ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Politics and Social Issues»
  • Transportation

RMS Titanic, but was it her or did the already seriously damaged RMS Olympic actually sink. Accident or ins. fraud

Updated on August 15, 2017
Peter Geekie profile image

A retired pharmaceutical and industrial chemist, author and historian specialising in military events.

Titanic and Olympic side by side in Belfast
Titanic and Olympic side by side in Belfast
End of shift for workers at Harland and Wolff with Titanic on the stocks behind
End of shift for workers at Harland and Wolff with Titanic on the stocks behind
Titanic on the stocks
Titanic on the stocks
Riveting the hull plates
Riveting the hull plates
Titanic hull nearing completion
Titanic hull nearing completion
Titanic hull ready to fit out
Titanic hull ready to fit out
Titanic fitting out
Titanic fitting out
Firemen tending the boilers
Firemen tending the boilers
View from Titanics crows nest
View from Titanics crows nest
Titanic rotor for centre turbine shaft
Titanic rotor for centre turbine shaft
Titanic main generator
Titanic main generator
Iceberg that the Titanic struck
Iceberg that the Titanic struck
Titanic survivors photographed from the SS Carpathia.
Titanic survivors photographed from the SS Carpathia.
More survivors
More survivors
Survivors alongside SS Carpathia
Survivors alongside SS Carpathia
More survivors
More survivors
Underwater photos of the wreck
Underwater photos of the wreck
Titanic engine room
Titanic engine room
Collecting bodies
Collecting bodies
Embalming bodies on the CS Mackay Bennett
Embalming bodies on the CS Mackay Bennett
Straus suite showing mantle clock as bright as the day Titanic sank
Straus suite showing mantle clock as bright as the day Titanic sank
Unloading bodies and coffins at Halifax
Unloading bodies and coffins at Halifax
Evidence of substituting Olympic for Titanic
Evidence of substituting Olympic for Titanic
First class menu
First class menu
Second class menu
Second class menu
Third class menu
Third class menu
Titanic first class cabin
Titanic first class cabin
Titanic second class cabin
Titanic second class cabin
Titanic third class cabin
Titanic third class cabin
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
Mummy of Amen-Ra
Mummy of Amen-Ra
Severe damage caused to RMS Olympic in collision with RN Cruiser HMS Hawke
Severe damage caused to RMS Olympic in collision with RN Cruiser HMS Hawke
Further photo of damage to RMS Olympic
Further photo of damage to RMS Olympic
Damage to armoured bow of HMS Hawke
Damage to armoured bow of HMS Hawke

Many books have been written about the disastrous sinking of the RMS Titanic, some relating it as a simple tragic collision between a ship and an iceberg others as a complex insurance scam that went wrong.

Let’s take look at the known facts and compare them with those that may be true but equally may be fiction.

RMS (Royal Mail Steamer) Titanic was one of the Olympic class of Greyhound ocean liners built by Harland & Wolff at their Belfast shipyard, on the River Lagan, Northern Ireland, for the White Star Line. The Olympic class comprised three liners, the first two being the RMS Olympic and alongside her the RMS Titanic. RMS Gigantic was to follow but after the Titanic tragedy she was renamed RMS Britannic. On the 13th November 1915 HMHS Britannic was requisitioned as a hospital ship but struck a mine and sank on the 21st November 1916. Fortunately she had no patients aboard and the 30 deaths that occurred were caused by two lifeboats tragically being sucked into the still rotating propellers.

The first problems in Titanic’s chequered career arose from the political and religious divide that existed in Belfast between the Catholic and predominantly Protestant church which often resulted in violent street fights between the two sides. It was not helped by the much smaller shipyard of Workman and Clark on the County Antrim side of the Lagan (Harland and Wolff is located on the County Down side of the river) who were virulently anti-Catholic and would never employ Catholic workers. In addition just to stir things up they had been known to paint NO POPE in letters ten feet high on the hull of the ships under construction. Harland & Wolff, on the other hand, had no official policy regarding the religion of its workers.

However, the hull number reputedly assigned to RMS Titanic was 3909-04 which when written out and viewed in a mirror, the number spells out the words NO POPE (assuming a certain amount of leeway is allowed with the figure 4.)

