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Presidents of The United States of America

Updated on August 4, 2013

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George Washington

First President of the United States of America

Nickname: Father of His Country

Born: February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia

Died: December 14, 1799 at Mount Vernon, Virginia

Mother: Mary Ball Washington

Father: Augustine Washington

Married to : Martha Dandridge Custis(1732 - 1802) on January 6, 1759

Children: John "Jack" Parke Custis (adopted); Martha "Patsy" Custis (adopted)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Planter, Soldier
Political Party: No formal political party affiliation, but see Points of Interest.
Other Government Positions:

Member of Virginia House of Burgesses, 1759-74
Member of Continental Congress, 1774-75
Chairman of the Constitutional Convention, 1787-88
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year (refused by Washington)

Vice President: John Adams (1789-97)


Notable Events

1789

The Judiciary Act specified the number of Federal courts and judges.
1790
Supreme Court met for the first time with John Jay as the Chief Justice.
1791
Federal capital established in swamplands on the Potomac.
A national banking system established by the Bank Act.
The Bill of Rights take effect.
1792
Post Office established by Congress as a separate entity.
New York Stock Exchange organized.
Coins are minted by the government as enacted by the Coinage Act.
1793
War breaks out between Britain and France. On April 22, U.S. declares neutrality.
1794
Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania. Federal troops called to suppress the armed rebellion.
1795
The Jay Treaty ratified. British troops required to withdraw from the U.S.
Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opened navigation on Mississippi River.
Washington posed for Stuart's portrait, which is now on the one dollar bill.
1796
Washington delivered his Farewell Address.

John Adams

2nd President of the United States

(March 4, 1797 to March 3, 1801)

Nickname: "Atlas of Independence"

Born: October 30, 1735, in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts
Died: July 4, 1826, in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts

Father: John Adams
Mother: Susanna Boylston Adams
Married: Abigail Smith (1744-1818), on October 25, 1764
Children: Abigail Amelia Adams (1765-1813); John Quincy Adams (1767-1848); Susanna Adams (1768-70); Charles Adams (1770-1800); Thomas Boylston Adams (1772-1832)

Vice President: Thomas Jefferson (1797-1801)

Religion: Unitarian
Education: Graduated from Harvard College (1755)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Federalist
Other Government Positions:

Member of Continental Congress, 1774-78
Commissioner to France, 1778
Minister to the Netherlands, 1780
Minister to England, 1785
Vice President, 1789-97 (under Washington)
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Notable Events

1796
E Pluribus Unum: "Out of Many, One"; added to American coins.
1797
Three anonymous French trouble makers brought France and the U.S. to the brink of war in what became known as the XYZ Affair.
1798
Federalists support the highly unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts. They would later be repealed.
1800
U.S. capital relocated to Washington, D.C. from Philadelphia.
Jefferson defeated Adams.
Congress established Library of Congress.

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
(March 4, 1801 to March 3, 1809)

Nicknames: "Man of the People"; "Sage of Monticello"

Born: April 13, 1743, in Shadwell, Virginia
Died: July 4, 1826, at Monticello (near Charlottesville, Virginia)

Father: Peter Jefferson
Mother: Jane Randolph Jefferson
Married: Martha Wayles Skelton (1748-1782), on January 1, 1772
Children: Martha Washington Jefferson (1772-1836); Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-75); infant son (1777); Mary Jefferson (1778-1804); Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1780-81); Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1782-85)

Religion: No formal affiliation
Education: Graduated from College of William and Mary (1762)
Occupation: Lawyer, planter
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Other Government Positions:

  • Member of Virginia House of Burgesses, 1769-74
  • Member of Continental Congress, 1775-76
  • Governor of Virginia, 1779-81
  • Member of Continental Congress, 1783-85
  • Minister to France, 1785-89
  • Secretary of State, 1790-93 (under Washington)
  • Vice President, 1797-1801 (under J. Adams)

Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice Presidents: Aaron Burr (1801-05); George Clinton (1805-09)

Notable Events

1803
Supreme Court ruled in Marbury v. Madison . Any law passed by Congress can be declared unconstitutional by the courts.
The Louisiana Territory was purchased from France for $15 million dollars. The price works out to three cents per acre for the 512 million acres.
1804
12th Amendment changed Presidential election rules.
Jefferson reelected.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark began exploration of the Northwest.
Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in a duel July 11.
1807
Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa, March 2.
Embargo Act, December 22, forbids American ships to leave American waters.
1808
Slave importation outlawed. Yet, another 1/4 million brought in by 1860.
1809
Non-Intercourse Act, March 1, repeals the Embargo Act, which didn't work.

James Madison

4th President of the United States
(March 4, 1809 to March 3, 1817)

Nicknames: "Father of the Constitution"

Born: March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia
Died: June 28, 1836, at Montpelier, Virginia

Father: James Madison
Mother: Nelly Conway Madison
Married: Dolley Payne Todd (1768-1849), on September 15, 1794
Children: None

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from College of New Jersey (now Princeton University; 1771)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of Virginia Constitutional Convention, 1776
Member of Continental Congress, 1780-83
Member of Virginia Legislature, 1784-86
Member of Constitutional Convention, 1787
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1789-97
Secretary of State, 1801-09 (under Jefferson)
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice Presidents: George Clinton (1809-12); Elbridge Gerry (1813-14)

Notable Events

1811
Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse.
William Henry Harrison fought Indians led by Chief Tecumseh at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis, November 7.
1812
War declared on England on June 18 after England continued to attack U.S. ships headed to France.
Madison reelected.
1814
City of Washington captured and burned by British, August 24.
Francis Scott Key observed flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, September 14, inspiring him to write "The Star-Spangled Banner".
Treaty of Ghent ended War of 1812 on December 24, but fighting continued.
1815
Andrew Jackson defeated British at New Orleans January 8, after war ended.
1816
Second Bank of the United States chartered, April 10.

