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Hikikomori: Finding The Right Treatment For A Hikikomori

Updated on November 24, 2011

Hikikomori - A Tragedy Of Two Generations

An introduction into the Hikikomori problem in Japan best begins with a case study.

Hikikomori literally in Japanese means 'recluse' and is officially defined by the Japanese Department of Health, Labour and Welfare as "those people who have socially withdrawn from society for six months or more".

To understand to gravity of the Hikikomori problem in Japan, let us begin with the one of the most gruesome 'Hikikomori-triggered' crimes in Japan over the last decade, famously dubbed as the 'H-case'.

H, an ordinary old schoolboy, who was described as polite and smart by his teachers before he was labelled as a Hikikomorian, hijacked a bus and stabbed the passengers.

At just 17 years old, H was labelled as a Hikikomorian by the court and sentenced to six years for murder, hijack and other accounts of grievous violence offences described as 'Hikikomori-triggered' crimes.

On May 2000, H hijacked a bus and forced the driver into a 19-hour expressway odyssey stabbing a passenger to death. Although the media has widely reported this case as a Hikikomori-triggered crime, the real reasons and the administrative failures that pushed H to his limits were not made to public knowledge.

In the Hiroshima District Court, H was described by all those whom know him as a mild tempered boy who was a good student and an involved community member. H's parents recounted the "change" in their son's behavior after on day when he had performed badly in his exams and began to withdraw from the outside world. After numerous failed attempts to persuade their son out of his bedroom, H's parents sought help from youth welfare centers and mental health professionals, but they were provided with little assistance by the institutions.

Six years later, they still regret accepting the physician's diagnosis of their son as mentally ill and requiring full hospitalization. At first the family was reluctant to consent as H fiercely resisted to the idea of going to a mental hospital and they preferred to wait for and other diagnosis. However, they conceded when the physician said, "If you wait, I am still obliged to alert the health authorities about your son's mental condition. If the authorities may decide it is necessary to hospitalize your son, then others may find out about your son's Hikikomori behaviors. "

During the trial hearing, H claimed temporary insanity as result of the combination of the psychotherapy he had undergone, his vulnerable age and his social withdrawal. However, what was disturbing as the facts of the case unfold was that H was subjected to shock-therapy and a number of anti-depressant drugs without knowledge form his parents. This was the case even when his mother directly asked about the kind of medication given to her son. H also admits to having committed the crime as an act of retaliation against "voluntary hospitalization" by his parents, as well as to protest against the physicians that have labeled him as mentally ill.

What is Hikikomori and its controversial definition?

Hikikomori was brought abruptly into public awareness by psychologist Tamaki Saito and through popular media outlets in recent years, as a Japanese phenomenon of acute social withdrawals quickly spreading among Japanese youth. Colourful definitions of Hikikomori flourished and have been largely associated with negative stories of juvenile lunacy and violence. In attempting to control the public controversy and Hikikomori hysteria, the Ministerial of Health, Labour and Welfare acted to officially define Hikikomori as "those people who have socially withdrawn from society for six months or more" [1]. Despite the vagueness of this official label, it legitimately recognised that reclusive youth who refused to participate in socially established norms was a social problem, and by so doing, increased the controversial nature of Hikikomori.

The public discourse on and bureaucratic reactions to Hikikomori exposes a whole range of cultural, social and economical problems in Japan, as well as its opaque practices in the institutional and political process. However, in-depth analyses of all these issues are beyond the scope of this article.

Finding the Right Treatment Towards Hikikomori?

H’s story represents the conflicts buffeting Hikikomorian families and the Japanese mental health providers. In an already strained public health system, a Hikikomorian must first be diagnosed as mentally ill or retarded to receive professional treatment, and there are few alternative courses of action available where he or she refuses to carry the mentally ill label.

In keeping with the traditional paternalistic approach, as controlled by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labour (MHWL) and the Psychiatric Review Board (PRB), the designed physicians follow a cloaked code of practice involving little participation from the patients or their families.

The physicians, operating under the guidelines of the Ministry of Health or the Local Council for Mental Health, have avoided mentioning “Hikikomori” in their diagnosis and generally preferred to label it under other mental disorders. This course of action by the physicians has been justified as an elaborate attempt to protect those dealing with Hikikomori from the negative social stigma attached to the condition.

