ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Generation Serfdom: The World Wide College Bubble

Updated on November 4, 2012

Often Overlooked is the Next Big Economic Bubble


And this bubble promises to deliver a crushing blow that will make the tech bubble, the real estate bubble, and the soon coming commercial real estate bubble, look amateur by comparison. This is a bubble (which is the third stage of economic collapse) that will essentially put an entire generation in debited servitude, with no conceivable chance of collecting any collateral or declaring bankruptcy. Its acquired debt that cannot be traded, cannot be sold, and cannot be passed on. It's debt that has no conceivable or practical value. It's essentially debt out of thin air created by human perceptions rather than reality. It's a debt that many pay into knowing that it's a scam, but feel they must, because of the employer gatekeepers. It's the debt that if you dare speak out against, you'll be labelled as inadequate. You'll have a hard time getting a job. Neighbourhood propaganda will certainly shun you. You'll have a hard time getting credit. You'll have a hard time getting married. You'll have a hard time starting a business. If you do manage to get a job, you'll find it impossible to get promoted. All of this may happen because you spoke the truth against the upcoming bubble. Just what is that bubble you ask? The World Wide College Bubble.

A Time Bomb: College Bubble

Higher "Education" Might be the Next Bubble Burst?

There are some early warning signs in America to suggest the case:

With tuitions, fees, and room and board at dozens of colleges now reaching $50,000 a year, the ability to sustain private higher education for all but the very well-heeled is questionable. According to the NationalCenter for Public Policy and Higher Education, over the past 25 years, average college tuition and fees have risen by 440 percent — more than four times the rate of inflation and almost twice the rate of medical care. College is already grossly unaffordable for most low income and middle class American families, yet the government continues to dole out the loans, arguing that no matter the costs, college is always "good debt" and a safe return on investment.

The reality is this couldn't be further from the truth. A college education just may be the riskiest investment an individual can make. When I buy commodities, such as oil, silver, or gold, I know exactly what I'm getting. There are no surprises. An individual can study market trends and get a good idea where there are shortages in both the physical material and or production. We can read the news to find out if a new deposit of gold is discovered or that a new technology has recently been invented that may affect the market. I can't say the same for a college degree.

For starters, when you invest in commodities, or any other investment for that matter, very rarely do you risk 100% of your payment. Unless you play the derivative scheme, you should never have to risk 100% down. Even if the market goes bust, you can always sell right away to minimize your losses significantly. Although I don't recommend this practice, because patience is a virtue and one must buy low and sell high, that's always an option if you made a huge mistake by buying in an overvalued market.

The same collateral cannot be pulled off with a college degree. Once I pay those tens of thousands for a college degree, I'm permanently locked into that market. If the job for which I'm practicing my degree suddenly becomes trendy to be outsourced, I just lost all my initial investment, without any hope of getting it back. Now I must make the difficult choice of continuing my education in a useless degree or simply dropping out. Either choice, I lose out significantly, because I can't trade a piece of college paper. At least with the housing bubble, you had a nice house to live into for a while. You could possibly sell at a loss or rent to minimize the damage. On the other hand, with a college degree of a now outsourced job field, you have nothing you can use as collateral.

What makes college an especially risky investment is inflexibility. When you invest in a college degree (invest in jobs), you're restricted to that one job/field. You rarely have the option of switching when things get hot or cold. As a conventional investor, I have the option of constantly switching on a whim. If something isn't working out, I simply invest elsewhere. I can play the highs and lows across all fields. However, with a college degree, I have no choice but to ride out the highs or lows of this stock that I cannot trade, sell, or pass on. My financial well being is completely left to fate and out of my hands. Would you buy a specialized mutual fund from a broker that wouldn't let you sell it? Probably not, but that's what we do with college debt.

