Besides Racism ??? When Slavery ended Racism began . There was at one time a Black Wall street in Oklahoma Racism and hate set the Black socioeconomically success on fire. Racism in America made the Negro with no name and no history the only such people on the planet after slavery ended. These Negros were consider sub-human with no rights until the civil rights movement of the 1950's and 60's, These people you asked about had 30 years until the Reagan Presidency to wake up and take advantage of any affirmative action before the door is slam shut again. Negros had about 30 years to catch up with those who never ever experience American style slavery for 300 years and then American style racism for the last 100 years. Negro are a lost people but it ain't their fault .