In reality it does the very opposite by entrenching the belief that being mentally ill is far more socially acceptable than being a Hikikomorian. Having been pressured by this institutional and social framework against Hikikomori, and having entrusted the welfare of their son in the hands of the hospital, H’s parents were overwhelmingly disappointed with the hospital’s failure to protect their son and to caution them about the range of psycho-therapy drugs administered to their son. H’s parents now are demanding answers from the hospital and have considered filing a suit against the physicians. Their plight has inspired them to establish a self-help association for hikikomorian parents. They also have utilized the media raising public awareness of hikikomori as more than a private family matter but as a problem pressing against Japan’s rudimentary welfare system.

Treatment of Hikikomori Under Japan's Mental Health Act 2000

The H case casts doubts over the notion of "voluntary hospitalization", recently enacted under the Mental Health Act 2000 [2], whereby a Hikikomorian family would customarily submitted to the physician's acts on blind faith, without even questioning the subsequent treatment that follows. This further raises the issue of choice and questions the degree of care and diligence exercised by Japanese mental health providers over patients under their care.

Shame Culture and Concealing Diagnosis of Hikikomori

To protect Hikikomori suffers and their families from the social stigma attached to this condition, the diagnostic practice of cloaking Hikikomori under other recognised psychological illnesses has been a known practice in Japanese hospitals. This diagnostic practice is encouraged by the hospital as being 'kind', in that it provide a psychological escape route for the patient's family from the shame attached to Hikikomori. As such many different mental disorder names has been used to cloak Hikikomori. Prognosis labels ranging from minor mental disorders such as "clinical depression", "agoraphobia" or "acute social withdrawal", to extreme cases of "acute schizophrenia" and neurosis abnormalities, are all commonly used and vagueness is considered a virtue.

The extent and nature of professional manipulation of mental disease names to conceal the condition of Hikikomori reflects the degree of the social stigmatism attached to the label [3]. Increasingly, Hikikomori sufferers and their families are being associated with the term "katawa" by the Japanese society, which is a discriminatory term that describes handicapped and mentally retarded people. Thus families dealing with Hikikomori often may go to extraordinary lengths to keep the condition hidden so as to protect their family's reputation [4]. This social environment has been the main justification for physicians in employing their manipulative method of diagnosis of Hikikomori, in which misleading the patient is necessary to protect his personal and family interests [5].

According to Doctor Tamaki Saito, whom first coined the term Hikikomori and runs the outpatient clinic at Sasaki Hospital in Chiba Prefecture, it is sufficient to simply inform the patient of any name of the disease, for the purpose of categorisation. While Doctor Saito avoids describing hikikomori as a mental illness, he readily treats suffers through traditional psychiatric methods such as hospitalisation, psychotherapy and counselling. However, this customary practice of diagnosis worsens the social stigma attached to Hikikomorians and enhance the false belief that it is more socially acceptable to be mentally ill than a Hikikomorian.

Professional supremacy further protracts the confused and misleading images of Hikikomori available to the public. In 1998 Saito wrote that "regardless of the patient's will, social withdrawal must be treated medically" [6]. Other mental health professionals, who prefer traditional institutional treatment of recluses and consider themselves to be experts on Hikikomori problems hold that Hikikomori is a serious psychopathic sickness on a society wide scale.

Curiously , Saito was a student of Inamura Hiroshi, a well known psychologist in the 1980s who purportedly identified a new mental disorder that he termed "Apathy Syndrome" or "tokokyohi", the school refusal phenomenon in Japan. Inamura's treatment for Apathy Syndrome started in 1981 with the committal of teenage tokoyohi to mental wards of hospitals where Inamura had nearly 5000 teenagers "locked away, forced-fed tranquilizers and isolated form their parents for weeks at a stretch - all to 'cure' truancy". Inamura was eventually forced to abandon his aggressive treatments by critics from the mental health profession and the media at the time. Despite this, Saito's research on the Hikikomori issue and his treatment philosophies still refers to his mentor's work. Saitor performs psychotherapy for his Hikikomori patients regularly in Sasaki Hospital and claims to provide a cure rate of 30 percent [7].

