In a nutshell, the world is changing. Post WWII, the world became a two-polar world with the two powers being America and Russia and global relationships in many ways played out as a struggle between the two, for example the Vietnam and Korean wars as well as the struggles for Central and South America and Eastern Europe, etc.
With the fall of Russia in 1991, that changed. America was the only power, and as nations came out from under the authority of the Russian sphere they had to find their own way. Many new nations formed from the former Soviet Republic, including Ukraine, and most have been relatively stable. In other cases tensions led to conflict such as what happened in the Bosnian War (1992-1995).
Now the world is becoming multi-polar. China is now a very powerful economy and rapidly developing a powerful military. Russia is resurgent, in large part from fossil fuel sales, Europe can be considered a somewhat unified bloc, and one can also consider the rising economic powers of Brazil and India.
Why does all of this matter? well because lots of the conditions under which people live, including their governments as well as the lines on the map which form their countries, have been established by the powers that be (or powers that once were).
As spheres of influence and power erode and shift, historic conflicts which had been suppressed are coming to the surface.
That is what happened with the Arab Spring and the overthrow of governments in Egypt, Tunisia, And Libya. In the Ukraine the relative shift of power between Russia and the West, has brought about the conflict in the Ukraine, which essentially amounts to Russia trying to re-exert its influence. The tension over the South China Sea is an example of China flexing its new-found muscles.
The Middle East is a mess and has been for a long time. There is no simple way to explain it, but it includes not only internal historical conflicts but a century's worth of meddling by outside nations. Israel being a primary example as are our recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Frankly, I think everyone is just tired of it.
There is no easy way to get informed. I would consider relatively decent and objective news sources to be Al Jazeera, Reuters, and NPR. Personally I stay far away from CNN and the other American stations (ABC, MSNBC, CBS, etc) and especially stay away from FOX News. You will have to develop a talent for recognizing bias and propaganda. There is a LOT of it out there.