Surely, it must've had a HUGE impact. I think every child is highly influenced by their parent or parents, (and/or lack thereof), and by the level of guidance given or withheld.
However, someone as supposedly educated and "brilliant" (and experienced...remember he was a Senator) should've been able to sort things out better than he does. There are many many instances of people who were raised wrongly learning to straighten out their lives and see the opposite worldview.
So I'd say the rest of the impact comes from inside himself---he's vengeful, immature, stuck in the past, narcissistic, etc.............a personality disorder perhaps that keeps him from seeing past the box he's built around himself.
Oh, I forgot to add "lazy". From what I've heard, he doesn't like to actually work.....for anything. I think he's always felt some sort of entitlement because he feels abandoned by his father, and he now knowingly takes full advantage of that.