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Money and Society

Updated on November 23, 2014

Where Does It Start and End

My research took me back a long way into the origin of language and religion. Over the last 25 plus years many things came to the fore that have never been known and one of these was the purpose of exchange. The term 'change' means to transform, to alter or renew. It can also mean to swap something old for something new or something of value for something of equivalent value.

The first signs of trade in the archeological record shows up in the Neolithic when new forms of stone tools were more highly prized than those of the previous era. This is also the time when animal husbandry got underway and there was a shift to sedentary lifestyles.

Some of these tools were manufactured specifically by specialists who operated small factories where the remnants of the industry demonstrate the activity. Time wise we are talking about something like 10,000 to 12,000 years. Around that time the first cities appear in the landscape and trade routes were established. But my research uncovered a lot more behind these things than what most scholars have noticed which led me on a hunt for the truth that took me back to the beginning of speech. The story uncovered is shocking!

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circle and right angled cross
circle and right angled cross

The X in Exchange

Its an old symbol

Some 400,000 years ago someone or something etched a right angle cross on a nummalite (round) shell and thus created one of the earliest symbols in the archaeological record, the circle and cross. But it was on my agenda as it has popped up in numerous places and is in every known alphabet as an important symbol.

The circle and cross helped me unravel the meaning of many sounds we use in every day language and took me a stage further in that many of the terms in languages, overall, are interpretable using the code uncovered. This is not the place to go into it all as this is sensitive information but it will suffice to say that [x]. [k], [q], [ch], and [t] have the same etymology and they all mean 'cross' in the original sense. So 'ex-change' means 'changed by the cross'.

(Image from Open Source - Wikimedia)

The sites of ancient cities of all types have the circle and cross scratched on sign posts and mountains in and around them.

This is a clue as to why cities were springing up in out of the way areas, such as Jerusalem, which is on a difficult hill and away from the original trade routes. But the American Indians, from South America, Meso-America and North America also used the symbol. It is found in and on Egyptian structures, in Chinese regions, in the iconography of the Australian aborigines and on the monoliths of Stonehenge.

In all these places evidence of crucifixion of men and of a belief that such a ritual transformed them into gods exists. They were 'cross changed' or 'exchanged' and the value of their beings was highlighted in recorded rituals where bodies were eaten. There is evidence to suggest that in the Old kingdoms of Egypt the body of a dead pharaoh was cannibalised in the belief that his spirit passed to the living. There is even the remnant of a recipe for cooking body parts prior to eating.

In this event the dead took on a value beyond anything living and such a death made a man into a reigning heavenly king, as described in the New Testament about Jesus Christ.

In Scandinavian Rock Art men traveled upwards to heaven as angels floating on kites and the descriptive details of their bodies shows they were transformed into consorts of the Mother god, who was represented as a horse.

In Mandarin 'ma' means both 'mother' and 'horse' with different tonal inflections distinguishing between them..

The King's symbol
The King's symbol

King of Heaven and Earth

So the king of a nation became the king of heaven. This led to wars as men vied with each other to be the best king and his followers needed to make him appear as such in expectation that they would get great rewards after death. It is an example of how gullible these people were. In Mayan codices the story of the after-life is told in full and explains the rewards in detail to the king's followers.This made dying on the battlefield honorable and medals eventually came to be used to show this in the physical sense.

To announce the king's strength and power massive monuments, such as pyramids, huge statues and palaces were erected for his pleasure during life and afterward. In Egyptian and Chinese societies, aside from others less well known, it was often the case that many of the king's court chose to die with him to serve him in heaven.

The victorious king wore the crown made in the shape of the circle/cross symbol and it tells us that the man on whose head it sits has passed through the circle aboard the cross. In other words he has been exchanged. The sword served as a cross on the battle field and to be 'blooded' by this instrument was the greatest of all sacred signs, Such sacrifice gave rise to "S-I-R" as a title where [S] is 'spirit'. [I] is the Eye (sun) and [R] is 'power/ It, therefore, translates as 'spirit of the eye's power'. This, in turn, gave rise to the nobility and those specially chosen to own property.