James Monroe

5th President of the United States
(March 4, 1817 to March 3, 1825)

Nicknames: "The Last Cocked Hat"; "Era-of-Good-Feeling President"

Born: April 28, 1758, in Westmoreland County, Virginia
Died: July 4, 1831, in New York, New York

Father: Spence Monroe
Mother: Elizabeth Jones Monroe
Married: Elizabeth "Eliza" Kortright (1768-1830), on February 16, 1786
Children: Eliza Kortright Monroe (1786-1835); James Spence Monroe (1799-1800); Maria Hester Monroe (1803-50)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from College of William and Mary (1776)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of Continental Congress, 1783-86
United States Senator, 1790-94
Minister to France, 1794-96
Governor of Virginia, 1799-1802
Minister to France and England, 1803-07
Secretary of State, 1811-17 (under Madison)
Secretary of War, 1814-15 (under Madison)
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins (1817-1825)

Notable Events

1818
Congress fixed the number of stripes on the U.S. flag at 13 to honor the original colonies, April 4.
Anglo-American Conventionset the 49th parallel as the border with Canada.
1819
Florida ceded by Spain to the United States on February 22. In exchange the U.S. cancelled $5 million in Spanish debts.
1820
The Missouri Compromise, forbade slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude.
Monroe reelected.
1823
On December 2, Monroe Doctrine delivered to Congress.

John Quincy Adams

6th President of the United States
(March 4, 1825 to March 3, 1829)

Nickname: "Old Man Eloquent"

Born: July 11, 1767, in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts
Died: February 23, 1848, in Washington, D.C.

Father: John Adams
Mother: Abigail Smith Adams
Married: Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775-1852), on July 26, 1797
Children: George Washington Adams (1801-29); John Adams (1803-34); Charles Francis Adams (1807-86); Louisa Catherine Adams (1811-12)

Religion: Unitarian
Education: Graduated from Harvard College (1787)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Other Government Positions:

Secretary to U.S. Minister to Russia, 1781
Minister to the Netherlands, 1794
Minister to Prussia, 1797-1801
United States Senator, 1803-08
Minister to Russia, 1809-11
Peace Commissioner at Treaty of Ghent, 1814
Secretary of State, 1817-25 (under Monroe)
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1831-48
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: John C. Calhoun (1825-29)

Notable Events

1825
The appointment of Henry Clay as secretary of state, led to charges that the Clay and Adams made a bargain in the election of 1824.
Erie Canal completed.
1828
Baltimore & Ohio railroad, the first designed for passengers and freight.
Andrew Jackson defeated Adams.

Andrew Jackson

7th President of the United States
(March 4, 1829 to March 3, 1837)

Nickname: "Old Hickory"

Born: March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw area, on North Carolina-South Carolina border
Died: June 8, 1845, at the Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee

Father: Andrew Jackson
Mother: Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson
Married: Rachel Donelson Robards (1767-1828), in August 1791 and in a second ceremony on January 17, 1794
Children: Andrew Jackson, Jr. (adopted)

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Lawyer, soldier
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1796-97
United States Senator, 1797-98
Justice on Tennessee Supreme Court, 1798-1804
Governor of the Florida Territory, 1821
United States Senator, 1823-25
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice Presidents: John C. Calhoun (1829-1832); Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)

Notable Events

1829
Estate of James Smithson funded the establishment of the Smithsonian.
About 2,000 of Jackson's supporters given government jobs. Jackson also set up a "kitchen cabinet" of informal advisers.
1830
Jackson authorizes Indian Removal Act of 1830.
1831
Samuel F. Smith wrote "My Country, 'tis of Thee."
1832
Jackson reelected.
Jackson vetoed the rechartering of 2nd Bank leading to the creation of the Whig Party.
South Carolina attempted to nullify federal tariff laws. Federal troops sent to South Carolina on December 10.
1835
U.S. became debt free (briefly) for the only time in history.
1836
6000 Mexicans defeated 190 Americans in 12 days at the Alamo on March 6.
The Specie Circular ordered that gold and silver were the only currency acceptable for the purchase of federal lands, issued on July 11.
1835
Jackson signs Treaty of New Echota with unrecognized leaders of Cherokee Nation, which allows him to force the Cherokees to move to land in what is now Oklahoma. 4,000 Native Americans die on this journey, also known as the Trail of Tears.

Martin Van Buren

8th President of the United States
(March 4, 1837 to March 3, 1841)

Nicknames: "The Little Magician"; "The Red Fox of Kinderhook"

Born: December 5, 1782, in Kinderhook, New York
Died: July 24, 1862, in Kinderhook, New York

Father: Abraham Van Buren
Mother: Maria Hoes Van Buren
Married: Hannah Hoes (1783-1819), on February 21, 1807
Children: Abraham Van Buren (1807-73); John Van Buren (1810-66); Martin Van Buren (1812-55); Smith Thompson Van Buren (1817-76)

Religion: Dutch Reformed
Education: Graduated from Kinderhook Academy (1796)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

New York State Senator, 1813-15
New York Attorney-General, 1815-19
United States Senator, 1821-29
Governor of New York, 1829
Secretary of State, 1829-1831 (under Jackson)
Minister to England, 1831
Vice President, 1833-1837 (under Jackson)
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: Richard M. Johnson (1837-41)

Notable Events

1837
Banks closed in Philadelphia and New York City on May 10. This was the beginning of the Panic of 1837. The depression that followed would last throughout Van Buren's term.
1838
Continuation of forced relocation of the Cherokee people, which started under Andrew Jackson. 4,000 Native Americans die on the journey known as the Trail of Tears.
1840
William Henry Harrison defeated Van Buren.