One interesting justification for why Japanese doctors conceal their diagnosis of Hikikomori can be found in the notion of "amae", which was described by Takeo Doi in his classic "The Anatomy of Dependence" as dependency arising form the infant's passive love of his mother as a key psychological bond with the Japanese family and within members of groups in adult society. A weaker person within the social unit may presume upon a stronger for care and assistance, and the stronger will indulge the weaker, permitting and encouraging a dependent relationship. In the case of Hikikomori or other serious mental illness, this social environment of dependence justifies the need to protect patients from the stigma attached to his/her condition and a new social grouping. The culturally related vulnerability of the patient empowers the doctor to control the social and medical environment of the patient, by assuming the stronger person's role to normalise the weaker person. However, these generalised cultural conceptions only provide a limited means of explanation given that such culturally motivated practices may be found elsewhere in the world.

Hikikomori and Japanese Mental Health Care System

Statistics over the past decade paint a dreary image of the state of Japan's mental health. Japan has the highest number of hospital patients with mental illness in the world and its ratio of beds and admissions into psychiatric hospitals to total population has been growing at an alarming rate [8-10].

Long-term institutionalization has been the primary treatment for mentally ill patients in Japan since the early 1920s. The average length of stay in a Japanese mental hospital in two decades was 41 times the average stays of patients in the United States. Although the government states that this figure has dropped in recent years due to reforms, Japan still has one of longest average hospitalization period in the world. Some aspects of the reformed Japanese mental health care system, such as consent based hospitalization, community integration programs and a more localized Psychiatric Review Board, undoubtedly have contributed to the improved figures, though other social factors such as wider social acceptance, privatization, a more mental health-conscious workforce and work safety laws, and the growing number of public interest groups lobbying for better treatment of mentally ill patients probably have had greater impact.

Although the government has encouraged and supported the integration of mentally ill people in the community and the development of rehabilitation programs since enactment of the Mental Health Law of 1988, implementation of such programs has been slow [1]. Improvement in Japan's mental health system has not been enough for people suffering from mental disturbances, as recent studies suggest that the majority of Japanese population carrying psychiatric disorders have not been able to access mental health care or other support systems.

However, there have been increasing doubts, within the health care system itself and in society at large, over fundamental questions concerning the future of the state of Japan's mental health. Surging public dissatisfaction with the problems in Japan's mental health care, in particular the growing number of new juvenile psychiatric disorders and the epidemic proportion of Japanese youth demonstrating anti-social or Hikikomori-afflicted behaviors, are forcing a reassessment of the current practices long held and deeply rooted in Japan's mental health care system. It is only in recent years that the Japanese government has started to place emphasis on the treatment of mental patients and made efforts to address the issue of public choice in its closed mental health care system.

Hikikomori and the Media

The media's role in bringing these Hikikomori-related issues to public attention serves as a double edged sword for Hikikomori support groups. Whilst Hikikomori is making headlines across news, popular television programs, manga and best-selling books, generally it has been stereotyped in stories of homicidal Japanese teenagers and juvenile abnormalities, entrenching anti-Hikikomori attitudes in the readers. On the other hand, the media had a useful tool for Hikikomori interest groups to gain support for their campaigns and to shame the mental health institutions into action.

Scandals within the mental health profession and cases of negligent treatment of Hikikomori suffers has undercut the public faith in the conventional psychiatric practice traditionally held. Physicians are exclusively designated by the bureaucracy: neither is there any public review mechanism such as enforceable disclosure and negligence proceedings, nor internal policy review systems such as patient custody standards and explicit codes of ethical reporting in Japanese mental health system.

Hikikomori and Japan's Patient's Right Movement

The momentum from Japanese reformers campaigning for Patient Right Law and seeking to establish the principle of informed consent in Japanese medicine is slowly reaching the mental health arena. Visible signs of this can be observed from the internal fractions in the mental health profession, which has divided physicians who are fiercely resistant to changes to conventional treatments, from those who have been at the forefront of advocating for alternative practices that involve community and patient participation. Consequently, the mental health institution is now no longer immune to public criticisms over such issues as patients' rights and public choice. This is one of the many parallel benefits from the patients' right campaign in general Japanese health care that may be expected for mentally ill patients, such as the support of the bar association to the idea of informed consent before voluntary hospitalization comes into effect.