But surely smart students would pay money into a degree that has good job potential and prospects? One would hope students at least take the time to study market trends and labour demands before they invest into college, but the truth of the matter is this does very little to alleviate many of the risks I spoke about earlier. An educated student can get burned just as easily as the foolish. I can't think of one stock, one commodity, one industry, one nation, etc that has always gone upwards and or stable for 50 years running. When you invest in college, you're betting on an industry that will essentially never have a down turn for the rest of your working life. I have yet to come across such an industry, and if you know such an industry, be sure to inform me so I can put all my money into their stocks, rather than get a degree where I would have to lay aside a significant portion to a university professor. We're not fortune tellers, there's no way of knowing what may come the next year, two years, four years, ten years, etc. What seems like a good decision today to invest in college could turn out to be a disaster no more than 2 years after you graduate. You may even see this disaster on the horizon, but you're helpless, because unlike conventional markets, you cannot trade in your college degree for another. I should know, because the same happened to me when I worked for an I.T degree back in 1999.

Maybe you could invest in a less specialized degree to alleviate inflexibility concerns? In theory, you should be able to do just that, but only in theory. As many of the Liberal Arts students now flipping burgers and working at Wal-Mart will attest to, employers put little value in a general education. A Bachelor of Art is essentially a giant mutual fund of the entire labour market for your given geographical area. The argument is it's less risky, you'll never get rich, but you'll never be poor. You'll be an educated, well-rounded individual, who can always get a job. The "can always get a job" part may be true, but the rest is completely false. The truth is with a B.A you've invested tens of thousands to simply take a roller coaster ride of the entire economy. This is why people like Warren Buffet don't bother with mutual funds, you completely eliminate yourself from the decision making process. Only this mutual fund is much worse, because you can't learn from your mistakes, you can't sell off your mutual fund and invest into something else. You must accept this mutual fund, for better or for worse, your entire life until you die. Getting a bachelor's degree to get a slightly competitive edge in the entire economy may seem like a bright idea, but you're essentially no different than a High School graduate who he/she too will be seen as a generalist who must ride with the economy. Sure, your roller coaster may be eloquently polished to get some much needed extra attention, but ask yourselves is this truly worth $30,000? Remember, you'll be riding the high and low of the entire economy. Back at the time General Motors was the nation's largest employer, a B.A made sense, but today with Wal-Mart being the nation's largest employer in what is an ill economy, I question the value in any economic wide investment.

The truth of the matter is investing large sums of money into a job is a bad deal. You can't trade a job, you can't sell a job, and you can't pass it on to your kids. Multi-billion dollar companies have been started on less dollars than what someone pays for a Bachelor's degree today. People often say you should never have to pay in order to get a job, I agree with this statement, so why are you paying for college? The employer is the primary beneficiary, so he/she should have to pay for a college degree. If he/she doesn't want to pay the huge price tag for a college degree, then perhaps he/she will only demand a college degree for a given job unless absolutely necessary. I consider this a good thing, and a move in the proper direction. You shouldn't have to pay for a college degree, neither should the government.

There used to be a time there was a more symbiotic relationship between employer and employee. The employee took a huge cut in his/her own profits in exchange for security. The entrepreneur took all the risks and investments. Thus the entrepreneur was entitled to the profits. That useful relationship is now finished with the employee having to invest vast sums of money for a job. Call me old fashioned, but I believe much like my grandparents did, you shouldn't have to invest in a job. If you have to invest in a job, then all incentives for being an employee are now lost, you're better off trying to strike it out on your own. Say what you want, but the facts and arithmetic speak for themselves, investing in a job is generally a bad deal. This is a risk that needs to be taken on by the employer.



