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The Jarrow Crusade: Hunger Unemployment and Red Ellen.

Updated on June 9, 2017

The Jarrow Crusade.

The first world war was over in 1918. Britain had suffered austerity through the 1920s and into the 1930s. Throughout the 30s there had been many marches against hunger, hardship and unemployment. None however caught the public attention as The Jarrow Crusade. This was to be a march, a march of 200 unemployed men and they were to march for 300 miles, from Jarrow in the north east of England, to London in the South East of England. The year was 1936.

Hunger and unemployment.

Unlike today, Jarrow was a place of hardship, unemployment, poverty and despair. Almost two thirds of the men in Jarrow were unemployed. The main employer was Palmer's Ship Yard. Due to economic conditions and the slump, Palmers had closed down. This was disasterous and something had to be done. They had to make the Government aware of the desperate situation the town was in. A year earlier in 1935 Jarrow elected a new Member of Parliament. Her name was Ellen Wilkinson, she was a very good orator and was known as 'Red Ellen'

At a town council meeting it was decided that there would be a march, the marchers would be a formal civic delegation. This gave the march a status en-route and ensured that food and shelter, as well as massive working class sympathy was there at every stop they made. Hundreds of men volunteered and two hundred were chosen. On October 5th 1936, the marchers received the blessing of the Bishop of Jarrow and the march began.

The March Begins.

A large crowd of wellwishers, supporters and tearful wives and families waved them off, all greatly relieved that at last something was being done. For the first 10 miles they were led by the mayor and mayoress. Thereafter they were led by 'Red Ellen' and councillor David Riley who had suggested making the march an official delegation.

Throughout the march they were met with open arms, the whole country was behind them. The national press got behind the men and support came from all sides. Marching to the music of Harmonicas, and with Banners waving in the breeze the men reached London on November 1st. The march had taken them 32 days, they were tired and blistered, but happy to have taken part in this momentous protest.

What Jarrow needed was the return of industry, particularly shipbuilding which had been it's lifeblood and they were hoping for a government contract to build warships.

After Their Arrival.

The day after their arrival they crowded the public gallery in the House of Commons to see 'Red Ellen' present a petition of 11,572 signatures to the house. What they saw was a debate which was inconclusive. We can only wonder at the despondency they must have felt at that time.

They were given tea and cakes and sympathy but nothing more. Having rested, they set off home by special train on 5th November and on arrival received a hero's welcome from the people of Jarrow.

The Bitter End.

There was something else they received as well. It was news that their unemployment pay had been cut, because they had made themselves unavailable for work.

Red Ellen.


Ellen Cicely Wilkinson was born on October 8th 1891. She was born into a working class family in Ardwick A district of Manchester. She had a strong Methodist upbringing and developed a strong social conscience early in life. She worked hard as a schoolgirl gained a scholarship and was able to enter The University of Manchester as a student to study history. She was small in stature but unafraid to speak her mind. Her views and oratory were admired by many who listened to her. She had blue eyes and the most fiery red hair, this along with her socialist views gained her the name of Red Ellen.

She was a founding member of the communist party in Britain, in 1920 but left the party in 1924 after being elected to Manchester City Council in 1923. In the 1924 General Election Ellen was elected to stand as the Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough East, a depressed iron and steel making area. She fought well for her constituents but lost her seat in the 1931 General Election. In 1935 she was elected to be the MP for Jarrow and in 1936 she organised The Jarrow Crusade. In 1939 she was to write a book entitled 'The town that was murdered' At the time of the crusade people were desperate for food let alone employment.

Private Life.


Although a public figure Ellen had a quite private life. She was linked with two men romantically, both were Labour MPs. First with John Jagger and then Herbert Morrison, himself a well known cabinet figure. Morrison was married but estranged from his wife. Ellen had a long term relationship with Morrison. Marriage was not an option and it is said that this left Ellen, disappointed. Ellen died of barbiturate poisoning in St Mary's Hospital in London on February 6th 1947 she was aged 55. She had suffered throughout her life with asthma and bronchitis which makes her achievements all the more significant. Officially she died of a heart attack brought on by an accidental overdose of barbiturates.







Hungry men march for food and employment.
Hungry men march for food and employment. | Source

© 2012 Graham Lee

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    • old albion profile image
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      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hi molometer. Thank you for reading and commenting. Thank you for you valued vote. Sorry for my late reply I have been on holiday.

      Graham.

    • molometer profile image

      molometer 5 years ago

      What a shocking revelation. I knew a little about the Jarrow March but had no idea that they had their benefits cut because they were 'unavailable' for work. What a disgrace.

      Great writing and voting this up all the way.

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hello again Faith Reaper.Thank you for commenting, yes he certainly was a character!

      Graham.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 5 years ago from southern USA

      Great history in this hub! Very interesting read. It is very sad to know of the poverty. In His Love, Faith Reaper

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hi Jools99. I am sure you will always remember the march. It is sad to learn that again there is now thirty percent unemployment. My dad was born a 'Geordie' and he was proud of it. Thank you for commenting.

      Graham.

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hi Seeker7. Thank you again for your valued comments. It is nice to know that you have bookmarked my hub. Thank you for the vote.

      Graham.

    • Jools99 profile image

      Jools99 5 years ago from North-East UK

      Old Albion, I was born in Jarrow so I know all about this march and its effects. Jarrow has a sculpture of the marchers in the centre of the town. Jobs are starting to become hard to come back there again (about 30% unemployment) now that shipbuilding is pretty dead and mining is no more. They have some manufacturing but not enough to sustain that many people.

    • Seeker7 profile image

      Helen Murphy Howell 5 years ago from Fife, Scotland

      This is a fabulous hub! I remember a friend of my Grandad's, who was from the area, telling us all about the Jarrow March. I was very young then but it still moved me a lot to hear their story and your hub has also moved me. It's really difficult to understand for us today, just how much poverty there was and what a daily struggle it must have been just to survive. For these folks to organise their march to London took guts and stamina. Unfortunately they were ignored but for me they are heros and heroines!

      Have bookmarked this as a favourite + voted up!

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hello glmclendon. Thank you for your comments ,I greatly appreciate them.

      Graham.

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Thank you for your comments Billy. Remember you were history teacher in the US. Your own hubs inform me of something every time.

      Graham.

    • glmclendon profile image

      glmclendon 5 years ago

      What a great story and told well. I did not know about this. Thanks for the info.

      Stay Well

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 5 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Absolutely fascinating! Thank you for taking me back to that time and teaching this old history teacher something about the value of principles. Great hub!

    • old albion profile image
      Author

      Graham Lee 5 years ago from Lancashire. England.

      Hi UnnamedHarald. Ifear you are right on your last point.Yes the march is famous in the UK, though I suppose there are many who are unaware.

      Graham.

    • UnnamedHarald profile image

      David Hunt 5 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

      Thanks for writing this, oldalbion. I hadn't heard of the Jarrow March. Voted up and interesting. Sadly, there are too many people today-- with jobs-- who would say "serves them right".