She was built on Slipway No 3 under the Arrol Gantry but we have to ask the question, was that number of 3909-04 actually assigned to the Titanic? The answer seems to be no, the only two numbers ever assigned to the ship were her actual builder’s number, 401 (she was the four-hundred and first ship built by Harland and Wolff) and her Board of Trade number, 131,428. Following the original suspicion when you write out 401 or 131,428 and hold them up to a mirror, the “secret message” in them reads, nothing intelligible. However, such was the strong feelings between the two religious groups in Belfast, a little thing like the truth was not going to spoil a good story.

Another claimed incident at the shipyards was to dog the ship. Such was the speed of the plating and riveting that a young riveter was trapped within the double hull and allegedly riveted over. His agonised tapping and screams were lost in the tremendous noise of the shipyards. Now could this story be true, it is certainly possible. At the end of the shift all of the workers were checked and signed out, with no-one missing, but the shipyard workers were masters of covering up for missing mates that the figures must be taken as suspect.

On the launch of the Titanic it was alleged that the bottle of champagne did not break (a sure sign of an ill-fated ship). However, the truth of the matter was that neither Harland & Wolff nor White Star line ever used champagne to launch their ships.

During the construction of the Titanic the Olympic on its fifth voyage was involved in a serious accident with the cruiser HMS Hawke when the two collided in the Solent off Southampton harbour on 20th September 1911. The RMS Olympic had increased speed as it passed the Hawke and the resulting suction had dragged the cruiser into the Olympic, its armoured ram bow causing serious damage on the starboard side some 80ft forward of the stern.

The main damage was a gaping hole through the hull plates which flooded two of her sixteen watertight compartments and bent her starboard propeller shaft, necessitating an immediate return to Southampton. After emergency repairs were made in Southampton, she returned to Belfast. In order to expedite repairs, the Titanic‘s starboard propeller shaft was used to replace the Olympics’ damaged shaft, though not her starboard screw, which was pitched differently from that of the Olympic and could not be used by the older ship. In February 1912, while returning to Southampton, she lost a blade from her port propeller, which necessitated another trip to Harland and Wolff for repairs. The White Star Line was anxious to get the Olympic back into service as quickly as possible and so authorized Harland and Wolff to pull workers off the incomplete Titanic, delaying the new liner’s debut by three weeks.

The damage caused by the original accident was far more severe than originally thought and the Royal Navy held an enquiry which exonerated HMS Hawke. Professor John Biles and American Naval officer David Taylor testified on behalf of the Admiralty that as the Olympic travelled through the water logically the bow would push water out away from the ship. As the Olympics’ stern passed, water would pull back in towards the ship to fill the gap. Based on the size and speed of the Olympic at the time of the collision the zone of influence would extend for 200 yards on both sides of the Olympic. This was a new theory, and not unexpectedly was attacked as nonsense by merchant marine unions, industry magazines, writers and other maritime experts, including White Stars own Captain Smith. Nevertheless, later after the Titanic sank, the new theory was proved correct.

This left White Star Line with an expensive severely damaged ship which was not insured. It is at this point the alleged idea of an insurance fraud came to be suggested.

The hypothesis examined in a book "Titanic: The Ship That Never Sank" by Robin Gardiner was that there was a period during which the almost completed Titanic and the damaged Olympic were side by side on the stocks at Harland & Wolfe in Belfast.

It is an established fact that Titanic’s propeller shaft was used to repair the Olympics bent starboard one and probably other miscellaneous items to complete the job.

It is at this point the allegation of planned fraud took place.

The labour force was astonishingly loyal to Harland & Wolff and any that weren’t would find themselves out of any job in Belfast or any shipyard.

As outlined in the book, with the two ships right next to each other, it was an easy job to switch the two identities. Although White Star Line monogrammed linen and crockery, it did not show the ships name, which was really only shown at the bow, on lifeboats and obviously ships documents. There were minor structural differences between the two ships and these have been identified on the wreck and form much of the basis of the changed identity suspicion.

With the two ships modified the damaged Olympic became the Titanic and vice versa. The (damaged) Titanic was launched at a very low key ceremony and worked up her supposed sea trials very gently without stressing her fragile condition.

