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Updated on September 11, 2015

Since its inception India owns a heterogeneous society. It is complicate to harness a heterogeneous society in the bonds of unity due to its inherent intricate problems. The diversifying forces of religion, culture and language classify its present composition and structure as rather fallacious. There are strong movements and simmering aspirations seeking for greater autonomy and even independence. The secular philosophy of India, which sought to achieve unity through diversity, is now faced with challenges of rising communalism and caste-ism heralded by Hindutva. Majority of Indian populace is Hindu - a faith based on caste and creed system. This lava can erupt any time quaking the pillars of Secularism on which Indian Union is resting.

Religious Diversity in India

Religious Diversity.

Indians’ tall claim of being a secular state ring hollow every time there are communal rights struggle , especially between Hindus and Muslim. The Sikh insurgency is also proof of the same. Hinduism remains the unofficial religion of India and is one of the greatest potential causes of disintegration of India.

Social Diversity.

The Indian society has three tiers of its own, i.e the Brahamin, the Rajanya/Kashatriya and the Vaish classes. Conquered native slaves are called “Shudras”.

Religious Demands/Social Justice.

Mostly Muslims and newly converted Christians from the lower castes demand the right and freedom of religious practices and expression.

Communal Riots.

Communal riots are organised ostensibly over religious sensitive issues. In the recent past, we have seen increase in the riots between Hindus and Muslims mainly because of Babri Mosque in 1992 and Gujrat Issue in 2002. Gujrat riots were the worst ever since Indian existence. State machinery was a silent spectator as mass killings took place in front of the government agencies.


In spite of the great economic boom of the nineties, India still ranks amongst few poorest countries in the world. This is a source of great discontentment amongst the lower tiers of society who feel left out of the economic bounties that their country has received in the last 10-15 years.

Human Rights Violations.

The very foundations of a Hindu society are based on the principle of social inequality according to caste status. India successfully put on the facade of a strictly secular state for many decades but that has recently started to wear off. In addition its human rights violations against minorities especially against Muslims in Kashmir and Sikhs in Punjab and the social boycott of newly converted Christians from the lower castes have prompted the international human rights organizations to cry foul.

North- Eastern India.

As a region, the North –Eastern India is the most volatile and unstable part of India. The people of this region proudly preserve their unique identity and react violently against measures by the government to distort the same.

Khalistan Movement


Sikhs aligned themselves with India for better gains however they later realised that promises made by the Hindus were not being fulfilled which forced them to stand against the government and Indian Government faced serious challenge to its integration which still looms over their heads. Hindus living in the area feel insecure and situation is not totally under the control of Indian Government.

Kashmir Movement


The Kashmiri freedom struggle started in 1987 gaining real momentum in the early nineties. India has deployed nearly seven hundred thousand troops in the valley. Over a hundred thousand Kashmiri have laid down their lives in the face of the worst brutalities that could be perpetrated by a state but their resolve is undaunted.

Religious Extremism.

Muslims are the biggest minority in India. It was Muslims which divided sub continent in 1947 and the present threat in Indian held Kashmir is also from the Muslims. Human rights violations have always been reported in India with an obvious element of aggression against the Muslim community. Various minorities in India, could not face the onslaught of Hindutva and started converting to Hindu religion. Though according to recent legislature, its not easy to convert from one religion to another but still many are converting. The religious groups in Pakistan with an anti Hindu motto use this as a tool to publicize their manifesto and instigate resentment among the people of Pakistan by playing with their emotions. Such inclinations

of these conformist religious forces in Pakistan are prone to suffer an anti state influence.

Human Rights.

Human rights violations in a society give boost to the dissident elements in accomplishing their nefarious motives. Such violations in India have not only proved detrimental to the system of good governance but have also tarnished the image of India in international community.


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    • profile image

      Ahmed Ali Agha 

      3 years ago

      Way to go. Great piece

    • Suhail and my dog profile image

      Suhail Zubaid aka Clark Kent 

      3 years ago from Mississauga, ON

      I think if humans start loving each other and the living beings God created rather than hating each other on the basis of religious, ethnic, cultural, racial, etc. differences, this world would be a much better place to live.

      Thanks for sharing your thoughts.

      I love India and the faith of Hinduism for the protection they have accorded to our wildlife.

      I dislike Indians' arrogance toward their neighbours.

    • profile image


      3 years ago


    • profile image

      Ahmed khwaja 

      3 years ago

      Indians wait a lot for some thing they dream to happen , They wait so long that they die or their dreams die before it happens.

    • profile image


      3 years ago

      Yes I agree with you Mr Author but there are stark differences between the negative aspects in India with the negative aspects in Pakistan

      In India the electricity supply, however inadequate is not an issue that causes people rioting on the roads. The worst hit due to poor electricity supply are the small business owners and entrepreneurs. For Pajero riding fat cats it is a minor inconvenience of asking the servant to turn on the generator. So the whole goody goody big cities where majority of the foreign investment exists recieve electricity without any circular debt. Does kalabagh Dam ring a bell? There’s another one I would want you to Google is tehri Dam in India.

      The problem exists in India of homeless and poor people is due to the high population, and yet the literary rate of the country went up in the last census in 2011.

      Its been 14 years that Pakistan government counted it’s population. No matter what ultimately what your government does matters, not the romanticized feelings you carry in your heart.

      The security situation, I mean you go outside the cities in India and you’ll see poor infrastructure and poverty, but what happens when you go outside the cities in Pakistan, the rural areas, not the motorways

      No city in India bans two ppl riding on motorbikes, this regularly happens in Pakistan, despite the fact that motorbikes are the personal mobility option for the not so rich.

      I’m just talking facts here.

      There’s nothing brave about living in a country of conflict while you sit in a bungalow with security guards at the gate, and drive around in a pajero.

      The class divide in Pakistan is disturbing.

      Most Pakistanis simply curse the government and that’s it.

      And yes the malnutrition and toilets in India

      The fact that government has acknowledged these two problems with mid day meal in schools and clean India movement

      The problem in villages is that either family is too poor to even have a proper house, so toilets are luxury. While even the rich in villages are often neglect the toilet, which is more of a cultural problem than anything else. The ads on tv with vidya balan scolding a family that instructs the new bride about ghoonghat, with no toilet in the house. This ad plays on every channel even on prime time

    • profile image


      3 years ago

      Westerners coming to Pakistan got pleasantly surprised…for they find the country totally different to what the western media has portrayed.

      Westerners coming to India also got surprised as they find India totally different to what the Indian media and Bollywood portrays…this time not a pleasant surprise.

      So what is important perception or reality. In perception India is much ahead of Pakistan, in reality Pakistan is matching it, slightly ahead in poverty indices, a better living standard.

    • profile image

      Ravindra Sharma 

      3 years ago

      In Marathi, there is a saying “There should be a neighbor who scolds you. It helps you in improving”. Thanks Sir, we are not perfect, but your article may certainly give us a boost to improve ourselves.

    • profile image


      3 years ago

      Well this article should also applicable to China also,despite big economy still its peoples standard of living are low.Even in US people with less standard of living are found outside cities like New York and Washington spending their life in train tunnel,abandoned tunnel and i have seen it some program in National geographic or discovery channel.So what you say about that.

    • profile image

      Amit Roy 

      3 years ago

      For heaven’s sake talk about extremely prosperous Pakistan and leave India and Indians alone.

    • profile image


      3 years ago

      Very well written. Thought provking


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