The Similarities Between The Housing Bubble and College Bubble Are Staggering

The college bubble has exactly the same elements as the housing bubble did:

  1. Easy access to credit regardless of the borrower’s credit-worthiness.
  2. Policies aimed at pushing all Americans into college, regardless of whether appropriate.
  3. A conventional wisdom that a college degree (like a house) is always a good investment
  4. An unsustainable mismatch between tuition increases and wage increases

The College Bubble is World Wide

The college bubble, much like the housing bubble, isn't strictly an American misadventure. Here is a video clip from the United Kingdom of the student protests on December 9th 2010 and December 10th 2010. I consider this a prelude of what is to come. There will be wide social unrest, riots, and desperate young people hitting to the streets burdened with anxiety over debts that can never be feasibly repaid. When I see this reality befalling my generation, I often find myself wishing I was born twenty five years earlier, hoping I was a baby boomer. Even without huge student loan debts, I often go through sleepless nights wondering just how I can financially survive, let alone thrive. My parents by contrast were much better off when they were my same age, despite their financial literacy being much weaker than my own.

A Prelude of What is to Come

The Worse Case of A College Bubble: South Korea

In South Korea, approximately 80% of people under the age of 40 have the equivalent of a Bachelor's degree or above. In such circumstances, it's physically impossible for all of these college graduates to find work in their given fields. I estimate that any given country will only have at most 25% of their jobs reserved for "white-collar" professionals. What often happens is these people don't get jobs at all, instead they pursue even greater amounts of education, all in the name of "qualificative inflation." The education levels have nothing to do with competency necessary in order to get a job; it's strictly a competitive base. It's all one big pageant. For those who fail to reach the top of the "education arms race", what often happens is they live at home with their parents or collect welfare. Because it's customary for many Asian families to have their children live at home until marriage, the situation isn't given much thought or is being silently marginalized, but long term the economic consequences of such a fiasco cannot be ignored. To make matters worse, much like many parts of the world, South Korea have a shortage of tradesmen. The college educated in South Korea refuses to do such jobs, instead they continuously compete in the classrooms, forcing the government to import several people from Vietnam or Cambodia to do such work. The 20% of South Koreans who don't have college degrees are mostly men from rural areas. They often run farms and have to rely on "mail order brides" from other countries in order to have marriage, because the South Korean female population that is nearly 100% college educated finds them undesirable.

Canada Has Taken a Different Route Towards Dealing With the College Bubble, But We're Guilty of the Same Sin

I could argue in many ways we're worse. Our students may not carry the debt loads as those in the United States or Briton. We don’t have the troubling situation that exists in South Korea. Psychologically, we've beaten down the college elitist path till the point of no return. At least in the United States, Briton, much of Europe and South Korea there is some dissent to this madness, from ordinary people to state officials alike, but in Canada we've "college-afied" everything imaginable. To deal with the skilled trades people shortage, our government in collusion with a few members of large industry, have made becoming a tradesman a process much like getting a bachelor's degree. How it works is you have to complete a 2 year "trade school diploma" before you're even allowed to apprentice. The 2 year diploma is misleading, because you're attending class full time and are expected to study during your off hours. When we calculate the time spent, this is the equivalent of a 4 year bachelor program that has often part-time class hours. When you graduate, you get the diploma and gown; have all smiles in front of the camera with your family. You hear speeches from the top students. It's socially and psychologically much like the college experience. Because you're still expected to apprentice the conventional three to four years before you can become a journeyman, I would go on to say that getting paid the average wage of a tradesperson here in Canada requires the education time line of the same as a Master's Degree or even a PHD.

What is truly sad about this entire situation is the kids who are not normally academically inclined are left even further behind. The trades used to be a good refuge for such kids, but thanks to now "college-afying" the trades; this is no longer an option for them. To make matters worse, I often read in the newspaper how employers are upset with the quality of trade school graduates. This comes as no surprise to me, as when I attempted to pursue a trade school degree, I never once stepped foot in an actual building under construction. Considering I was pursuing a degree in Construction Management, I see much wrong with this picture. What I did learn was a lot of filler courses to get "well rounded", much like a bachelor's degree, although it wasn't quite as intense. I can tell you that I failed to graduate due to being perpetually stumped on one of these filler courses.