It is alleged that the Titanic (the damaged Olympic) makes her maiden voyage on a modified route taking her into the potential ice fields. After leaving Southampton on 10th April 1912, carrying 2,224 passengers and crew, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading westwards towards New York. The plan was that at a certain point she would come within an easy rescue range of the SS California and an un-named blacked out second ship. Captain Smith would arrange to collide with an iceberg in a manner which would cause the slow sinking of the Titanic and that all passengers and crew could be saved. On 14th April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, she hit an object at 2340hrs ship's time. The blacked out ship was alleged to be the 254 ton Samson that was illegally sealing in the area, but she was so small a collision would barely cause a dent. Such a ship would need to be around 10-15,000 tons and the blacked out ship seen would seem to fit this description.

However a series of events was to prove disastrous. When she sailed she had a bunker fire, these were not uncommon but the plates in the area were almost red hot. As she neared the pre-arranged area she was travelling very quickly and the ice floes were becoming plentiful. What happened next is unclear - she either hit a mostly submerged large ice berg or she hit the blacked out ship that was part of the fraud. The consequence of hitting the berg was obvious, but if she hit the ship the force of the collision would have shaken ice from her masts and superstructure, still giving the appearance to the passengers, that she had hit a berg.

The suggestion that she had hit a ship was not as far-fetched as it may sound. Various survivors spoke of a blacked out ship passing by the sinking Titanic, at speed and they also spoke of large amounts of timber floating which couldn’t have come from the Titanic. Also the clincher was a lifeboat among those salvaged after the sinking which did not come from the Titanic and may have been knocked off the blacked out ship.

The SS California was still too far away, almost over the horizon. The problems with the radio and the misinterpretation of the rockets sealed Titanic’s fate.

I won’t go into the details of the actual sinking and rescue attempts as these are more than adequately covered in many books.

However, the amount of damage caused to Titanic by a collision with either another ship or a berg seems excessive and deserves more investigation.

We know the bunker fire would have affected the tensile strength of a localised area of the hull and its reaction when it came in contact with a minus 2degC. sea, but what about the quality of the steel used in the ship’s construction.

Metallurgical examination and chemical analysis of steel plate, that had been raised from the Titanic, revealed important clues that allows a better understanding of why the damage inflicted on the hull was so severe. The steel, imported from Scotland, was probably as good as was available at the time the ship was constructed and there is no reason to suspect Harland and Wolff would have used inferior steel as a cost cutting measure as, the contract was on a cost plus basis. It was, however, very inferior when compared with modern steel and would be classified as “dirty steel” today. The notch toughness (material's ability to absorb energy with a flaw) showed a very low value (4 joules) for the steel at the water temperature (-2 deg C) in the North Atlantic at the time of the accident.

The collision devastated the hull of the Titanic for about 300ft, cracking hull plates and popping the wrought iron rivets, thus destroying the integrity of the first six of 16 watertight compartments formed by the transverse bulkheads. Even a ship as well designed and constructed as the Titanic could not stay afloat under these circumstances.

Additional stories surrounding the sinking of the Titanic.

Was there a mummy among the cargo on the Titanic?

A rumour circulated that among the cargo was a mummy which was heavily cursed. According to the myth, the mummy was named Amen-Ra, who was very angry at being disturbed and was prone to curse anyone who crossed her path. The Amen-Ra we know is not a complete mummy but simply a mummy board or inner coffin board made of wood and plaster.

The actual mummy that formed part of the Titanic’s cargo was originally displayed in the 'First Egyptian Room' of the British Museum from the 1890s and only the mummy board has remained on public view ever since. It is known as the “Unlucky mummy”.

The story originated with writer, journalist, editor, and spiritualist William Thomas Stead. On Friday evening, 12th April 1912, two nights before the Titanic sank; Stead regaled his dinner companions with a variety of ghost stories and tall tales. One tale was based around the legend of Amen-Ra, the mummy stowed in the cargo hold.

The claimed presence of the mummy in the wreck is often cited as a reason why the Titanic should be left alone.

