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More Research on Chemotherapy: a Must
Chemotherapy, solution drips from a bag down through a flexible tube that ends in a needle. This is inserted into an artery. (photo adopted from the movie: "Cle
Time to advance medical research on free radicals to cure cancer
We can do medical research starting from chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat cancer. We already know the effects of single agent chemo drugs and some combination drugs. Holistic medicine knows that a chemo drug like Adriamycin produces free radicals that kill cancer cells. That is why the framework of this research is the free radical framework. Unless specified, this framework includes free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and signal free radical.
Effects of chemo drugs
Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) is used during early and advanced stage of cancer. Its effects are hair loss, reduced blood cell count, vomiting and nausea; may affect fertility.
Adriamycin (doxorubicin) is also used in early stage and advanced stage of cancer. Its effects are “hair loss, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, drop in blood cell count; may affect fertility, rarely, heart damage” (Kaelin, C. MD, MPH. Living Through Breast Cancer. 2005:99).
We can say that cytoxan has less side effects than adriamycin because the latter may damage the heart.
What we want to know is the kind of free radicals cytoxan produces. What kind of free radicals does adriamycin produce?
So far, conventional medicine that is using chemo drugs do not know the free radical produced by cytoxan. The main reason is that conventional does not recognize free radical as cause of disease. It does not mention free radicals as involved in chemo. The free radicals of cytoxan kill cancer cells and and healthy cells (blood cells, hair cells) that is why the side effects. It might be possible to avoid these side effects.
Suppose hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes lung cancer. How do we apply this knowledge in dealing with lung cancer? Let us trace the steps backward to the forerunner. H2O2 is a product of superoxide reacting with another superoxide, catalyzed by superoxide dismutase enzyme that adds one electron and one atom of hydrogen. Superoxide is a by-product of glucose metabolism with the use of molecular oxygen. H2O2 is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that acts like a free radical. Glutathione peroxidase dismantles H2O2 into safe water by adding one electron. Superoxide, a master free radical, has other siblings like hydroxyl radical, and alkoxy radical.
The point is that superoxide can be countered by the glutathione enzyme system that consists of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione synthase. Glutathione reductase recycles glutathione peroxidase by returning one electron that was used to dismantle H2O2.
The production of superoxide may not be avoided because we need energy from the metabolism of glucose. But we can reduce the population of H2O2 by enhancing the population of glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione is made by glutathione synthase, an enzyme, out of glutamate, cystine, cysteine and co-factors zinc, selenium lipoic acid and vitamin B-2. These elements are available from food, except lipoic acid that the body makes anyway.
The population of superoxide can be reduced by blocking the cyclooxygenase that produces thromboxane and prostacyclin with superoxide as by-product. Aspirin used as blocker can reduce the incidence of cancer by 40%. I have a Hub on this matter.
So, we reduce the risk of lung cancer with the reduction of the population of H2O2 brought about by the enhancement of the glutathione enzyme system. This is done by eating the food that contains selenium, like cashew; that contains zinc, like amaranth; that contains cysteine and cystine, like garlic; that contains glucose that ultimately produces glutamate, like cereal; that contains B-2 like fruits and vegetables.
The goal is to balance out the population of H2O2 with that of glutathione enzyme system. We cannot eliminate the production of H2O2 . There should be a balance between H2O2 and glutathione enzyme system. Risk is reduced by dealing with the cause.
Tests for the population of some free radicals are already available. For example, the over abundance of superoxide dismutase (SOD) means a super abundance of superoxide. There is a test for SOD. In fact, SOD was first discovered that triggered the question: What is SOD doing there? What is its purpose? Then in 1969 superoxide was discovered.
The identification of free radicals is difficult. For example, hydroxyl radical has a life span of 0.000000001 seconds. That is a very short time. There is a need to trap hydroxyl radical to study its nature and effects. So far, medical research on nitric oxide (NO) has already advanced. Its trapping agent is diocarbamate whose use for human beings had been approved. A trapping agent must be approved for use on human beings. We now know that there are three kinds of NO that is produced by the inner wall of the artery. This matter is discussed in my Hub “How Chemotherapy Works.” NO is also produced by the drug nitroglycerin (Imdur, Isordil) that are used to alleviate angina, stroke and heart attack.
