Some consider the Magna Carta, from 1215 in England, to be the first declaration of what we now call human rights. It defined the rights of landowning men, and challenged the idea of the absolute sovereignty of kings.
But others can trace the idea back much earlier. The first legal code known to limit the rights of a king was the code of Hammurabi, from before 1750 BCE.
Declarations of human rights including all white men (not only property holders) began with the Declaration of independence and the Bill of Rights of the United States. Since then, these documents have been imitated and broadened by governments and political and social organizations.