William Henry Harrison

9th President of the United States
(March 4, 1841 to April 4, 1841)

Nicknames: "Old Tippecanoe"; "Old Tip"

Born: February 9, 1773, in Berkeley, Virginia
Died: April 4, 1841, in Washington, D.C.

Father: Benjamin Harrison
Mother: Elizabeth Bassett Harrison
Married: Anna Tuthill Symmes (1775-1864), on November 25, 1795
Children: Elizabeth Bassett Harrison (1796-1846); John Cleves Symmes Harrison (1798-1830); Lucy Singleton Harrison (1800-26); William Henry Harrison (1802-38); John Scott Harrison (1804-78); Benjamin Harrison (1806-40); Mary Symmes Harrison (1809-42); Carter Bassett Harrison (1811-39); Anna Tuthill Harrison (1813-65); James Findlay Harrison (1814-17)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Attended Hampden-Sydney College
Occupation: Soldier
Political Party: Whig
Other Government Positions:

Secretary of Northwest Territory, 1798
Territorial Delegate to Congress, 1799-1801
Territorial Governor of Indiana, 1801-13
U.S. Congressman from Ohio, 1816-19
United States Senator, 1825-28
Minister to Colombia, 1828-29
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: John Tyler (1841)

Notable Events

1841
Delivered the longest inaugural address on March 4. It was an extremely cold day and Harrison did not wear a hat while delivering the 105 minute speech. He contracted pneumonia and died in the White House one month later.

John Tyler

10th President of the United States
(April 6, 1841 to March 3, 1845)

Nicknames: "Accidental President"; "His Accidency"

Born: March 29, 1790, in Greenway, Virginia
Died: January 18, 1862, in Richmond, Virginia

Father: John Tyler
Mother: Mary Marot Armistead Tyler
Married: Letitia Chrisitan (1790-1842), on March 29, 1813; Julia Gardiner (1820-1889), on June 26, 1844
Children: Mary Tyler (1815-48); Robert Tyler (1816-77); John Tyler (1819-96); Letitia Tyler (1821-1907); Elizabeth Tyler (1823-50); Anne Contesse Tyler (1825); Alice Tyler (1827-54); Tazewell Tyler (1830-74); David Gardiner Tyler (1846-1927); John Alexander Tyler (1848-83); Julia Gardiner Tyler (1849-71); Lachlan Tyler (1851-1902); Lyon Gardiner Tyler (1853-1935); Robert Fitzwalter Tyler (1856-1927); Pearl Tyler (1860-1947)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from the College of William and Mary (1807)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Whig
Other Government Positions:

Member of Virginia House of Delegates, 1811-16
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1816-21
Virginia State Legislator, 1823-25
Governor of Virginia, 1825-26
United States Senator, 1827-36
Vice President, 1841 (under W. H. Harrison)
Member of Confederate States Congress, 1861-62
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: None

Notable Events

1841
Tyler's cabinet resigned after he vetoed banking bills supported by the Whigs.
1844
Far East opened to U.S. traders after a treaty with China signed.
1845
Texas annexed followed by war with Mexico.

James Knox Polk

11th President of the United States
(March 4, 1845 to March 3, 1849)

Nickname: "Young Hickory"

Born: November 2, 1795, in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina
Died: June 15, 1849, in Nashville, Tennessee

Father: Samuel Polk
Mother: Jane Knox Polk
Married: Sarah Childress (1803-1891), on January 1, 1824
Children: None

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: Graduated from the University of North Carolina (1818)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of Tennessee House of Representatives, 1823-25
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1825-39
Speaker of the House, 1835-39
Governor of Tennessee, 1839-41
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: George M. Dallas (1845-1849)

Notable Events

1846
A large crack in the Liberty Bell proves too large to permit the bell to be rung any more.
Dispute with Britain over the Oregon Territory settled. Both nations get a part of the territory.
1848
Treaty of 1848 with Mexico gave the U.S. control over California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
Gold discovered in California in December.

Zachary Taylor

12th President of the United States
(March 5, 1849 to July 9, 1850)

Nickname: "Old Rough and Ready"

Born: November 24, 1784, near Barboursville, Virginia
Died: July 9, 1850, in Washington, D.C.

Father: Lieutenant Colonel Richard Taylor
Mother: Sarah Dabney Strother Taylor
Married: Margaret Mackall Smith (1788-1852), on June 21, 1810
Children: Ann Mackall Taylor (1811-75); Sarah Knox Taylor (1814-35); Octavia P. Taylor (1816-20); Margaret Smith Taylor (1819-20); Mary Elizabeth Taylor (1824-1909); Richard Taylor (1826-79)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Soldier
Political Party: Whig
Other Government Positions:

None
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: Millard Fillmore (1849-50)

Notable Events

1850
The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty signed with Britain guaranteed that any future canal across Central America would be available to all nations.

Millard Fillmore

13th President of the United States
(July 9, 1850 to March 3, 1853)

Nickname: "The American Louis Philippe"

Born: January 7, 1800, in Locke Township (now Summerhill), New York
Died: March 8, 1874 in Buffalo, New York

Father: Nathaniel Fillmore
Mother: Phoebe Millard Fillmore
Stepmother: Eunice Love
Married: Abigail Powers (1798-1853), on February 5, 1826; Caroline Carmichael McIntosh (1813-1881), on February 10, 1858
Children: Millard Powers Fillmore (1828-89); Mary Abigail Fillmore (1832-54)

Religion: Unitarian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Whig
Other Government Positions:

Member of New York State Assembly, 1828-31
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1833-35
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1837-45
Comptroller of New York, 1847
Vice President, 1849-1850 (under Taylor)
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: None

Notable Events

1850
Congress passed the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Act in September.

Franklin Pierce

14th President of the United States
(March 4, 1853 to March 3, 1857)

Nickname: "Young Hickory of the Granite Hills"