However there exists a continuation to the story, although it’s actually without corroboration. Apparently, the mummy did not sink with the Titanic. Instead it was removed from the hold and the archaeologist bribed one of the Titanic's crew to hide the mummy in a lifeboat. The story continues that the mummy arrived in New York, surrounded by all kinds of bad luck. Later, the mummy was shipped back to Egypt on the “The Empress of Ireland”, which also sank with a great loss of life but, the mummy again survived and ended up in one of the lifeboats. It was shipped a second time to Egypt on the ill-fated "Lusitania", which was torpedoed and this time there was no reprieve and the mummy now lies undisturbed in the Lusitania's cargo hold, at the bottom of the Irish Channel

The ships cat

Perhaps passengers should have taken note of Jenny the ships cat. After the Titanic arrived in Queenstown from Cherbourg, Jenny carried her kittens off the ship and watched it depart from the quay to its watery grave. There is a second, unconfirmed report of a second cat called Mouser, from the engineering department that left the ship at Southampton.

A “priceless” jewelled book was lost with the Titanic

The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam’s was claimed to be a “priceless” volume which now lies in the hold of the Titanic. It is confirmed that the book sank with the Titanic by 1912 newspaper accounts and elsewhere, but its actual value hardly comes close to the word “priceless”. This particular book was purchased at auction, just prior to sailing for around £405. Today, the identical book would fetch around $40,000, although that amount would climb significantly due to the book’s association with the Titanic. This amazing binding is inlaid and tooled in gold, with a design featuring peacocks and grapes on the upper cover. In total there are some 1000 jewels including Topazes, turquoises, amethysts, garnets, olivine’s and an emerald.

The Titanic purser’s safe would be loaded with valuables

There are at least three safes aboard, with the Titanic’s purser’s safe (Herbert Walter McElroy) being where the wealthy first-class women on board stored their valuables during the voyage. There is common belief that the safe is still aboard the Titanic and that it contains a treasure trove of diamonds, jewellery, gold, bank notes, and other valuables. What is more likely is that the content would have been transferred by the purser to a leather satchel for safe keeping and removal from the sinking ship. In many instances wealthy passengers would have taken small valuable items such as diamonds etc. and slipped them into their pockets or purses. If they survived then the valuables would be with their rightful owner, otherwise they would be in the rotting clothing of the drowned.

The purser’s safe was retrieved from the Titanic and opened for a 1987 television special called “Return to the Titanic”. Inside the safe was what a representative from Van Cleef & Arpels said was a diamond bracelet and that was the only valuable item.

A further safe was found in the debris field but the base had rusted through and therefore any contents would have been scattered. In the debris field a leather valise was found which contained a muddy selection of valuables which may have been from one of the purser’s safes. However, it does seem that there is no huge fortune in valuables waiting to be found.

A Ghastly Boat Load : Corpses From The Titanic

On Saturday 18th May 1912 a radio message was received from Captain Smith, of the SS Oceanic, (brother of the captain who commanded the RMS Titanic), advised that on Thursday another collapsible boat belonging to the sunken liner had been found drifting in the ocean some 200 miles south of the Titanic’s last position.

The boat, when found, contained the bodies of three male persons, who had died from the combined effects of starvation and exposure and all indications were that there had been two other occupants, who had died earlier and were slipped over the side.

Small crumbs of chewed cork in the bottom of the craft near two bodies huddled together told their story of hunger, despair and death. There were no letters but it is believed that the three men whose corpses were found survived the disaster for a number of days.

One of the victims was identified as Thompson Beattie, of Chicago; another was an unidentified crew man, and the third a fireman. There must have been at least one woman, who would have been a widow and another occupant of the boat, as two wedding rings bearing the inscription “Edward to Gerda,” were found. Evidence suggests there was a fifth occupant possibility a man named Williams, as a fur overcoat with that name written on a tailor’s pad in the pocket was also in the boat.

The boat should have been equipped with emergency rations and water but there was no sign of food, water or containers, nothing except the pieces of chewed cork, which had been torn from the life preservers.

It was Monday around noon that the first officer, Mr Frank, sighted the collapsible life boat. It was a sunny day and the sea was smooth. The Oceanic lowered a boat commanded by third officer, Mr Withers, and six men pulled the oars. The passengers on the liner, watched with macabre interest as the boat went alongside of the collapsible and saw the crew looking inside, recoiling in horror and then returned to the Oceanic.

Third officer Withers climbed the boarding ladder, and the passengers crowded around him pressing him with questions. With a grim face he shook his head and hurried quickly to the bridge. The ship’s surgeon, Dr French, was summoned by the Captain, a fresh crew, carrying sheets of canvas material and iron weights was put into the boat and Dr French went to the stern seat, and again the boat returned to the bobbing collapsible.