Kids, who often don't excel academically, can often find themselves practically. However, in Canada when we did away with the traditional apprenticeship system, the trades are only open to those academically inclined as well. The reverse could also be said, because let me tell you, a bookworm usually doesn't make the best plumber, but our system is doing just that, pushing bookworm plumbers. This is all done in the name of "acceptance and equality." Everyone must go to and graduate from college is the prevailing mindset. I don't want to be equal and the same as everyone else, instead I wish we would build a society that promotes success rather than equality, but I doubt I'll see that any time soon. I won’t be seeing it during my life time.

So while the bubble in Canada may not be as deep, it's certainly incredibly wide, as almost every field by law now seemingly requires a degree.

In Conclusion, I'll Challenge My Own Arguments

In fairness, as I explained earlier, a lot of young people realize they're walking right straight into a trap when they go to college. It's a big catch 22, you know you're getting ripped off, but you have to do it because everyone has a college degree. Almost every job posting now has "bachelor's degree" as a minimum requirement. It has become the new high school. Through hard work, you can get a job without a degree, but it's a long road. In today's world, any job without having to pay for a degree may be the best one can hope for in what is a horrible situation. However, from experience I can tell you that having to send in an average of 268 resumes before you get a job can become quite disheartening. Often, my resumes and cover letters receive mass praises from human resource professionals, so my lack of skills in this area isn't the issue. My issue is I simply don't have a completed college diploma. When I do get a job, it's often a contract position of anywhere from six months to a year.

So while not getting a college degree can possibly be better for your bank account, perhaps the biggest investment in getting a college degree isn't in money, but in your health. The relief in getting a job within a few days, because you have a college degree, surely has to add a few years to a person's life. And while it may be stigmatic and shallow, there is something to be said in being more attractive to the opposite sex by having a college degree that certainly improves a person's emotional health.

-Donovan D. Westhaver

College Bubble Quote

"The internet is making college irrelevant. Colleges are like Playboy magazine. Why pay when you can get it online for free." -max

Do you feel we need to create a "GED equivalent" for a bachelor's degree?

See results


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • tuteramanda profile image


      5 years ago from beijing china

      WELL ,in china the number of college student grows at least 5 times in comparison with 20 years ago ,but high school student declines because of the one child policy,that really a nice huge bubble

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      Great post! You've hit on a number of issues that I am quite passionate about, and you've done a fair job at exploring them from various angles.

      The colleges are indeed part of the problem as they long ago realized that there was money to be made by lowering standards. Indeed, how would all those overpaid administrators keep their cushy jobs if they only admitted students who were actually capable of critical thinking and performing college level work ?!?!

      As in most things, you absolutely MUST be your own advocate when considering the investment in an education at any institution or in any field of study. You need to be honest with yourself. Yes, engineering pays VERY well, but if you've never been very good at Math, you might want to think this one over. Sure, a lot of bankers make great salaries, but MBAs are now a fime a dozen, and the average consumer knows very little about how to wisely invest in an MBA program (which accreditation to look for, etc.) and so many of us are at great risk for falling for the flash (Ooooh, an MBA!) and missing the fine print (program not accredited by AACSB, for example).

      I rant on a lot about for-profit education but let me take this opportunity to look at traditional higher education, as well. Just because your degree is from a reputable school, you're still not guaranteed a job at graduation. Faculty and administrative jobs are dependent on students coming into programs, so there is a perverse incentive to "upsell" the prospects of anyone graduating from their program to keep the flow of tuition dollars coming in and to stay off the "declining program enrollments" radar.

      Do your homework; read, research and most of all - don't be afraid to work and go to school PART TIME so you can pay your way. Employers actually find that to be a highly desirable trait.

      Happy hunting and be Smartt!

    • DonDWest profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

      Nicomp, you've cast a lot of personal judgment in your last few replies on someone you don't even know. I would go on to say you've been quite rude.

      Honestly, you have no idea how hard I have/haven't worked in life or while I attended college. I've had to work so hard to make due, my personal life has suffered, perhaps for the worse (resulting in less social connections that can lead to opportunities).