Born: November 23, 1804, in Hillsborough (now Hillsboro), New Hampshire
Died: October 8, 1869, in Concord, New Hampshire

Father: General Benjamin Pierce
Mother: Ann Kendrick Pierce
Married: Jane Means Appleton (1806-1863), on November 10, 1834
Children: Franklin Pierce (1836); Frank Robert Pierce (1839-43); Benjamin Pierce (1841-53)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from Bowdoin College (1824)
Occupation: Lawyer, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Served in New Hampshire Legislature, 1829-33
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1833-37
Unites States Senate, 1837-42
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: William R. King (1853-57)

Notable Events

1853
Gadsden Purchase
1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Ostend Manifesto
Treaty with Japan negotiated by Commodore Matthew Perry

James Buchanan

15th President of the United States
(March 4, 1857 to March 3, 1861)

Nickname: "Old Buck"

Born: April 23, 1791, in Cove Gap (near Mercersburg), Pennsylvania
Died: June 1, 1868, at Wheatland (near Lancaster, Pennsylvania)

Father: James Buchanan
Mother: Elizabeth Speer Buchanan
Married: Never married. The White House hostess was his niece Harriet Lane (1830-1903)
Children: None

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: Graduated from Dickinson College (1809)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of Pennsylvania House of Representatives, 1815-16
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1821-31
Minister to Russia, 1832-34
United States Senator, 1834-45
Secretary of State, 1845-49 (under Polk)
Minister to England, 1853-56
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: John C. Breckinridge (1857-61)

Abraham Lincoln

16th President of the United States
(March 4, 1861 to April 15, 1865)

Nicknames: "Honest Abe"; "Illinois Rail Splitter"

Born: February 12, 1809, in Hardin (now Larue) County, Kentucky
Died: April 15, 1865, at Petersen's Boarding House in Washington, D.C.

Father: Thomas Lincoln
Mother: Nancy Hanks Lincoln
Stepmother: Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln
Married: Mary Todd (1818-1882), on November 4, 1842
Children: Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926); Edward Baker Lincoln (1846-50); William Wallace Lincoln (1850-62); Thomas "Tad" Lincoln (1853-71)

Religion: No formal affiliation
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Elected to Illinois State Legislature, 1834
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1847-49
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice Presidents: Hannibal Hamlin (1861-65); Andrew Johnson (1865)

Notable Events

1861-1865
The Civil War
1863
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, freeing all slaves in the states that had seceded and that were not yet under Northern control.

Andrew Johnson

17th President of the United States
(April 15, 1865 to March 3, 1869)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, North Carolina
Died: July 31, 1875, in Carter's Station, Tennessee

Father: Jacob Johnson
Mother: Mary McDonough Johnson
Married: Eliza McCardle (1810-1876), on May 5, 1827
Children: Martha Johnson (1828-1901); Charles Johnson (1830-63); Mary Johnson (1832-83); Robert Johnson (1834-69); Andrew Johnson (1852-79)

Religion: No formal affiliation
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Tailor, public official
Political Party: Democratic
Other Government Positions:

Served as Alderman of Greeneville, Tennessee, 1830-33
Elected Mayor of Greeneville, Tennessee, 1834
Member of Tennessee State Legislature, 1835-43
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1843-53
Governor of Tennessee, 1853-57
United States Senator, 1857-62
Military Governor of Tennessee, 1862-65
Vice President, 1865 (under Lincoln)
United States Senator, 1875
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year

Vice President: None

Ulysses S. Grant

18th President of the United States
(March 4, 1869 to March 3, 1877)

Nickname: "Hero of Appomattox"

Born: April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio
Died: July 23, 1885, in Mount McGregor, New York

Father: Jesse Root Grant
Mother: Hannah Simpson Grant
Married: Julia Boggs Dent (1826-1902), on August 22, 1848
Children:Frederick Dent Grant (1850-1912); Ulysses Simpson Grant (1852-1929); Ellen Wrenshall Grant (1855-1922); Jesse Root Grant (1858-1934)

Religion: Methodist
Education: Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, N.Y. (1843)
Occupation: Soldier
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

None
Presidential Salary: $25,000/year (increased to $50,000/year in 1873)

Vice Presidents: Schuyler Colfax (1869-73); Henry Wilson (1873-75)

Rutherford Birchard Hayes

19th President of the United States
(March 4, 1877 to March 3, 1881)

Nickname: "Dark-Horse President"

Born: October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio
Died: January 17, 1893, at Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio

Father: Rutherford Hayes
Mother: Sophia Birchard Hayes
Married: Lucy Ware Webb (1831-1889), on December 30, 1852
Children: Birchard Austin Hayes (1853-1926); James Webb Cook Hayes (1856-1934); Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858-1927); Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861-63); George Crook Hayes (1864-66); Fanny Hayes (1867-1950); Scott Russell Hayes (1871-1923); Manning Force Hayes (1873-74)

Religion: No formal affiliation
Education: Graduated from Kenyon College (1842) and Harvard Law School (1845)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1865-67
Governor of Ohio, 1868-72
Governor of Ohio, 1876-77
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: William A. Wheeler (1877-81)

Notable Events

1877
Federal troops withdrew from the South ending Reconstruction..
Striking railroad workers and federal troops clashed.
1878
Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act passed despite Hayes veto.