Those passengers who possessed strong binoculars could see that he and his men were busy with bodies in the boat. Using sheets of canvas the bodies were tightly wrapped up in them and sewn closed. The surgeon then rose, and, supported by crew on either side, hold a book before him. They could not hear, but they knew he was reading the service for the dead. There were three splashes, as the bodies were consigned to the deep and the Oceanic’s boat then came slowly back with the Titanic’s collapsible zigzagging behind it. The two craft were hoisted to a place on deck, and the Oceanic went on her way.

Some hours later Dr French described the scene. In the bow of the collapsible, he said, was the body of a fireman. It seemed to have been dragged there. “I believe” said Dr French, “that the two survivors at the time of his death tried to throw his body overboard, but could not do so. At the stern was the body of a sailor, and that of a cabin passenger, dressed for dinner, with an overcoat pulled over his evening clothes. The widow’s ring we found was in paper, as though taken by the survivors for the purpose of identification. It was such a ring as a widow might cause to be made of her own and her husband’s wedding ring. The two had been fused together. On the inside of one half of the ring was the inscription “Edward to Gerda” and some figures, apparently a date, which we could not make out”.

There were signs of starvation. It was only too evident that the poor people in the boat had torn the canvas with their fingernails and tried to relieve their hunger by chewing the cork. I found that Mr Withers was quite right when he said it could not be practicable to bring any of the bodies aboard the ship. To bury the poor creatures at sea was the only thing to do.”

In view of the Oceanic’s discovery the report of the captain of the Carpathia that he had picked up “all the lifeboats and Engelhardt collapsibles launched from the Titanic” is rather suspect. He should have known how many lifeboats and collapsibles the Titanic carried and account for each one. It is likely this was collapsible A which was seen drifting away with at least three persons aboard. As previously mentioned there was one lifeboat too many, identification of which proved it did not come from the Titanic. The Carpathia arrived at New York on Thursday night with about 775 survivors, all of whom had stories of this terrible tragedy of the ocean.

Bodies recovered by the cable ship SS Minia:

Only one of the seventeen persons whose bodies were recovered in the vicinity of the Titanic tragedy died from drowning. In the opinion of the cable ship’s doctor the other sixteen perished from exposure to the freezing water.

Of the seventeen bodies recovered, fifteen were brought to port, the other two, the bodies of unidentified firemen, were buried at sea.

Among the bodies preserved was that of Charles M. Hays, president of the Grand Trunk railway. It was shipped to his home at Montreal on a special train on the 6th May 1912

On 6th May, the Canadian government vessel CGS Montmagny left Halifax and recovered four bodies, one of which was buried at sea. The remaining three victims were brought from Louisbourg, Nova Scotia to Halifax by rail. The fourth and final ship in the recovery effort was the SS Algerine, which sailed from St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador on May 16. The crew of the Algerine found one body, which was shipped to Halifax on the SS Florizel.

Dealing with the dead recovered

On 17th April, 1912, which was the day before the first survivors of the Titanic disaster reached New York, the vessel CS Mackay-Bennett was the first of four ships chartered by White Star line and sent from Halifax, Nova Scotia to search for bodies. On board the Mackay-Bennett was a chaplain, embalming supplies, 40 embalmers, tons of ice, and 100 coffins. Although the Mackay-Bennett found 306 bodies, 116 of these were too badly damaged or decomposed to take all the way back to shore. Serious attempts were made to identify each body found. Additional ships were also sent out to look for any remaining bodies. In all, 328 bodies were found, but 119 of these were badly decomposed and thus were buried at sea.

Of the bodies recovered 59 were shipped by railway to the various families for private burial while the remainder were buried in three Halifax cemeteries.

The majority of the bodies were unloaded at the Coal or Flagship Wharf on the Halifax waterfront and horse-drawn hearses brought the victims to the temporary morgue in the Mayflower Curling Rink, which had adequate ice making facilities.

