Illegitimacy is the biggest factor. A child regardless of race is 3 to 4 times more likely to be held back a grade, become mentally ill, drop out of school, have a child out of wedlock if there isn't a father in the home.
Living together isn't a solution, since 3/4 of "living together" couples split by age 10 of the child versus 1/4 of married couples.
80% or so of black children are illegitimate versus 30% for whites and 50% for hispanics. The rate of bad life outcomes is fairly similar when income of the mother and marriage rates are the only factors - so two poor black married parents have kids with far better life outcomes than a single white mother. There are just three times as many black single mothers as white ones (the same ratio as when Senator Patrick Moynihan wrote his report in the 1970s).
Black economist Walter Williams has written about this extensively. And he details the decline of marriage rates for blacks since welfare adoption wholesale in the black community in the 1970s.
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