Anthropology exposes how kings and chiefs magically pass through the death scene, usually behind a curtain or closed door, to emerge as a resurrected savior, after which they are crowned with the symbol. The jewels and gold reflect the sun's rays as they are now a 'Sun' in their own right. That is why many monarchs, for example in Japan, are still called Sun kings. Chinese emperors wore gold hats and clothes to reflect this and no one else in the country could wear this color.

Kings fought battles with their loyal followers doing most of the fighting to preserve the kings life. If he fell in battle the new king took all and became the next ruler of heaven. Thus, when coins were invented it was the king's head that was described on the face of the metal as a sign of its value and that persists to the present day.

During such an exchange it was normal to deal in commodities, such as weapons, tools, food or other stuff was handed on by the deceased. This caused exchanges in the name of the king to follow and the evidence for this is strong, especially in ancient Mesopotamia where animal husbandry is first indicated. It is here that recorded exchanges are found on tell-tale cylinders. .

These were early invoices and receipts as the receiver of goods would send them back with his seal in place, The one depicted clearly shows the sun's radiating light and the horse above it. (image from open source - Wikimedia)

These were inscribed with the details of a trade, for instance one might carry the notification that 4 head of cattle were being sent to a particular person. The cylinder was often encased in another larger cylinder that was then sealed with an insignia made in hot wax. This was the forerunner of the envelop which were then sealed in much the same way after paper replaced the clay for writing on.

Have you ever thought of money as evil?

What it Lead To

Exchange for Wealth

Corruption soon followed

When money was first coined it was a simple image of the cross within a circle which gave way to later versions such as that of a bull within the circle. The Mother god, at that time, was considered a cow in ancient Egypt and Persia, where cattle roamed free. Her mate was the 'bull', an identity taken by the king who hoped to become her consort. Thus his image was represented as a bull and it is from here that the term "bullion" came about. The 'bullish' term for a rising market relates to a great flow of profit as opposed to loss. The latter is described as a 'bearish' market because bears hibernate and go down into dark caves.

In later coins it was the kings head or symbol that served on coins to prove that he had power in the after life. This increased the credibility of coins as a form of exchange.

In ancient market places it was the cross that held pride of place. This was often erected in the center of the square where the market was held. That square was often at the juncture of 2 roads whose crossing was itself a cross. This meant that any exchange taking place here had the promise of the king over it. In other words the deal could not be undone.

As money became ever more favorable and the ability to own property and to trade in all types of goods was practiced it brought out the worst in some people. Kings, for instance, could seize someone's wealth for his own benefit. It became quite normal for people to have to give to the crown and this led to some coins being minted specially for this purpose, so they bore the title of 'crown' as the tribute to be paid.

Kings appointed their nobles as lords over areas where peasants or serfs would work the land and pay the lord a rent for their trouble. This led to widespread corruption and hardship. The intelligent landlord would allow his serfs to take a quantity of their produce to market in order to buy goods. The other type of lord would take everything and then feed his peasants according to what he doles out to them. Thus, they would queue up to be paid a few coins in return for their crops. They barely eked out a living but the lords and the kings made a fortune and became extremely wealthy.

Freedom Meant More Wealth

The Industrial Revolution

Once manufacturing began and people were paid wages for work things went a bit haywire Adults were replaced by children who lived in work houses. They were often surrendered by parents who could not afford to keep them or they were orphans who had nowhere else to go. They worked some 16 or more hours a day for nothing more then a measly meal of watery gruel, probably once a day, and a rat infested corner of a factory to sleep in.

We complain of civil rights and child abuse in the modern age but this horror took place in Britain, the Americas, and everywhere else where factories were set up by wealthy owners to exploit and seek more wealth. Children died maintaining dangerous machines and or from diseases, starvation and neglect. Did anyone care about them? Probably not because there was too much going on by way of reform.