James Abram Garfield

20th President of the United States
(March 4, 1881 to September 19, 1881)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: November 19, 1831, in Orange, Ohio
Died: September 19, 1881, in Elberon, New Jersey

Father: Abram Garfield
Mother: Eliza Ballou Garfield
Married:Lucretia Rudolph (1832-1918), on November 11, 1858
Children: Eliza A. Garfield (1860-63); Harry A. Garfield (1863-1942) James R. Garfield (1865-1950); Mary Garfield (1867-1947); Irvin M. Garfield (1870-1951); Abram Garfield (1872-1958); Edward Garfield (1874-76)

Religion: Disciples of Christ
Education: Attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (now Hiram College); Graduated from Williams College (1856)
Occupation: Teacher, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of Ohio State Senate, 1859-61
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1863-80
Elected to United States Senate, 1880
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: Chester A. Arthur (1881)

Notable Events

1881
On July 2, shot by Charles Julius Guiteau. Garfield died of blood poisoning on September 19.

Chester Alan Arthur

21st President of the United States
(September 19, 1881 to March 3, 1885)

Nickname: "The Gentleman Boss"; "Elegant Arthur"

Born: October 5, 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont
Died: November 18, 1886, in New York, New York

Father: William Arthur
Mother: Malvina Stone Arthur
Married: Ellen Lewis Herndon (1837-1880), on October 25, 1859
Children: William Lewis Herndon Arthur (1860-63); Chester Alan Arthur (1864-1937); Ellen Herndon Arthur (1871-1915)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from Union College (1848)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Vice president, 1881 (under Garfield)
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: None

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th President of the United States
(March 4, 1885 to March 3, 1889 and March 4, 1893 to March 3, 1897)

Nickname: "Veto Mayor"; "Veto President"

Born: March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey
Died: June 24, 1908, in Princeton, New Jersey

Father: Richard Falley Cleveland
Mother: Anne Neal Cleveland
Married: Frances Folsom (1864-1947), on June 2, 1886
Children: Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904); Esther Cleveland (1893-1980); Marion Cleveland (1895-1977); Richard Folsom Cleveland (1897-1974); Francis Grover Cleveland (1903-1995)

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Sheriff of Erie County, NY, 1870-73
Mayor of Buffalo, NY, 1882
Governor of New York, 1883-85
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks (1885-89); Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-97)

Notable Events

1886
Dedication of the Statue of Liberty
Presidential Succession Act
Geronimo surrendered, ending Apache wars of New Mexico and Arizona
1887
Interstate Commerce Act
Anti-Polygamy Act
Dawes Severalty Act
Tenure of Office Act repealed
1888
New Chinese Exclusion Act
1893
Panic of 1893
Pullman Strike
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 repealed
1895
Controversy with Great Britain over Venezuela

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President of the United States
(March 4, 1889 to March 3, 1893

Nicknames: "Kid Gloves Harrison"; "Little Ben"

Born: August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Ohio
Died: March 13, 1901, in Indianapolis, Indiana

Father: John Scott Harrison
Mother: Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin Harrison
Married: Caroline Lavinia Scott (1832-1892), on October 20, 1853; Mary Scott Lord Dimmick (1858-1948), on April 6, 1896
Children: Russell Benjamin Harrison (1854-1936); Mary Scott Harrison (1858-1930); Elizabeth Harrison (1897-1955)

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: Graduated from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (1852)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

United States Senator, 1881-87
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President Levi P. Morton (1889-93)

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th President of the United States
(March 4, 1885 to March 3, 1889 and March 4, 1893 to March 3, 1897)

Nickname: "Veto Mayor"; "Veto President"

Born: March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey
Died: June 24, 1908, in Princeton, New Jersey

Father: Richard Falley Cleveland
Mother: Anne Neal Cleveland
Married: Frances Folsom (1864-1947), on June 2, 1886
Children: Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904); Esther Cleveland (1893-1980); Marion Cleveland (1895-1977); Richard Folsom Cleveland (1897-1974); Francis Grover Cleveland (1903-1995)

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: No formal education
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Sheriff of Erie County, NY, 1870-73
Mayor of Buffalo, NY, 1882
Governor of New York, 1883-85
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks (1885-89); Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-97)

Notable Events

1886
Dedication of the Statue of Liberty
Presidential Succession Act
Geronimo surrendered, ending Apache wars of New Mexico and Arizona
1887
Interstate Commerce Act
Anti-Polygamy Act
Dawes Severalty Act
Tenure of Office Act repealed
1888
New Chinese Exclusion Act
1893
Panic of 1893
Pullman Strike
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 repealed
1895
Controversy with Great Britain over Venezuela

William McKinley

25th President of the United States
(March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901)

Nickname: "Idol of Ohio"

Born: January 29, 1843, in Niles, Ohio
Died: September 14, 1901, in Buffalo, New York

Father: William McKinley
Mother: Nancy Campbell Allison McKinley
Married: Ida Saxton (1847-1907), on January 25, 1871
Children: Katherine McKinley (1871-75); Ida McKinley (1873)

Religion: Methodist
Education: Attended Allegheny College
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1877-91
Governor of Ohio, 1892-96
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: Garret A. Hobart (1897-99); Theodore Roosevelt (1901)

Notable Events

1898
Spanish-American War

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States
(September 14, 1901 to March 3, 1909)

Nicknames: "TR"; "Trust-Buster"; "Teddy"

Born: October 27, 1858, in New York, New York
Died: January 6, 1919, in Oyster Bay, New York

Father: Theodore Roosevelt
Mother: Martha Bulloch Roosevelt
Married: Alice Hathaway Lee (1861-1884), on October 27, 1880; Edith Kermit Carow (1861-1948), on December 2, 1886
Children: Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980); Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (1887-1944); Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943); Ethel Carow Roosevelt (1891-1977); Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt (1894-1979); Quentin Roosevelt (1897-1918)

Religion: Dutch Reformed
Education: Graduated from Harvard College (1880)
Occupation: Author, lawyer, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of New York State Assembly, 1882-84
Member of Civil Service Commission, 1889-95
Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1895-97
Governor of New York, 1898-1900
Vice President, 1901 (under McKinley)
Presidential Salary: $50,000/year

Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks (1905-09)

William Howard Taft

27th President of the United States
(March 4, 1909 to March 3, 1913)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: September 15, 1857, in Cincinnati, Ohio
Died: March 8, 1930, in Washington, D.C.

