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Who is Muammar Gaddafi
He was born in Sirte, then part of the Italian province of Misurata, in an Islamic family, but for which not much is known: recently an elderly Israeli woman of Libyan origin, Rachel Tammam the seventy-seven, said that Gaddafi is of Jewish descent in As the son of his aunt Tammam Razali (a Jewish hospital in Benghazi, shortly after that age had married a Muslim clashing against the wishes of his father), the voice on the Jewish origins of the Libyan leader circulating for some time but has not yet been demonstrated unequivocally by historians.
The age of six and lost two of his cousins was wounded in the arm due to the explosion of a mine, dating from the war period. Between 1956 and 1961 he attended Koranic school of Sirte, where he met the pan-Arab ideas of Gamal Abd el-Nasser, which joined with enthusiasm. In 1968 he enrolled at the Military Academy in Benghazi. He finished the course and after a short period of specialization in Britain, he was appointed captain of the army at age 27.
Dissatisfied with the government headed by King Idris I, judged by Gaddafi and several officers too subservient to U.S. and France, August 26, 1969 led a coup against the king, who brought on 1 September of that year to the proclamation of Republic, led by a Revolutionary Command Council composed of 12 pro-military trends pan-Arab Nasserites. Gaddafi, who had meanwhile been appointed colonel, he led the Council establishing a dictatorial regime in Libya.
Council did approve a new constitution, which he characterized as Arab, free and democratic. In the name of Arab nationalism, he nationalized the majority of foreign oil properties, expropriated and expelled the Italian community in the country, closed the U.S. and British military bases, especially the basic Wheelus ", renamed" Oqba bin Nafi ' the name of the first Arab-Muslim conqueror of North African regions. The policy of the first part of the Gaddafi government can be defined as a "third way" between communism and capitalism, in which he sought to combine the principles of pan-Arabism with those of social democracy. Edwards, in a more organic way, his political and philosophical principles in the Green Paper (which refers to the Red Book of Mao Tse-tung), published in 1976. The title is inspired by the color of the flag of Libya, which in fact is completely green, and that invokes the Muslim religion, since green was Muhammad's favorite color and the color of its coat.
Among the earliest initiatives of the Government of Gaddafi, there was the adoption of increasingly restrictive measures against the population still lived in the former Italian colony, culminating with the confiscation decree of July 21, 1970 issued to "restore the Libyan people the riches of his children and his ancestors usurped by the oppressor. " The Italians were deprived of their property, including charitable contributions paid to INPS and from this transferred under the agreement Libyan corresponding institution, and were subjected to progressive restrictions until they were forced to leave the country by 15 October 1970. Since 1970, every 7 October in Libya marks the "day of vengeance", in memory of the seizure of all assets and the expulsion of 20,000 Italian settlers.
In foreign policy, he financed the PLO's Yasser Arafat in his struggle against Israel. In addition, he proposed a political union is often among the many African and Islamic states in particular buzz about a political union with Tunisia at the beginning of the seventies but the negative response of the Tunisian President Bourguiba had set this hypothesis. Also during this period, and for many years, Gaddafi was one of the few world leaders who continued to support dictators Idi Amin and Bokassa (the latter however only in the period in which he declared himself a Muslim).