As people got a little money for working they spent it and this created needs for commodities. So the Industrial Revolution went on and on. Just as third world countries of today exploit their people by making them work for practically nothing it was a long haul out of the poverty and hard times of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries in the Western world. But did we make it?

In the midst of the confusion and hard times communism, socialism and slavery took on a new perspective. Slaves were captured and transported to the colonies and to England and the Americas to do the work required by the wealthy who could own them for just a small outlay. These poor devils were often worked to death and the atrocities enacted against them in the name of Capitalism is almost too bad to retell.

Communism went all out to punish and condemn to death anyone who opposed it and this took a new and different tool on people and the environment.

We might think we are well off but now there is a new form of slavery that had grown out of all proportion in the last half a century. It relates to drugs and organised crime. When people are hooked they have opted to serve their new masters, To engage in new factories of horror and to shed their lives in a new form of capitalism that is as unstoppable as slavery of any type has been throughout history.

And its all for the love of money. People's lives are worthless in the face of it. Many are annihilated if they oppose the drug barons, Many are kidnapped and held to ransom if their situation warrants it. Children are forced into slavery and pedophilia perpetrated against them is rife. Thanks to the Internet this is new capitalism that is worth too much to shut down.

Treatment of Children - The rich grew richer on this poverty


The disease of money robs us of our values.

It takes away the power to think properly about what we are doing.

The Rise of Factories

Is Money the Root of Evil - Does it rob us of our values

Humans have always lived tough lives unless they were privileged enough to have a fortune, to have servants and to own property. Money has become a disease that stops us from thinking better, acting better and living better. Think about what it has done to our view of the world. About the pollution, the loss of species, the degrading of the environment and the increase in medical diseases thanks to the modern lifestyle.

Do you think money is the root of all evil?

How Much Money is Enough?

Of course money can work for us to make us wealthy

The fact that modern life provides so much by way of distraction and luxury means that many people want more and more money until they are literally swimming in it. That's the advantage of living in the western world today.

But the disadvantage is that others see us as rich and easy targets. That's why theft, drugs, pornography, criminal and organised crime is running rife. But how do we escape the merry-go-round?

It is possible to make a good living by working and making money work for you. Clever investment will do that. Check out some of the Companies that can help you make and honest and worthwhile living from investments.


They have emerged in the last few years to be the greatest source of wealth for many. To understand how they work and to use experts in the field you need to read up on it.

In other words do your research.

What do you think is the best way to make money? - Would you invest or work for it?

Should we be trying to have more money than we need?

Still images from Dreamstime - click here

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© 2010 norma-holt

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    • photofk3 profile image


      8 years ago

      Another thoughtful and interesting lens from you. Thanks for sharing.

    • MargoPArrowsmith profile image


      8 years ago

      Thought provoking lens, as we have come to expect from you. Keep them coming!

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Thank you for a wonderful, thought-provoking lens.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Cool lens. Interesting perspective.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      what an incrediably fanisinating lens, something which is well wrtitten and thoughtful.

    • jptanabe profile image

      Jennifer P Tanabe 

      8 years ago from Red Hook, NY

      Your lenses are always fascinating! This one on money is no exception.

    • dustytoes profile image


      8 years ago

      This lens made me think and was an interesting look into the history of money.

    • KarenHC profile image


      8 years ago from U.S.

      I enjoy reading about ancient beginnings, so your description of the history of money and its uses and abuses from the beginning is fascinating. Just given my line of work, I'll never be able to have "too much" money :-)

    • Rachel Field profile image

      Rachel Field 

      8 years ago

      Interesting lens and rather odd that I found it at the moment - I'm reading Susan Cooper's The Dark is Rising and that symbol of the cross in the circle is featured again and again in that book - also I've been interested in the X due to the fact that it's everywhere - Xbox, X Factor to name a couple of instances. x's over eyes on dead cartoon characters, Xmas etc.


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