The meaning of "patient consent" and "voluntary hospitalization" is so ambiguous as to accommodate a diverse range of practices, ranging from second diagnosis and consultation before consent is validly granted where previously there had been none, to offering the patient a choice among thoroughly explained treatment alternatives.

A number of influential reports commissioned by the Ministry of Health investigating the state of Japan's mental health and, in particular, those issues related to Hikikomori has resulted in the Mental Health Act 2000. This legislation presents a marginal victory for both sides and its impact has yet to be seen in the current mental health edifice. While the Act recognises the principle of informed consent prior to hospitalisation, it stops short of codifying public accountability and review mechanisms, instead conferring more control upon local governments and PRB, and so professional supremacy remains intact.

Conclusion and Future Outlook

As Hikikomori suffers are by definition non-socially involved, their ability to challenge public discrimination and the health system is limited.

Nevertheless, the outlook for Hikikomori families in their struggles against discrimination is improving with growing local and international support from self-action groups, online-based networks, sociologists, the media and even some mental health professionals from traditional practice. By voicing their dissatisfactions with the current mental health facilities and by campaigning for greater public support, Hikikomorian groups have found ways to challenge the mental health system and to become an active social voice for Hikikomorian interests, reluctantly being recognised by the government. In particular, the current debate, over the definition of Hikikomori as a mental illness or the cultural, economical and institutional reasons for it, illustrates the customary practices and attitudes deeply rooted in the paternalistic Japanese mental health system and widely entrenched in the Japanese consciousness.

The dynamics and complexities of this public discourse is best illustrated in the key questions on the Hikikomori debate highlighted in the literature and the press that can be compiled as follows:

1. Is it appropriate for Japanese mental health professionals to medically label or "medicalise" an anti-social behaviour as a condition seriously deviant form the norm and thus requiring psychological treatment as well as institutionalised control?

2. Is it the traditional paternalistic approach by the Japanese government desirable or legitimate in controlling and regulating anti-social behaviour via its new reform to the mental health system under the principles of "voluntarily hospitalisation" and "normalisation"?

3. To what extent does the current concept of "informed consent" under Japanese mental health law protect the basic citizen and human rights of a Hikikomorian? What are the limits of prescriptive hospitalisation in terms of Hikikomorian rights?

4. What is the role of the community and education system in rehabilitation of anti-social behaviours?

5. Is Hikikomori a new phenomenon, or a new label for older social problem in Japanese culture such as tokokyohi (school refusal), or otakuzoku (obsessive anime and manga fans)?

6. Is it reasonable to attribute Hikikomori as a cultural malady unique to Japanese society or is this supposition perpetuation of the Nihonjin-ron myth of Japanese cultural uniqueness?

7. What role do media play in exacerbating the problem and prompting enthusiasm for the Hikikomori behaviour?

These questions demonstrate the controversial nature of the Hikikomori phenomenon. It continues to generate issues pertaining to the secrecy practice and shaming behavioural pattern of Japanese Hikikomori families, mental health professionals, the government and even the society at large, that cannot be sufficiently explained by models of economic behaviour and rational social factors.

For the growing number of families struggling to deal with Hikikomori, the answer is not easy to find but simply ignoring the problem will only exacerbate it in the long term, perhaps the question we must is why, what has driven your child to lock himself or herself up and withdraw from the rest of the world? For some it might be bullying at school, whilst for others it is the fear of failure or it might be the stress of Japan's highly competitive examination system. Whatever the Hikikomori triggering-experience might be it must be found before you can begin to help someone with Hikikomori to trust the world again.


[1] Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare 'Annual Report on Health and Welfare 2009-2010' and 'Special Report of the Department of Health and Welfare -Persons with Disabilities Aiming at the Independence and Social Participation of the Disabled'.

[2] See Articles 22-3 to 22-4, Law Related to Mental Health and Welfare of the Person with Mental Disorder 2000, 'thereafter the Mental Health Act 2000'.

[3] Itou, J. "Shkaiteki Hikikomori Wo Meguru Tiki Seisin Hoken Katudou No Guideline - Mental Health Activities in Communities for Social Withdrawal" Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 2010.

[4] Tatsushi, O "Managing Categorization and Social Withdrawal" (2004) 13 International Journal of Japanese Sociology 120.

[5] Katagiri, M. 'Jiko to Katari No Syakaigaki : Sociology of Self and Narrative' 2000.