Father: Alphonso Taft
Mother: Louisa Maria Torrey Taft
Married: Helen Herron (1861-1943), on June 19, 1886
Children: Robert Alphonso Taft (1889-1953); Helen Herron Taft (1891-1987); Charles Phelps Taft (1897-1983)

Religion: Unitarian
Education: Graduated from Yale College (1878); Cincinnati Law School (1880)
Occupation: Lawyer, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Judge in Ohio Superior Court, 1887-90
U.S. Solicitor General, 1890-92
U.S. Circuit Court Judge, 1892-1900
Governor of the Philippines, 1901-04
Secretary of War, 1904-08 (under T. Roosevelt)
Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1921-30
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: James S. Sherman (1909-12)

Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States
(March 4, 1913 to March 3, 1921)

Nickname: "Schoolmaster in Politics"

Born: December 28, 1856, in Staunton, Virginia
Died: February 3, 1924, in Washington, D.C.

Father: Joseph Ruggles Wilson
Mother: Jessie Janet Woodrow Wilson
Married: Ellen Louise Axson (1860-1914), on June 24, 1885; Edith Bolling Galt (1872-1961), on December 18 , 1915
Children: Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886-1944); Jessie Woodrow Wilson (1887-1933); Eleanor Randolph Wilson (1889-1967)

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: Graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) (1879)
Occupation: Teacher, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Governor of New Jersey, 1911-13
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall (1913-21)

Notable Events

1914-1918
World War I

Warren Gamaliel Harding

29th President of the United States
(March 4, 1921 to August 2, 1923)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: November 2, 1865, near Corsica (now Blooming Grove), Ohio
Died: August 2, 1923, in San Francisco, California

Father: George Tyron Harding
Mother: Phoebe Elizabeth Dickerson Harding
Married: Florence Kling De Wolfe (1860-1924), on July 8, 1891
Children: Elizabeth Ann Christian (illegitimate child by Nan Britton) (1919- )

Religion: Baptist
Education: Graduated from Ohio Central College (1882)
Occupation: Editor-Publisher
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of Ohio State Senate, 1900-04
Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio, 1904-06
United States Senator, 1915-21
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: Calvin Coolidge (1921-23)

Notable Events

1921
Peace between Germany and Austria declared.
1922
Beginning of the Teapot Dome Scandal
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act

Calvin Coolidge

30th President of the United States
(August 3, 1923 to March 3, 1929)

Nickname: "Silent Cal"

Born: July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vermont
Died: January 5, 1933, in Northampton, Massachusetts

Father: John Calvin Coolidge
Mother: Victoria Josephine Moor Coolidge
Married: Grace Anna Goodhue (1879-1957), on October 4, 1905
Children:John Coolidge (1906-2000); Calvin Coolidge, Jr. (1908-24)

Religion: Congregationalist
Education: Graduated from Amherst College (1895)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Northampton, MA City Councilman, 1899
City Solicitor, 1900-01
Clerk of Courts, 1904
Member of Massachusetts Legislature, 1907-08
Mayor of Northampton, MA, 1910-11
Member of Massachusetts Legislature, 1912-15
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, 1916-18
Governor of Massachusetts, 1919-20
Vice President, 1921-23 (under Harding)
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: Charles G. Dawes (1925-29)

Herbert Clark Hoover

31st President of the United States
(March 4, 1929 to March 3, 1933)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa
Died: October 20, 1964, in New York, New York

Father: Jesse Clark Hoover
Mother: Hulda Randall Minthorn Hoover
Married: Lou Henry (1875-1944), on February 10, 1899
Children: Herbert Clark Hoover (1903-69); Allan Henry Hoover (1907-93)

Religion: Society of Friends (Quaker)
Education: Graduated from Stanford University (1895).
Occupation: Engineer
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Secretary of Commerce, 1921-23 (under Harding)
Secretary of Commerce, 1923-28 (under Coolidge)
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: Charles Curtis (1929-33)

Notable Events

1929
Stock Market Crash which was the start of the Great Depression

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

32nd President of the United States
(March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945)

Nickname: "FDR"

Born: January 30, 1882, in Hyde Park, New York
Died: April 12, 1945, in Warm Springs, Georgia

Father: James Roosevelt
Mother: Sara Delano Roosevelt
Married: Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), on March 17, 1905
Children: Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1906-75); James Roosevelt (1907-91); Elliott Roosevelt (1910-90); Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (1914-88); John Aspinwall Roosevelt (1916-81)

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from Harvard College (1903); Attended Columbia Law School
Occupation: Public official, lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of New York State Legislature, 1911-13
Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913-20
Governor of New York, 1929-33
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year

Vice President: John N. Garner (1933-41); Henry A. Wallace (1941-45); Harry S. Truman (1945)

Notable Events

1933-1939
Initiation of economic relief programs known as the "New Deal".
1939-1945
World War II

Harry S. Truman

33rd President of the United States
(April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953)

Nickname: "Give 'Em Hell Harry"

Born: May 8, 1884, in Lamar, Missouri
Died: December 26, 1972, in Kansas City, Missouri

Father: John Anderson Truman
Mother: Martha Ellen Young Truman
Married: Elizabeth "Bess" Virginia Wallace (1885-1982), on June 28, 1919
Children: Mary Margaret Truman (1924- )

Religion: Baptist
Education: Attended the University of Kansas City Law School
Occupation: Farmer, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Judge on Jackson County Court, 1922-24
Presiding Judge of Jackson County Court, 1926-34
United States Senator, 1935-45
Vice President, 1945 (under F.D. Roosevelt)
Presidential Salary: $75,000/year (increased to $100,000 + $50,000 expense account in 1949)

Vice President: Alben W. Barkley (1949-53)

Dwight David Eisenhower

34th President of the United States
(January 20, 1953 to January 20, 1961)

Nickname: "Ike"

Born: October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas
Died: March 28, 1969, in Washington, D.C.

