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Industrialization and development in India

Updated on February 23, 2017

The United States of America was a group of colonies three hundred years ago. The industrious and hard working people of that nation had made it the superpower of the world in 20th century. Industrialization also played a heavy part in the gradual transformation of the country. From a nation who supplied war amenities in World War I and II became the pole of power in the next decades after the war. Thanks to the industrious people of America that has set an example for other nations.

Similarly India also had been a colony of Britain about a century ago. But the industrialization came slow in Indian cities. The maker of the new India emphasized on the role of heavy industries in the second and third five year plan. But by and large India was a country depending upon agriculture largely. So after independence the main thrust of development was on agriculture.

Till now lots of changes occurred in the development pattern of India. Due to the liberal policy of Manmohan Singh in 90's India opened up its economy to the world. In the reign of Congress during the term 2009-2014, a set of changes occurred in the economic policy. Foreign Direct Investment was also encouraged through which Multinational Companies could invest in India.

So today India is the world's second largest growing economy just after China.Still there are millions of people in India who live below the poverty line. This is because the developmental progress have left out the downtrodden or weak in the society. Analyzing the factors of this gap between the poor and the elite, some hard truths have come to notice.

Industrialization occurred in India during the colonial period when the vast reserves of oil, coal and tea were discovered and the scope was used by the British to enhance their colonial interests. The Digboi oil field was discovered in 1860s right after the discovery of oil field in Pennsylvania of US. It is Asia's first oil field. Still till nineteenth century the local people were not aware of the vast possibilities of Oil industry. It was only after Independence that two major Oil companies of India O.I.L. (Oil India Limited) and O.N.G.C. (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India) took up digging and refining of oil in India. Tea was discovered in Assam in the nineteenth century by Robert Bruce. Soon wealthy exchequers of London began to invest in the tea gardens of Upper Assam and tea industry was established in India. Coal was also discovered by the British in the Upper Assam, Bihar and Jharkhand. The Indian natives were not used the use of these resources.

It was only after Independence that the Indian Government emphasized on the development of Science and technology and leading technical institutes like the I.I.I.T.s(Indian Institute of Technology), I.I.SC.( Indian Institute of Science) and I.S.M. ( Indian School of Mines) were established and people became aware of the possibilities of resources..

Natural resources plays a big part in the economic development of a nation as well as technical advancements. But to its sorrow India is lacking awareness among the common mass about the scope of development. Common people even don't give a moment to think about the developmental stage Of India. The whole responsibility lies on the head of the Scientist, technocrats and tech-educated young generation.

Now India is rapidly advancing in the Industrial sector. This is the result of effort of lakhs of manual workers, engineers, bureaucrats, scientists and technicians.

Well advancement of technology is good for a nation, but ironically some facts alos showed up when these changes occurred in the society. The vast majority of people who were dependant on agriculture, now either shifts their attention to technical education or shifting of profession. The general public is contained with the benefit of technical advancement. Now in india almost everyone possesses a mobile phone or cell phone but India cannot produce its own hardwares.

Thus. the industrial revolution has failed to reach the mind set of common mass. Instead of teaching them to be more indutrioius and enthuastic the technologial advance ments have led them to easy ways of life and consumerism. Now a days almost every Young India dreams of his dream car, dream mobile handset etc. But pathetically there are a few Indian car companies like TATA and Indian Motors which can compete with other companies like NISSAN, HYUNDAI, FORD , VOX WAGON etc.

The Mass of educated young people has lost their self respect while other countries have begun to sell their products in Indian markets like flood. Still the young Indian is arrogant, ignorant about these effects.


A chief factor of this ignorance can be found in the pages of History. Industrialization was imposed on India unlike USA where the hurdy Americans tried every sort to develop their products. Like the colonial period, still India is buying almost everything from other nations.The most advancing sector of Industrial development like oil, coal and nuclear energy are in the hands of the elite while the common people don't know anything about it. The major cities which are advancing like Mumbai, Ahmedabad , Chennai are ignorant of the poor mass of fellow Indians. It is rather shameful as being an Indian is one's very pride but the centralisation of assets in the hands of a few elites rather hampers the overall development of the Indian society

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