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Pollution and Its Effects

Updated on February 14, 2013

Pollution and Its Effects

Pollution is any release of contaminant materials into water, land or air and this may cause environmental impacts and/or lead to the lowering of quality of life. This paper highlights the main causes of environmental pollution and the resultant effects. The main types of environmental pollution include water, soil/land, air and noise pollution, each with different causes.

Water pollution – This is caused mainly by the discharge of chemical, physical or biological materials into water bodies for instance sewage or pesticides. The effects are the degradation of water quality and can also lead to water borne diseases such as typhoid or skin rashes. Moreover, it impacts on the lives of organisms that live in the polluted water bodies.

Land/Soil pollution – Main causes are the misuse of soil through mineral exploitation, poor disposal of urban solid waste and industrial waste such as hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Moreover, the pollution is also caused by poor agricultural practices such as burning which destroys microorganisms that hold soil particles together or continuous application of fertilizer which changes the soil PH. The effects of this include soil erosion due to the poor agricultural practices. Poor waste disposal on land can lead to prevailing of diseases due to poor hygiene.

Air pollution – This is caused by the discharge of harmful gases into the air, for instance the smoke released from cars and burning of fuel in factories. Effects include the increasing erosion of statues and buildings which might lead to the destruction of works of art. It can as well result in headaches and dizziness, asthma attacks, irritation of eyes and nose, and reduced lung functioning and increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis or even cancer

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