[6] Saito,T. 'Shakaiteki Hikikomori' Tokyo: PHP kenkyuujyo 1998.

[7] Nobuhiko Kuramoto, "The States of Hikikomori in Its Three Periods" 2005 and White. M 'Taking Note of Teen Culture in Japan: Dear Dairy, Dear Fieldworker -Doing Fieldwork in Japan' Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003.

[8] Naganuma Y. et al, 'Twelve-month use of mental health services in four areas in Japan: Findings from the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2003', 2006 (60)2 Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 240.

[9] Matsubara et al, 'Mental Health in Japan -Psychiatric Care Still Mired in Dark Ages' The Japan Times, Two-day series, Sept. 12, 2001.

[10] Koizuma, & Harris, 'Mental health care in Japan', 1992 (43) Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1100.

Amazon Voting (Plexo)

Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation (Dodo Press)
Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation (Dodo Press)

Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), also known as Koizumi Yakumo after gaining Japanese citizenship, was an author, best known for his books about Japan. He is especially well-known for his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Hearn was born in Lefkada, one of the Greek Ionian Islands. He was the son of Surgeon-major Charles Hearn (of King's County, Ireland) and Rosa Antonia Kassimati, who had been born on Kythera, another of the Ionian Islands. In 1890, Hearn went to Japan with a commission as a newspaper correspondent, which was quickly broken off. It was in Japan, however, that he found his home and his greatest inspiration.

2:46: Aftershocks: Stories from the Japan Earthquake
2:46: Aftershocks: Stories from the Japan Earthquake

In just over a week, a group of unpaid professional and citizen journalists who met on Twitter created a book to raise money for Japanese Red Cross earthquake and tsunami relief efforts. In addition to essays, artwork and photographs submitted by people around the world, including people who endured the disaster and journalists who covered it, 2:46: Aftershocks: Stories from the Japan Earthquake contains a piece by Yoko Ono, and work created specifically for the book by authors William Gibson, Barry Eisler and Jake Adelstein. âThe primary goal,â says the book's editor, a British resident of Japan, âis to record the moment, and in doing so raise money for the Japanese Red Cross Society to help the thousands of homeless, hungry and cold survivors of the earthquake and tsunami. The biggest frustration for many of us was being unable to help these victims. I donât have any medical skills, and Iâm not a helicopter pilot, but I can edit. A few tweets pulled together nearly everything â all the participants, all the expertise â and in just over a week we had created a book including stories from an 80-year-old grandfather in Sendai, a couple in Canada waiting to hear if their relatives were okay, and a Japanese family who left their home, telling their young son they might never be able to return." ONE HUNDRED PERCENT of the price you pay (net of VAT, sales and other taxes) goes to the Japanese Red Cross Society to aid the victims of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. If you'd like to donate more, please visit the Japanese Red Cross Society website, where you can donate either via Paypal or bank transfer (watch out for the fees, though!) or the American Red Cross Society, which accepts donations directed to its Japan Earthquake and Pacific Tsunami fund (but only accepts donations made with U.S.-issued credit cards). And of course, if you like the book, please tell your friends, and tell them to give generously as well! Thank you! Japan really does appreciate your help!

A Year in Japan
A Year in Japan

The Land of the Rising Sun is shining brightly across the American cultural landscape. Recent films such as Lost in Translation and Memoirs of a Geisha seem to have made everyone an expert on Japan, even if they've never been there. But the only way for a Westerner to get to know the real Japan is to become a part of it. Kate T. Williamson did just that, spending a year experiencing, studying, and reï¬ecting on her adopted home. She brings her keen observations to us in A Year in Japan, a dramatically different look at a delightfully different way of life. Avoiding the usual clichés--Japan's polite society, its unusual fashion trends, its crowded subways--Williamson focuses on some lesser-known aspects of the country and culture. In stunning watercolors and piquant texts, she explains the terms used to order various amounts of tofu, the electric rugs found in many Japanese homes, and how to distinguish a maiko from a geisha. She observes sumo wrestlers in traditional garb as they use ATMs, the wonders of "Santaful World" at a Kyoto department store, and the temple carpenters who spend each Sunday dancing to rockabilly. A Year in Japan is a colorful journey to the beauty, poetry, and quirkiness of modern Japana book not just to look at but to experience.