      The biggest myth going around is that college awards the hard working students, because I seem to remember those who partied getting A's, while I could get a C at best, but it's always the lazy man's response to judge those who can't excel at college for being lazy.

      Heaven forbid we're all different and can't all fit into one box.

      College is all about memorizing information. If you don't have a natural ability in this aspect, you're defined for life. . .

    • nicomp profile image

      nicomp really 

      7 years ago from Ohio, USA

      Essentially, you aren't willing to compete with the college graduates, so you're blaming the system. If employers require college degrees, then the system is conspiring against you and you're absolved from taking responsibility for yourself.

      Some colleges are absurdly expensive (mainly because of government interference but that's another debate) but there are still affordable educations out there. A 50K tuition bill from an Ivy League school is atypical: many colleges cost much less and provide equivalent education.

      Graduating with no debt should be Job 1. Burdening yourself with the equivalent of a mortgage payment at such a young age is financially crippling and can't be justified.

    • profile image

      Average Schmo 

      7 years ago

      Yeah DonDWest, I don't know why companies put "must have university" in their postings. Just another way to screen people out I guess. Most employers make stupid hiring decisions anyway.

    • DonDWest profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

      Average Schmo, I've got many jobs before that "required" university. The place I'm working at right now has a workforce that's 90% college based. I'm a bit puzzled why these jobs would require college, and the pay isn't exactly much to write home about.

      I'm a bit lucky compared to others though, I can actually take the time to look around because I have savings. Mostly due to a few liquidated micro-businesses I did a while back.

    • profile image

      Average Schmo 

      7 years ago

      I applied for a job once where they stated"must have university". I went to the interview and asked them how much they would take off for pay because I don't have a BA, I got the job because I talked my into it! You gotta hustle.

    • DonDWest profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada


      While I agree a lot of people make use of "fast food degrees" as an easy way out, I believe a lot of perfectly capable people go after these degrees just to "get the degree screening out of the way."

      For example, I know I learn best with practical experience and through my own power. The classroom environment doesn't work for me. Now, I could pick a difficult degree with a difficult course load as an example of self-perseverance. The only problem with that is such a degree would take up most, if not all, of my time learning in a fashion I don't learn best. I would spend my entire life essentially trying to rote memorize, and turning up short. I would get an F, and I wouldn’t learn anything. The only attribute I would demonstrate is having the courage to attempt a difficult degree.

      Whereas if I picked an "easy" degree, I could potentially spend less time on the academics end; and instead spend more time teaching myself. This way I can actually learn the material properly on my own and still get the "piece of paper" so valued by our stigmatic society.

      Some people truly just need the piece of paper. They don’t necessarily want to be doctors or biochemists; they just want to be included into society. Unfortunately, in year 2011, being included into mainstream society seems to require a college degree. That's all I care about when I look at colleges; I just want the piece of paper. I know it's impossible for my biology to learn anything in the college environment. Working my butt off studying around 10+ hours a day and still failing is all the proof I needed. For me, hard work in college has never paid off. I don't see any point in beating myself up any longer by banging my head against the wall. I'm not good at school, and I will never be good at school. Like anyone, I can get better with practice, but after doing school more than anything else my entire life and still not being able to “get it,” all I can say is that nature indeed beats nurture. If the opportunity presents itself that I can BS my way towards getting a degree just to put it on that resume, I'll take it for the sake of my mere survival.

      However, I'm now discovering that getting a bad degree might actually hurt your chances more than not getting one at all. There's a certain certificate I got from a certain school that has subsequently resulted in a few giggles when I went to job interviews. It has since been removed from the resume.

      So, you’re right, people like me shouldn’t bother with college. I just wish you didn’t need a Master’s Degree just to get an average job these days. People who struggle with college are literally forced into trying to become entrepreneurs.

    • Shadesbreath profile image


      7 years ago from California

      A "degree" is not a promise of anything. What gets lost these days is that what you want is an education. And, while we can't actually say this outloud, we no longer bother to determine who is capable of/prepared to/disciplined enough for being educated, as in, learning how to think.