Father: David Jacob Eisenhower
Mother: Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower
Married: Mary "Mamie" Geneva Doud (1896-1979), on July 1, 1916
Children: Doud Dwight Eisenhower (1917-21); John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower (1923- )

Religion: Presbyterian
Education: Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. (1915)
Occupation: Soldier
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

None
Presidential Salary: $100,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Richard M. Nixon (1953-61)

John Fitzgerald Kennedy

35th President of the United States
(January 20, 1961 to November 22, 1963)

Nickname: "JFK", "Jack"

Born: May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts
Died: November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas

Father: Joseph Patrick Kennedy
Mother: Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy
Married: Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (1929-1994), on September 12, 1953
Children: Caroline Bouvier Kennedy (1957- ); John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr. (1960-99); Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (1963)

Religion: Roman Catholic
Education: Graduated from Harvard College (1940)
Occupation: Author, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1947-53
United States Senator, 1953-61
Presidential Salary: $100,000/year + $50,000 expense account (refused by Kennedy)

Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson (1961-63)

Notable Events

1960
The first joint radio-television broadcast of a U.S. Presidential debate was held on September 26. It was between Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon.
1961
The U.S. sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba was attempted without success.
Nikita Khrushchev, the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, ordered the creation of the Berlin Wall in June to divide Soviet-controlled East Berlin from West Berlin, which was part of the free and democratic West Germany.
1963
The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed on August 6 by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union.
August 28: thousands march on Washington, calling for equal access to public facilities, quality education, adequate employment, and decent housing for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his famous "I have a dream" speech.
President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas Texas.

Lyndon Baines Johnson

36th President of the United States
(November 22, 1963 to January 20, 1969)

Nickname: "LBJ"

Born: August 27, 1908, near Johnson City, Texas
Died: January 22, 1973, near Johnson City, Texas

Father: Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr.
Mother: Rebekah Baines Johnson
Married: Claudia "Lady Bird" Alta Taylor (1912-2007), on November 17, 1934
Children: Lynda Bird Johnson (1944- ); Luci Baines Johnson (1947- )

Religion: Disciples of Christ
Education: Graduated from Southwest Texas State Teachers College (1930) (now known as Texas State University-San Marcos)
Occupation: Teacher, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Congressional Secretary, 1931-37
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1937-49
United States Senator, 1949-61
Vice President, 1961-63 (under Kennedy)
Presidential Salary: $100,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey (1965-69)

Notable Events:

1964
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, a key success for the Civil Rights movement.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives the President permission to take "all necessary measures" to repel any armed attack against the United States in North Vietnam.
1965
U.S. becomes increasingly involved in the Vietnam war; 180,000 troops are deployed by the end of the year.
1968
President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, Title VIII, also known as the Fair Housing Act

Richard Milhous Nixon

37th President of the United States
(January 20, 1969 to August 9, 1974)

Nickname: None listed.

Born: January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California
Died: April 22, 1994, in New York, New York

Father: Francis Anthony Nixon
Mother: Hannah Milhous Nixon
Married: Thelma "Patricia" Catherine Ryan (1912-1993), on June 21, 1940
Children: Patricia Nixon (1946- ); Julie Nixon (1948- )

Religion: Society of Friends (Quaker)
Education: Graduated from Whittier College (1934) and Duke University Law School (1937)
Occupation: Lawyer, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Attorney for U.S. Office of Emergency Management, 1942
Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1947-51
United States Senator, 1951-53
Vice President, 1953-61 (under Eisenhower)
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Spiro T. Agnew (1969-73); Gerald R. Ford (1973-74)

Notable Events

Nixon resigned and was almost impeached over the Watergate Scandal, named for the burglaries at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington. D.C by men found to be connected to Nixon's re-election campaign fundraising committee.
1971
The Pentagon Papers, a top-secret U.S. Dept. of Defense study, were leaked to The New York Times. This document showed that the Johnson administration had secretly been expanding U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, further hurting the credibility of the Nixon administration.
1971-2
The Nixon administration dramatically improved relations with China. Nixon made a public visit to China in February, 1972, following Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's secret visit to China in October, 1971.
1973
Nixon was praised during his presidency for ending American Involvement in the Vietnam War.

Gerald Rudolph Ford

38th President of the United States
(August 9, 1974 to January 20, 1977)

Nickname: "Jerry"

Born: July 14, 1913, in Omaha, Nebraska
Died: December 26, 2006 in Rancho Mirage, California

Father: Leslie Lynch King
Mother: Dorothy Ayer Gardner King Ford
Married: Elizabeth "Betty" Bloomer Warren (1918- ), on October 15, 1948
Children: Michael Gerald Ford (1950- ); John Gardner Ford (1952- ); Steven Meigs Ford (1956- ); Susan Elizabeth Ford (1957- )

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from the University of Michigan (1935) and Yale University Law School (1941)
Occupation: Lawyer, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1949-73
Vice President, 1973-74 (under Nixon)
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Nelson A. Rockefeller (1974-77)

James Earl Carter, Jr.