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    • Spiderlily321 profile image


      7 years ago

      There is some really great information here. You did a good job on this lens. Thanks for sharing

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I know this article is a little old now, I just found out about this a few days ago. I have always wanted to play Persona, which is a Playstation series that has been going on for awhile. Well I heard that the third was the best in the series so I purchased it, and I have been playing it on my 60 gig PS3. They keep referring to what they call apathy disease in this game, and everyone that has this illness speak gibberish and are portrayed as being crazy. It is really sad, that instead of trying to help they are portrayed in this light. Then again we have shows like Family Guy that would probably do the same thing if it was here.

    • grflgrfl profile image


      7 years ago

      Very interesting. Depression is a disease. Just like diabetes is a disease. It is diagnosible, it is treatable, and often it is curable. Thanks for taking the time to post the article. I'm curious, did you do the graphics yourself? They're wonderful.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      This is a great article, educational and informative! Thank you!

    • TransplantedSoul profile image


      7 years ago

      Very well written. An area we don't think about enough. I'm sure that there are a few lense-making Hikikomori-squids around here too.

    • Brandi Bush profile image


      7 years ago from Maryland

      Wow, I have never heard of Hikikomori. This is a very well-researched lens. Excellent! :)

    • wadsworth lm profile image

      wadsworth lm 

      7 years ago

      Great example of Squidoo at it's best. Fabulous job.

    • RCGraphicsDesign profile image


      7 years ago

      What a wonderful lens. It is so important to not hide conditions that can be so harmful to an individual's mental health. Great job.

    • Tom Maybrier profile image

      Tom Maybrier 

      7 years ago

      This is an amazing lens! You've done a really great job, I learned a lot.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Very informative. Cool Lens

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Mhm, interesting. This information should be more handful.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      very informative,useful and detailed lens about a subject I never knew about until today

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      very informative,useful and detailed lens about a subject I never knew about until today

    • Hypersapien2 profile image


      7 years ago from U.S.

      There is terribly sad, but I'm glad that your lens enlightened me on this subject.

    • TolovajWordsmith profile image

      Tolovaj Publishing House 

      7 years ago from Ljubljana

      Very painful subject. I believe most of the world has good chance to get into hikikomorian state. We live in very alienated times. What I found most interested in the story about H was his parents trying to help their son and failed. I am sure a large percentage of parents in Europe or USA would not even try...

    • TrevorLedford profile image


      7 years ago

      This is very interesting. I had never heard of this until I read your lens.

    • kathysart profile image


      7 years ago

      So sad. I recently became aware of the Suicide Forest, and posted it on my FB to bring awareness to sadness EVERYWHERE. It is all around the world and one never knows when they meet someone what their life is like, so it is a reminder to be kind, no matter how we feel to not take it out on anyone. They might just be soo sad and not able to leave their homes except for food. This is pitiful and widespread. I think it is becoming worse in society too. Angel blessed lens.

    • OrganicMom247 profile image


      7 years ago

      An eye opener!

    • Thrinsdream profile image


      7 years ago

      I heard about this years ago and always wondered why it was just associated with Japan. Some say it is the high expectation levels of parent to child when it comes to education as with H's reaction to his results. It is good that people are addressing sadness in the world and hopefully helping people turn their lives around. With thanks and appreciation. Cathi x

    • SayGuddaycom profile image


      7 years ago


    • WriterJanis2 profile image


      7 years ago

      Very eye opening lens. Blessed!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Great lens and well written. I learned a great deal from this.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Very well written and so informative.

    • LiteraryMind profile image

      Ellen Gregory 

      7 years ago from Connecticut, USA

      Very informative lens. Nicely done.

    • mannasugar profile image


      7 years ago

      Psychotic toxic drugs have been linked to hijacking events in most cases. H was just a recluse until the authorities got involved and then he retaliated. Very well put together Lens...

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I heard about this about 10 years ago and I remember a link in some way to expectation on kids to succeed and the pressure overcoming them. Interesting read

    • Loveyourshoes profile image


      7 years ago

      I was not aware of the existence of Hikikomori but think and feel that you have created a very powerful and informative lens.

    • TrentAdamsCA profile image


      7 years ago

      Strong details and a balanced perspective on a disturbing problem. Powerful work on the issues of shame and the use of medications and treatments without consent.