Lesson from heart disease
Sometime ago, when angina occurred the sufferer took a nitroglycerin like Isordil. This alleviates his angina. However, how nitroglycerin works was unknown. Due to the research by Robert Futchgott, Ferid Murad and Louis Ignarro we now know that nitroglycerin produces nitric oxide. NO is a free radical that signals the artery to dilate and allow more blood flow. Now, a nitro is taken to alleviate angina or hypoxia which lack of oxygen.
How to deal with heart disease or hardening of artery? Prevent it by neutralizing free radicals and ROS. Treat heart disease with drugs like Isordil, calcium channel blocker, and anti-hypertension drug. Coenzyme Q10 may be added to enhance the heart in producing more energy that it needs because of non-stop pumping. Treatment means heart disease is alleviated but it will not go away. We cure heart disease (artery with plaque of over 50% occlusion of its diameter) by means of chelation therapy to erode the plaque. Cure means heart disease will go away, never to recur. When plaque will have been eroded, the endothelial progenitor stem cell circulating in the blood will heal the injury of the artery where the plaque had grown. A calcium channel blocker is added, sometimes Isordil when needed and an anti-hypertension drug like losartan or lexotan. Calcium channel blocker slows down the entry of calcium into the cell. Calcium carries along calmoudulin, a protein that triggers fast beating of the heart that my result in angina or heart attack. Sometimes beta blocker is given, but this drug has a side effect of bleeding in the lungs.
(I am taking calcium channel blocker for my heart disease, in addition to my chelation therapy. I am getting well that I can now tackle heavy topics including philosophy).
The lesson from dealing with heart disease is that we have means to prevent it, to treat it, and to cure it.
That is not the case with cancer. Because conventional medicine does not know what causes cancer its recommendations on how to prevent it are hit-and-miss. It seldom recommends methods of prevention of cancer. Risk factors are identified but a risk factor is not a cause.
Suppose we learned by means of medical research that hydrogen peroxide causes lung cancer, then we must reduce its population by means of the glutathione enzyme system. Suppose we learned that adriamycin produces free radicals that kill cells of lung cancer. Therefore, adriamycin is prescribed for a fellow who has lung cancer. Suppose we learned that extracts of the noni plant kills lung cancer cells, then we let the patient consume noni juice. it is already known by medical research that noni extract kills colon cancer cells.
What do we know about superoxide as a master free radical? It gives rise to hydrogen peroxide. It reacts with nitric oxide to create peroxynitrite.that catches nitric oxide three time over that of superoxide. This means that peroxynitrite reduces the population of nitric oxide that signals the artery to dilate and allow more flood flow. Superoxide reacts with another superoxide and in the presence of iron produces hydroxyl radical that is even more hazardous than superoxide. Hydroxyl radical causes motor neuron disease. We realize that the population of superoxide must be suppressed that can be done by enhancing the population of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Those that escape SOD become hydrogen peroxide whose population must be reduced by the glutathione enzyme system.
To recall, there is no stopping the production of superoxide. In addition to the metabolism of sugar, it is also produced by cyclooxenase, xanthine oxidase, NADhydrogenase, and more enzymes. There are several sources of ROS. Meat preservatives like nitrite produces nitrosamine, a ROS. Pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, molluscicides and pesticides produce ROS. Nitrous oxide from pollution is a ROS. We get more free radicals from the atmosphere like ozone that is also produced by the spark of electrical gadgets. That is why an electrician who does not smoke may contract emphysema from inhaling ozone from electrical gadgets.
Refining also produce free radicals. Refined sugar, refined wheat produce free radicals; scrambling or frying chicken eggs produce ROS, low density lipoprotein-oxy or bad cholesterol..
The population of SOD can be enhanced by food and supplements. Neutralization of free radicals and ROS differs from that of killing microbes. Neutralization of free radicals and ROS is done by providing electrons to satisfy their hunger for electrons. Killing microbes is done by dissolving their capsule or destroying constituents inside the cell. A virus, which is not a cell, can be chelated. Electrons from antioxidants collide with free radicals and ROS and stick with them, as it were.