The 1912 Mutiny

After the Titanic disaster, when the Olympic returned to Southampton for the first time, the incident that became known as “the 1912 Mutiny” took place. In an attempt to reassure a suddenly apprehensive traveling public, forty collapsible lifeboats were hastily acquired by the White Star Line and conspicuously mounted on the Olympics’ Boat Deck. When the ship reached Southampton, the entire “Black Gang” walked off the ship in protest over the condition of these collapsible boats. After inspection the men claimed that the boats were unseaworthy, some of them being downright rotten. White Star insisted that the boats were sound, having been passed by a Board of Trade inspector. Eventually it was shown to the men’s satisfaction that the majority of the boats were actually sound and safe, and those that were suspect were quickly replaced. However, before the affair had run its course some fifty-four stokers and trimmers were charged with mutiny for their part in the work stoppage, a charge which a Portsmouth magistrate quickly dismissed as unfounded. By mid-May the Olympic was back in transatlantic passenger service.

Graves of the Titanic victims

Most of the gravestones were erected and paid for by White Star Line and are plain granite blocks.

Mount Olivet Cemetery

Halifax

Halifax County

Nova Scotia, Canada

Mass Grave for 19. Among those interred are listed as:

William Ali, Batiste Bernardi, J. F. P. Clarke, Maurice F. Debreucq, Mansour Hanna, Ignaz Hendekovic, Petril Lemberopoulis, Henru Jalliet, Wenzel Linhart, Thomas Morgan, Servando Ovies, Pompeo Piazzo, Margaret Rice, Georgis Youssif, Hileni Zabour.

Fairview Lawn Cemetery

Halifax

Nova Scotia, Canada

121 Individual graves including a striking Celtic cross as the beautiful monument to the “Unknown Child”. This is one of the more striking Titanic markers and is for an originally unidentified, unclaimed child victim. He was buried using funds provided by sailors of the CS Mackay-Bennett, the cable ship that recovered his body. The marker bears the inscription “Erected to the memory of an unknown child whose remains were recovered after the disaster of the "Titanic" April 15th 1912”. In November 2002, the child was wrongly identified as 13-month-old Eino Viljami Panula of Finland. Eino, his mother, and four brothers all died in the Titanic disaster. However, after additional forensic DNA testing, the child was re-identified as 19-month-old Sidney Leslie Goodwin, an English child who perished with his entire family.

This is also the resting place of William Denton Cox, a heroic White Star steward who died while escorting third class passengers through the maze of corridors to the lifeboats.

Jewish Baron de Hirsch Cemetery

Halifax

Nova Scotia, Canada

10 individual graves for probable Jewish victims. All unknown except for three, which were Frederick William Wormald, Libby and Simon Mendelson.

This article is dedicated to the 1,490 to 1,635 souls who lost their lives in this tragic accident and to those who have no grave and are known only unto God.

In this we include

A King Charles spaniel and an elderly Airedale Terrier,

Chow-Chow, called chow chow

A champion French Bulldog called Gamin de Pycombe,

Kitty, an Airedale Terrier,

A Great Dane owned by Ann Elizabeth Isham

Frou-Frou, a Toy dog

A Canary

Four roosters and hens

30 Cockerels

And an unknown number of rats.


Are you aware of the possible substitution of these two ships ?

See results

Titanic or Olympic - which sank in the Arctic

5 out of 5 stars from 3 ratings of Accident or Fraud tick for accident

© 2014 Peter Geekie

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Peter Geekie profile image
      Author

      Peter Geekie 7 months ago from Sittingbourne

      Dear Trevor

      An interesting question which has been posed before. White Star line was finally taken over by Cunard, who I assume took over the losses and liabilities. Cunard, in turn, are owned by an American consortium. The stumbling block seems to be the ability to prove fraud on the part of White Star. The current owners will, of course, be less than helpful in this regard.

      kind regards Peter

    • profile image

      Trevor 7 months ago

      Really interesting. Like probably thousands of others I assumed this was just a tragic accident not an insurance fraud. After all this time is it not possible to prosecute the current owners of White Star Line.

    • Peter Geekie profile image
      Author

      Peter Geekie 3 years ago from Sittingbourne

      Dear blueheron

      Thanks for your comments - it needs a little tidying as the download became corrupt.

      kind regards Peter

    • blueheron profile image

      Sharon Vile 3 years ago from Odessa, MO

      Wow! Fascinating article! Fine writing.