    • NatureMaven profile image


      7 years ago

      Thanks for sharing this information with us. I'm no doctor yet I can't help wondering if the Japanese youth had more opportunity to spend time in nature that this condition might be alleviated.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Superb lens, very incisive and educational. Hope to see more of your excellent work.

    • Morgannafay profile image


      7 years ago

      Hey keep on writing! This is a very interesting article.

      In my view, the world takes all kinds of people to keep it going and I've always thought that maybe we are too quick to judge someone for not being "Normal" in the eyes of society. I'm sure this is not for all cases but this thought itches at my brain.

      It seems to me that it would make sense for someone to shut themselves away from the world even more so if they were stigmatized for not leaving the house. So the problem just gets worse by association. It's five am here so I hope I'm making sense. Home would feel like a safe cocoon if the world hated you.

      It just makes me sad. I bet some of these kids are some of the most intelligent creative people. Stuff like this may stunt their future growth.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Thank you for being so brave to share this with us, and to help others. We are truly very lucky to have this lens, and to learn more about this important social issue. Best wishes to a happy year ahead!

    • delia-delia profile image


      7 years ago

      Very interesting's amazing what social pressures can do to inflict the mind and behavior. How sad that an illness can be labeled to shun you from society, I thought we have come to be better in our understanding of mental illness of type....I think fear of the unknown is the forefront, it's like going back to the middle ages, very sad indeed. Interestingly enough I have always wondered about the Japanese obsessiveness of anime and manga fans....

    • David Dove profile image

      David Dove 

      7 years ago

      An important lens, thank you

    • Countryluthier profile image

      E L Seaton 

      7 years ago from Virginia

      Wow, this lens floored me. Thanks for sharing with sensitivity such a personal national tragedy.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Oh my, I think many of us who live in the United States have never heard of this. I know, this is the first time that I have read anything about this and it makes me quite sad.

    • Inkhand profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago

      @sociopath-free: That's very true, but I think in Japan the social stigma against Hikikomori is so strong that if you are known as a Hikikomorian, you and your family will become social outcasts.

      Imagine, all of sudden, being shunned by everyone in your community and sometimes even worse, your close friends and family members finds it shameful to associate with you because you are a Hikikomorian. But, if you are simply labeled as suffering from a mental illness thatâs more socially acceptable and will be gain sympathy rather than hate.

    • sociopath-free profile image


      7 years ago

      You've done an excellent job describing this syndrome. I think many people in the West are completely unaware of Hikikiomori. One interesting pont, "

      In reality it does the very opposite by entrenching the belief that being mentally ill is far more socially acceptable than being a Hikikomorian." Seems they are the same thing to me, and strange (to me) that they're seen differently.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      after reading your lens, I realize I must modify mine, because 'Hikikomori' is associated vaguely with NEETs, I should differentiate more. Thanks!

    • TonyPayne profile image

      Tony Payne 

      7 years ago from Southampton, UK

      I think sometimes the Japanese lifestyle of high pressure and working long hours helps to make this more likely. So many people have little chance to unwind and enjoy life.

    • KimGiancaterino profile image


      7 years ago

      Thanks for an informative lens. I was not aware of this problem in Japan. Very sad indeed.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Very informative and well explained. Something new to me!

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      7 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      I have heard about this but your lens made me know more. I am now reading Shogun and it fascinates me so much.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      sad indeed.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I had never heard of this problem. Sounds like a real puzzler, but in the US it would either be prison or mental hospital.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Wao, this is interesting paper, it might be a modern society disease or disadvantage, which is extremely sad. I wish the society and people can really help themâ¦â¦.

    • Mistl profile image


      7 years ago

      Wow, this was a really interesting read. Thanks for introducing me to this phenomenon! (even though very tragic, it is good to have the knowledge.)

    • favored profile image

      Fay Favored 

      7 years ago from USA

      Good information and well written.

    • Paul Ward profile image


      7 years ago from Liverpool, England

      Extremely interesting: Angel Blessed

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      This is a really informative lens. Whilst very sad it is also fascinating to read about.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I am a Hiki and in a darkness or different world from othersâ¦

      I do not like Modern Japanese Societyâ¦â¦,

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      This is a very interesting article, why hikikomori pheromone only happed in Japan?


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