From 16 January 1970 to July 16, 1972 Was Also The interim prime minister of Libya before Being Replaced by ʿ Abd al-Salam Jallūd. In 1977, thanks to higher oil revenues, Gaddafi Was Able To Give His nation's new roads, hospitals, water systems and industries. On the wave of popularity, in 1979 he Gave Up Any political office, But Remained the only leader of the country with the title "head of the revolutionary new
Gaddafi had a political breakthrough in the eighties: its nature anti-Israeli and anti-American led him to support terrorist groups, such as the Irish IRA and the Palestinian Black September was also accused of having organized the U.S. intelligence attacks in Sicily, Scotland and France, but he always declared himself innocent. It also made responsible for launching a missile against the Sicilian coast, fortunately without damage. Become the number one enemy of the United States of America, he was gradually sidelined by NATO. In addition, April 15, 1986, Gaddafi was attacked militarily by the will of U.S. President Ronald Reagan's massive bombing mortally wounded the adopted daughter of Gaddafi, but left unscathed the colonel, who had been warned of the bombing by Craxi
Gaddafi had a political breakthrough in the eighties: its nature anti-Israeli and 21 December 1988 a passenger jet exploded over the Scottish town of Lockerbie were killed all 259 people on board more than 11 citizens of Lockerbie. Before 11 September 2001 was the worst terrorist attack. The UN attributed to Libya responsibility for the attack aircraft and asked the government of Tripoli the arrest of two of its citizens accused be directly involved. Net and absolute rejection of Gaddafi, the United Nations passed Resolution 748, which sanctioned a heavy economic embargo against Libya, whose economy was already on the wane. In 1999, the decision by Libya to change its attitude towards the international community, Tripoli handed over the Lockerbie suspects: Abdelbaset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi was sentenced to life imprisonment in January 2001 by a Scottish court, and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah was acquitted.
Gaddafi has recently changed the register that concerns foreign policy, condemned the invasion of Iraq to the detriment of Kuwait in 1990 and subsequently supported the peace talks between Ethiopia and Eritrea. When Nelson Mandela also appealed to the "International Community", in response to Libya's willingness to let bring to trial the accused Libyans of Lockerbie massacre and the subsequent payment of damages to the victims, the UN decided to withdraw the embargo on Libya (Spring 1999).
In the early years of this decade, the latest developments of the Libyan Gaddafi has led to a rapprochement with the U.S. and European democracies, with a parallel removal Islamism. With these steps, the then U.S. President George W. Bush decided to remove Libya from its list of rogue states (in which there remain Iran, Syria and North Korea) leading to the restoration of full diplomatic relations between Libya and the United States.
In 2004, Mossad, CIA and SISMI spotted a boat carrying evidence that Gaddafi had an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Instead of making public the discovery and raise a scandal, the United States and Italy, put an ultimatum to Gaddafi that he accepted
In any case, Libya (Qaddafi's call for wanting Jamāhīriyya, a neologism coined for the occasion from the Arabic word jumhūr, whose plural Jamah means "the masses") can not be called a democracy because they are not granted, if not another, several political freedoms (including, for example, a multiparty).
The second son of Colonel, that Sayf al-Islam Gaddafi, has been appointed by his father as heir to the presidency in 1995. The third son, Sa'ad Al-Gaddafi seems to have other interests such as football (he played in Serie A with Perugia, beginning in a match against Juventus, and he played, again in Serie A, even with the ' Udinese and Sampdoria), and worldliness.
On 10 June 2009 went for the first time in Italy on a state visit, Gaddafi stayed three days in Italy, even among many controversies and disputes. The Libyan leader went to the Capitol, at La Sapienza University (where he received the complaint of the student movement of the Wave), the headquarters of Confindustria and met the highest offices in Italian. During the state visit has shown, pinned on the military uniform, a picture of the hero of Libyan resistance to anti-Italian Omar al-Mukhtar, arousing interest and some concern
Particularly hostile reception prepared for the triumphant leader of the Libyan government by the Radicals were the Italians, who with Congressman and Senator Mark Matthew Mecacci Perduca (both members of the Radical in PD) have organized protests in the classroom Senate and out.
These protests have led to the place where Colonel Gaddafi should have taken his speech from the Senate had moved to less prestigious hall of the Palazzo Zuccari Giustiniani.
The speech delivered by Colonel on 11 June 2009, however, has aroused much controversy for some of its steps:
"The United States is a terrorist like Bin Laden, have made Iraq an Islamic country and dictatorships are not a problem if they make the good of the people"
"What is the difference between the attack of the Americans in 1986 against our homes and terrorist activities of Bin Laden?"
On November 16, 2009 Gaddafi back in Italy, to Rome to attend a meeting of the FAO. During his stay in Rome, organized several debates on Islam and the Quran about five girls hostess, regular salaries to the presence.
