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PANCHAYAT SAMITY or PANCHAYET SAMITI - A Block Level Rural Self Government In India
Second stage in rural self government is Panchayet Samity(Block Council).Panchayat samiti is a local statutory body which performs for the villages of a Tehsil or Taluka. If you face difficulty in understanding the term,please think of a block which is consisted of villages of a tehsil or taluka.The Panchayat Samiti is the conjunction between the Gram Panchayat(Village Council) and the zila parishad(District Council). Respective State Governments christen Mandal Praja Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka panchayat in Gujarat, Mandal Panchayat in Karnataka etc. Structure,term,duties etc. have been explained in Panchayat Act of Indian Constitution.
Chief of Panchayat under every blocks ,three members elected from direct vote casting in each Gram Panchayat locality,members elected for Zilla Parishad(district council)from a center of a block can be the member of Panchayat Samity.The president and the deputy chief of zilla parishad can not be the members of panchayet samity.M.L.A. ,M.P. and the member of Rajyasabha are members incognito or in the name of their posts.Chief of a Gram Panchayet can be elected as the member of panchayet samity.Other members can not be elected the member of panchayat samity(Block Council),nyay panchayet(Judicial Council) or in zilla parishad(District Council).If a candidate has been declared ineligible to be elected in the post of a member of a gram panchayat(Village Council),he will not be considered eligible to be elected here.
State Government can publish in government Gadget about the development planning for a certain area of a Panchayat Samity.It may also employ an executive to look over the performance of a particular Panchayat Samity. The Instructions instructed by the executive should be discussed within two months.
There is provision in panchayat act for the reservation of schedule caste,schedule tribe and women.Government could nominate two representatives from the part of them in panchayat samity if no candidate is available to fight for representing thee post of member of Panchayat Samity(Block Council) . But now amendment has been made in 1992 fo the reservation of schedule tribe and schedule caste.A definite number of posts for the women of schedule caste and schedule tribe have also been ordered to be reseved.At least one third out of total reservation must be kept different for the women of these communities.inhabitants of schedule tribes and schedule castes will be computed in proportion with the total population in a particular area of panchayat samity.Then the reservation for them will be fixed.Besides the reservation of the women of schedule tribe and schedule caste ,reservation for general category women has also been fixed.Their reservation is also 1/3.At least one third out of all reservation should be maintained for the women with the women from schedule caste and schedule tribe.It will be a circular or cyclic reservation.Now the Government of India has declared fifty percent reservation for the women.
Panchayet Samity is termed for five years .Before the date of collapse, general election of panchayet samity must be organised.General election means the combined elections of Gram Panchayet(Village Council),Panchayet Samity(Block Council),Mahakuma Porishad(Sub-divisional Council) or Zilla Porishad(District Council) or any two or more than that Gram Panchayets ,Panchayet Samitys,Mahakumas Porishad or Zilla Porishads.
Time may be extended for 6 months for any part of the locality if circumstances of that area is guessed to threaten the election.But for this Government must notify in a Government Gadget.
If Government needs more than six month expansion then it should have lodged a proposal before State Legislative Assembly .State Legislative Assembly may bring necessary amendment to that proposal in the Constitution of India.
First meeting is organised by B.D.O.(Block Development Officer)
One fourth members must be present in this inaugarating meeting.
In that Meeting members choose a leader and an assistant leader to lead the Panchayet Samity by secret vote or ballot.Block Development Officer is the executive chief ex officially.
The President or Chief of Panchayet Samity will convene meeting .In Panchayet Samity a meeting per month is generally held. Chief of Panchayet Samity will preside over the meeting.In case of his absence Deputy President or Chief will preside over.But if both are absent ,then a present member, elected to the Panchayet Samity will preside over the meeting.One fourth members must be present there .
President or the Vice President can be dismissed. by the majority of votes of the electeted candidates present there.In that meeting President can not lead the meeting for the special purpose relating to the dismissal of the President himself.
There is also provision for the dismissal of B.D.O. In a meeting if maximum members will have decided to dismiss the B.D.O.,they can.Hence,in this circumstance,the B.D.O. will be transferred by the order of State Government.
Here we find the reflection of Indian President.We have seen him as the Magnificent Cipher in the hand of Indian Ministers.Here we see B.D.O. as the Magnificent Cipher in the hands of local political leaders.But one truth is established that in India ,the local political representatives among the mob have been considerered the main beam of local self government.Burocracy is controlled.
United We Stand
COMMITTEES or DEPARTMENTS
There are five permanent committees or departments in a Samiti .These are as follows :
- Finance and General administration
- Public works
- Agriculture,Irrigation and Co-ordination
- Small industries,Rehabilitation,Social welfare
Panchayat Samiti may also construct more committees for whch it needs the permission of State Government.The President is the ex officio of every committees.The members from the Samiti can select three or five members.State Government can nominate at least three government employees .There is an officer for every department..These candidates have no casting power.Executive and sub executive officers can only be members in two permanent committees.They will work for five years.Members of the permanent committees select an executive among themselves.Panchayat extension Officer is the ex officio of these committees.An M.L.A. or M.P. can not be an executive. The President of the Panchayat Samity is ex officio President of Finance and General administration Rests are selected by the members of particular committees.The Panchayat Officer acts as the sectary of the committees.
DUTIES and PERFORMANCES
Panchayat Samity performs the duties of
- cottage and small industries,
- rural loan,
- primary and old education,
- social welfare
- establishment of schools and libraries,
- approval of panchayat budget,
- monetary assistance to the panchayat and Zilla parishad.
SOURCE of INCOME
- The main source of income of the panchayat samiti are grants-in-aid and loans from the State Government.
- The income of the block samiti comes from the source of primarily by levying taxes on water , land,road,transport,field, etc .
- Financial sources come optionally by getting monetary assistance from the state Government or Central Government or Zilla Parishad(District Council).
- Toll tax,registration fee,licence fee from market also help a Panchayat Samity in earning.
- Samity can not spend money without the approval of Zilla Parishad(District Council).