39th President of the United States
(January 20, 1977 to January 20, 1981)

Nickname: "Jimmy"

Born: October 1, 1924, in Plains, Georgia

Father: James Earl Carter
Mother: Lillian Gordy Carter
Married: Eleanor Rosalynn Smith (1928- ), on July 7, 1946
Children: John William "Jack" Carter (1947- ); James Earl "Chip" Carter III (1950- ); Donnel Jeffrey "Jeff" Carter (1952- ); Amy Lynn Carter (1967- )

Religion: Baptist
Education: Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. (1946)
Occupation: Farmer, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Georgia State Senator, 1963-66
Governor of Georgia, 1971-75
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Walter F. Mondale (1977-81)

Ronald Wilson Reagan

40th President of the United States
(January 20, 1981 to January 20, 1989)

Nicknames: "The Gipper"; "The Great Communicator"; "Dutch"

Born: February 6, 1911, in Tampico, Illinois
Died: June 5, 2004, in Los Angeles, California

Father: John Edward Reagan
Mother: Nelle Wilson Reagan
Married:Jane Wyman (1917-2007), on June 25, 1940 (divorced in 1948); Nancy Davis (1923- ), on March 4, 1952
Children:Maureen Elizabeth Reagan (1941-2001); Michael Edward Reagan (adopted) (1945- ); Patricia Ann Reagan (1952- ); Ronald Prescott Reagan (1958- )

Religion: Disciples of Christ
Education: Graduated from Eureka College (1932)
Occupation: Actor, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Governor of California, 1967-75
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: George Bush (1981-89)

Notable Events

1981
On March 30, Reagan was shot in an assassination attempt by John W. Hinkley, Jr. outside of the Washington, D.C. Hilton Hotel.

George Herbert Walker Bush

41st President of the United States
(January 20, 1989 to January 20, 1993)

Nickname: "Poppy"

Born: June 12, 1924, in Milton, Massachusetts

Father: Prescott Sheldon Bush
Mother: Dorothy Walker Bush
Married: Barbara Pierce (1925- ), on January 6, 1945
Children: George Walker Bush (1946- ); Robin Bush (1949-53); John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (1953- ); Neil Bush (1955- ); Marvin Bush (1956- ); Dorothy Bush (1959- )

Religion: Episcopalian
Education: Graduated from Yale University (1948)
Occupation: Businessman, public official
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1967-71
U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1971-72
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, 1976-77
Vice President, 1981-89 (under Reagan)
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: J. Danforth Quayle (1989-93)

William Jefferson Clinton

42nd President of the United States
(January 20, 1993 to January 20, 2001)

Nicknames: "Bill"

Born: August 19, 1946, in Hope, Arkansas

Father: William Jefferson Blythe III
Stepfather: Roger Clinton
Mother: Virginia Divine Cassidy Blythe Clinton Kelley
Married: Hillary Rodham (1947- ), on October 11, 1975
Children: Chelsea Victoria Clinton (1980- )

Religion: Baptist
Education: Graduated from Georgetown University (1968); Attended Oxford University (1968-70); Graduated from Yale University Law School (1973)
Occupation: Lawyer, public official
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Arkansas Attorney General, 1976-78
Governor of Arkansas, 1978-80, 1982-92
Presidential Salary: $200,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Albert Gore, Jr. (1993-2001)

Notable Events

1998
President Clinton signed into law the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The act provided harsher penalties for copyright infringement on the internet and made it illegal to create or distribute technologies for bypassing controlled access to copyrighted material.
1999
President Clinton authorized American troops, but not ground troops, to take part in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) air strikes against the Serbian government. Although a United Nations (UN) courts ruled that a "genocide" was not taking place in Yugoslavia at this time, the UN court did conclude that Serbian President Slobodan MiloŇ°ević's government had used a "systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments" in suppressing the ethnic Albanians' revolt in Kosovo. NATO forces suffered virtually no loss of life during this military campaign.
1998
On December 19, the House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment against President Clinton, one for perjury and the other for obstruction of justice.
1999
On February 12, the Senate acquitted President Clinton of both articles of impeachment made against him by the House of Representatives.

George Walker Bush

43rd President of the United States
(January 20, 2001 to January 20, 2009)

Nicknames: "W"

Born: July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut

Father: George Herbert Walker Bush
Mother: Barbara Pierce Bush
Married: Laura Welch (1946- ), on November 5, 1977
Children: Barbara Pierce Bush (1981- ), Jenna Welch Bush (1981- )

Religion: Methodist
Education: Graduated from Yale University (1968); Graduated from Harvard Business School (1975)
Occupation: Businessman
Political Party: Republican
Other Government Positions:

Governor of Texas, 1995-2000
Presidential Salary: $400,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Richard B. Cheney (2001-09)

Notable Events

2001
On September 11, terrorists flew hijacked airplanes into both towers of the World Trade Center and into the Pentagon. A fourth hijacked plane crashed in Pennsylvania.
October 7: The War in Afghanistan begins with the U.S. military operation "Operation Enduring Freedom", which was launched by the United States with the United Kingdom in response to the September 11 attacks.
2003
March 20: the Iraq War (or the Second Persian Gulf War) begins with the invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition of forces, led by the United States and the United Kingdom. Although Bush declared an end to major combat operations in May 2003, the conflict and casualities continued after he completed his second term in office.
2005
August 28: Hurricane Katrina hit the southern coast of the United States, causing thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in damage.
2007-2009
The economy enters a state of crisis as the US housing market bubble bursts, foreclosures rise, and prominent financial institutions must seek federal assistance.

Barack Hussein Obama

44th President of the United States
(January 20, 2009 to Present)

Nicknames: None listed.

Born: August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii

Father: Barack Hussein Obama, Sr.
Mother: Ann Dunham
Married: Michelle Robinson (1964- ), on October 18, 1992
Children: Malia Ann Obama (1999- ); Natasha "Sasha" Obama (2001- )

Religion: United Church of Christ
Education: Attended Occidental College; Graduated Columbia University (1983); Graduated from Harvard Law School (1991)
Occupation: Lawyer
Political Party: Democrat
Other Government Positions:

Member of Illinois State Senate, 1996-2004
United States Senator, 2005-08
Presidential Salary: $400,000/year + $50,000 expense account

Vice President: Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (2009- )

Notable Events

2009
In an effort to rejuvenate the struggling U.S. economy, Congress passes the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which allocates money for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization.
2010
The Affordable Care Act was signed into law on March 23, 2010.

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