On July 16, 2008 at the President Wilson in Geneva, Hannibal Gaddafi (son of the dictator) beating two servants Moroccan police intervened, arresting the Canton of Geneva, Hannibal and his wife Aline. From this date (and following the publication of pictures of Hannibal in the newspaper "La Tribune de Genève" , the Libyan dictator has been expended by all means in the implementation of retaliatory measures against the Swiss state. These include the proposed dismemberment of Switzerland submitted to the UN, the disruption of air links between Libya and Switzerland backed Swiss , a boycott of Swiss banks (and hastily withdrew about the Libyan dictator 5 billion deposited in Swiss francs), the suspension of direct oil supplies to Switzerland and the suspension of visas for nationals Swiss national team. Above all, the measure with more consequences have resulted in the arrest, and subsequently transformed into abduction, the manager of ABB Max Gold, released June 14, 2010 after nearly 700 days in the hands of Libya, and the impresario Swiss construction- Tunisian Rachid Hamdani, meanwhile freed
Meanwhile, the two Moroccan households (a man and a woman) denounced the French newspaper "Le Monde" ("Talk of the slaves Gaddafi) the harsh conditions they were subjected by Hannibal Gaddafi: they had been withdrawn documents and mobile phone , were beaten for the slightest infringement, continuously worked and were paid once a year with a miserable salary. While the Geneva police, amid a thousand difficulties, he followed up the complaint of the household, was arrested in Libya in retaliation for the mother of the household: the woman was detained for one month after its release Moroccan doctors diagnosed that during his detention had been subject to rapes and abuse those who lost several teeth. The brother of the household, was also arrested in Tripoli and him are unknown.
The stagnation of the Swiss authorities, initially justified by the separation of powers in force in Switzerland, has also given way to a fervent diplomatic activity aimed at obtaining the release of two hostages held in the African country. On 20 August 2009, President Hans-Rudolf Merz paying an official apology to the family for the arrest of Hannibal Gadhafi and his wife Aline Gaddafi, has agreed to international arbitration to settle the dispute without obtaining the release of hostages promise. Merz's move did not find consensus in Switzerland and the president - because of that - he decided not to report to the next elections in 2010, not to penalize his party. In his place was elected the Liberal Didier Burkhalter.
After the failure of arbitration, run aground when defining the umpire, there have been many twists and turns. When the solution to the crisis seemed close, new problems inevitably took over. Refusal to grant visas to the Schengen area to 188 members of the Libyan government wanted to Switzerland, and as retaliation for the vote on the Initiative against the building of minarets in Switzerland, February 15, 2010 , Colonel Gaddafi proclaimed Jihad against the Swiss, sparking reactions of disapproval of the major Western states and of the numerous Islamic community resident in Switzerland.
For its part, Libya gained the support of 17 states of the Arab League and some support from Italy and Malta, major trade partners of Tripoli. February 21, 2010, the ambassadors of some European countries in solidarity with Bern garrisoned the Swiss Embassy in Tripoli, preventing aggression by the Libyan armed forces. These were the ambassadors of Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Poland, Britain and the Netherlands. Instead of those missing Italy and Malta, which had previously supported the demands of Tripoli against Switzerland. According to the newspaper Il Giornale (owned by the Berlusconi family), the situation was unlocked by the same Italian prime minister contacted by telephone that the Libyan dictator, with whom he is on good terms. However, the news out of Italy had no confirmation. In contrast, the television Swiss public CSR claims that Berlusconi has created problems for quite convinced Europe to urge Switzerland to give up its strategy of restrictions on the Schengen visa, a strategy that helped the release of Hamdani.
On August 29, 2010 Gaddafi started a new residence in Italy to celebrate the second anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Friendship between Italy and Libya. Even during his stay in Rome, organized some "lessons" on Islam and the Koran to almost 500 girls hostess, regular salaries to its presence. "Islam should become the religion of all Europe," he apostrophized Gaddafi girls. Three girls, two Italian and one Spanish, were presented with the veil because they had converted to Islam.