ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Lifespan Research Methods

Updated on May 3, 2017

Lifespan Research Methodologies

When you are doing research on a given population to find out how people change with time, three research methods can be used. These methods include the following, longitudinal designs, cross-sectional designs and sequential designs (Creasey, 2006).

A longitudinal design is a type of research study where a given sample of the population is consideredat intervalsto examine any changes or development. For example, to conduct a longitudinal design research, we may start with ten years old, check with them after every ten yearsto examine any changes (Brown & Cozby, 2002).

Cross-sectional designs can be defined as a type of research study thatreviewsa sampled groupsalong a developmental in a study to establish how a development or change influences an analysis variable. In this kind of the investigation study, instead of taking one sample of the group of people and studying them for anextensive period, somegroups of people are considered, and study is done at once. In this case, a group of ten years, twenty years and so on is selected at once. Cross-sectional design research saves time since all the examination is done at once, not over an extended period of time (Creasey, 2006).

The sequential design is a type of research study which combines both the longitudinal design and cross-sectional. It is also knownas across-sequential design. The research method studies several different age cohorts over a given period. With longitudinal design research method, one group of a given populations is investigatedfor a long time. With cross-sectional design, a whole group of thepopulation is considered right now. With sequential, a whole bunch of groups is considered over time (Creasey, 2006).

All the three research methods have both advantages and limitation. The longitudinaldesign has one main advantage in that individual differences are noted and recorded, and if there are any changes occurringamong the individuals, it can be quicklyobserved. The cross-sectional design has one chief merit in that research study can be completed within a very short time, and it saves time. Also, the sample picked for thestudy is a real representation of the whole population. Lastly, thesequential design has the advantages of the research methods in that it can provide information over a short period since several groups are being studied over a given period (Creasey, 2006).

Some of thelimitation of the above research methods include the following: One of the limitations of the longitudinal design is that it can be considered as quasi-experiment, and it is hard to validate the study parameters. On the other hand, cross-sectional design limitation is that some assumptions have to be made when conducting the study, and this may not provide an accurate picture of the whole population (Creasey, 2006).

Systematic observation is a process of setting a research study to eliminate or reduces bias. It refers to a set procedure use during thecollection of research data (Ong & Dulmen, 2007). Self-reports can be definedas a methodology and is usually used in behavioral science to collect data. It is using a set of questionnaires to gather data from the subjects of the study (Jackson, 2008). Clinical methods refer to research methods that areemployed in the field of clinical medicine to collect data for aresearch study. On the other hand, ethnography refers to a type of the investigation method that is used to record human cultures and provide a detailed description of everyday life and practice (Ong & Dulmen, 2007).

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)