 percent rate of illiteracy has been assumed. The literacy ratio of Thatta district including urban areas has been reported 19% male literacy ratio is about three times higher as compared to females and the ratio in urban areas is much higher than rural areas. There is lack of access of educational facilities.