Quaid-e-Azam at All Muslims League(March,1940)
The Quaid with M.K. Gandhi in Bombay(1944)
Chatting with Jawaharlal Nehru at the India House reception(1946)
Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25th December 1876 at Karachi, was the first of seven children of Jinnahbhai, a prosperous merchant. After being taught at home, Jinnah was sent to the Sindh Madrasasah High School in 1887. Later he attended the Mission High School, where, at the age of 16, he passed the matriculation examination of the University of Bombay. On the advice of an English friend, his father decided to send him to England to acquire business experience. Jinnah, however, had made up his mind to become a barrister. In keeping with the custom of the time, his parents arranged for an early marriage for him before he left for England.
Entry into Politics:
Jinnah first entered politics by participating in the 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the party that called for dominion status and later for independence for India. Four years later he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council--the beginning of a long and distinguished parliamentary career. In Bombay he came to know, among other important Congress personalities, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the eminent Maratha leader. Greatly influenced by these nationalist politicians, Jinnah aspired during the early part of his political life to become "a Muslim Gokhale." Admiration for British political institutions and an eagerness to raise the status of India in the international community and to develop a sense of Indian nationhood among the peoples of India were the chief elements of his politics. At that time, he still looked upon Muslim interests in the context of Indian nationalism.
Fourteen Points Of Quaid-e-Azam:
Ø Fourteen Points Of Quaid-e-Azam Ali Jinnah
These were the proposals presented by M.A. * Jinnah at the ession of the *All-India Muslim League Council at Delhi on 28 March 1929, to be incorporated in the future Constitution of India. The Fourteen Points represented a reunification of Muslim politiciansparticularly the All-India Muslim League, which had split over co-operating with the *Simon Commission. The break had not been merely communal or even loyalist. Sir Mohammad *Shafi, President of the All-India Muslim League, was joined by Allama *Iqbal as Honorary Secretary and Maulana Hasrat Mohani as as ociate Secretary in their resolve to co-operate with the Simon Commission. M.A. Jinnah, Sir Mohammad Yaqub and Dr Saifuddin *Kitchlew had formed another AIML to boycott the Simon Commission. The *Nehru Report, which resiled from the *Delhi Muslim Proposals of 20 March 1929, vindicated the Shafi League and underlined the necessity of separate electorates. M.A. Jinnah had at that time written a history of the Fourteen Points in which he plainly characterized the Nehru Report as Hindu counters proposals to the Delhi Muslim Proposals. The Delhi Muslim Proposals had been formulated as an alternative to Separate Electorates. With their experience of the accepted Delhi Proposals subsequently being rejected, the Fourteen Points incorporated both the Delhi Proposals and Separate Electorates these were:
1.The form of the future
Constitution shall be federal, with the residuary powers vested in the
2.A uniform measure of
autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
3.All legislatures in the
country and other elected bodie shall be constituted on the definite principle
of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province
without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4.In the Central
Legislature, Mussalmari representation shall not be less than one-third.
communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at
present, provided it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon
its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.
Ø 6.Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the MuslimNo cabinet,either central or provincial be formed.Without being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.
majority in the *Punjab, *Bengal and NWF Province.
7.Full religious liberty
i.e., liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and
education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8.No bill or resolution or
any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body
if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose
such a bill, resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be
injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other
method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such
9.*Sindh should be
separated from the Bombay Presidency.
10.Reforms should be
introduced in the NWF Province and *Balochistan on the same footing as in other
11.Provision should be made
in the Constitution, giving Muslims an adequate share along with the other
Indians in all the services of the State and in local selfgoverning bodies,
having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
Ø 12.The Constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the State and by local self-governing bodies.
1313. No Cabinet, either
Central or Provincial, should be formed without a proportion of at least
one-third Muslim ministers.
14.No change shall be made
in the Constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of
the States constituting the Indian Federation.