      Showing up for four years somewhere and doing the minimum requirements to get a degree will get you nothing but debt. All the online degree programs and jiffy "universities" are proof enough of that. They are selling B.S. and, as you suggest, there is a bubble. But it's not a conspiracy. It's a deluded, lazy, ignorant populace that thinks you can get something easy.

      Come on, 15 month MBA programs? Really? Sure, you can get one. That's great, congrats. But are you going to invest your life savings in a start up some guy with a zippy MBA is trying to get going based on his credentials? Of course not.

      Just because people are stupid doesn't mean college is a bust. The real problem is not college. It's a fast-food mentality serving up whatever the morons will buy.

      Watch the movie Idiocracy. That's what's happening.

    • cahrhelpline profile image


      7 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

      I have $50k in student loans... wish someone had told me it wouldn't be worth the money before I invested in an advanced degree... Excellent post.

    • savannahbree10 profile image


      7 years ago from Maniwaki, Quebec, Canada

      Suze Orman was talking about student debt on TV the other night, that if you file bankruptcy you cant write off student debt.

    • DonDWest profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

      Tell me about it, the schools are absolute bunk. I've dropped out of college three times in part because I didn't want to hand over any more cash for these worthless degrees. I don't need to keep my hand on the burner for longer than a few seconds to realize it's burning. As far as I'm concerned, I'm never stepping foot in a school ever again, even to take a small course.

      It's absolutely disgusting how the baby boomer generation out right refuses to pass on knowledge to my generation. This knowledge needs to be passed on through on the job training, but we can't have that now can we, I just might compete for your jobs? *sigh*

      The fact of the matter is on the job training is the best way to go, but if the school teaches just 5% of what is needed on the job in four years, employers will go for that bachelor's degree.

      From a micro-economic perspective, spending 4 years and going tens of thousands in debt for 5% of the job training is wasteful, but from a macro-economic perspective, unfortunately the dumb kid who spent all that money for 5% is getting the job over the smart kid who refused to play ball.

      I truly blame employers for most of this crap. Many jobs that I did in the past, some no older than 2005, now require college. Because I'm 29 and don't have extensive experience of say 5+ years in many of these fields, my past experience doesn't count as the equivalent of a college diploma. Never mind the fact I found many of these jobs dirt easy and I'm baffled as to why you would need college to get such positions.

      Thank god I don't have any college debt and a fat bank account, but I'm afraid I may have just recently priced myself out of the entire market when my contract position ended just before Christmas.

      I'm now overqualified for low level service jobs and manual labour, and I can't get the previous jobs back that I have experience because I don't have college. I'm stuck, what can I say? It's a determined system to suck the living crap outta us ordinary folks. Debt culture is becoming increasingly and increasingly unavoidable.

    • EmpressFelicity profile image


      7 years ago from Kent, England, UK

      This hub sums up pretty much what I think. Why else are governments the world over encouraging people of average IQ to do Mickey Mouse degrees, if not to suck them into a lifetime of debt servitude? The only surprise is that more people haven't cottoned onto what a scam it is.

      I am in my mid-forties and consider myself incredibly lucky to have been able to go to university free of charge. This was at a time in Britain when only a small proportion of school leavers went to uni; the government could thus afford to subsidise those who did. But of course, the higher the proportion of 18 year olds who go to college, the less money there is to subsidise them.

      Employers really need to take some responsibility and look beyond a degree certificate when it comes to screening potential candidates for jobs. You're absolutely right - aside perhaps from certain professions where a degree-type level of knowledge is essential (e.g. doctor, lawyer), employers should be the ones bearing the risk of investing in a job.

    • Happyboomernurse profile image

      Gail Sobotkin 

      7 years ago from South Carolina

      Great hub. I too, worry that we are creating a college bubble that will hurt our economy and most especially the younger generation (though parents are also shouldering much of the debt which leaves the older generations at greater risk of poverty in their senior years).


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)