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The Female Gaze

Updated on March 26, 2012

Fangirls Through History

Every few years, there's a new sensation among teenage girls, and every time a new one arrives on the scene, a lot of people seem surprised all over again that a bunch of girls can drive the highest grossing films, bands, and books of the year. Sometimes ever. A lot of people seem to decide it's a fluke, and return to producing entertainment geared mostly for 13 year old boys.

Worse, the fangirls frequently become objects of ridicule. Now, nobody would defend some of the worst behaviors of fangirls. I don't care for shrieking or fainting either, and when a fangirl at Comic Con asked Robert Pattinson about his underwear, well, my mortification levels could not have been textually rendered.

However, I think there's more to it than that. Even if some fangirls were apparently raised by wolves, the majority are polite and decent people whose obsession doesn't derail their intelligence or courtesy. So what is it about them that makes people so uncomfortable?

The answer, I think, can be found in an obscure philosophical debate that's raged for decades among feminist (and not-so-feminist) film critics: the debate over a phenomenon known as the "Female Gaze."

Does the Female Gaze Exist?

The Male Gaze is a well-established phenomenon in film, advertising, and other media. In short, the concept of the Male Gaze refers to the tendency of media to view its subjects through the eyes of heterosexual men, even in media that is aimed primarily at a female audience, such as cosmetics ads.

In film, this is often explicit - the camera may literally take on the POV of a male character and show the female characters through his eyes - but it occurs even when the camera is a stand-in for a female character, or a fly on the wall. An example is the long slow pan up bare legs and bikini clad bodies found in pretty much every movie pool scene ever filmed.

In advertising, the Male Gaze is used to encourage men to want a girl (and by extension, the product she is selling) and women to want to be her, in order to attract the same Gaze.

The concept of the Male Gaze suggests that women can be made to view the world - and themselves - through the eyes of men, and that women raised within this dominant paradigm expect to be the gazed-upon, not the gazer. The man/camera watches, and the woman watches herself being watched, and begins to make choices in anticipation of being watched.

I don't question this at all. I think it's absolutely right. However, I don't think it's that simple either.

Fangirls and the Female Gaze

The very existence of a corresponding Female Gaze remains as controversial as the Male Gaze is accepted. Hogwash, I say. Of course it exists, and all those screaming fangirls prove it, both by their existence and by the discomfort they cause among mainstream audiences.

Do fangirls become objects of mockery because they make people uncomfortable by subverting the dominant paradigm? I think so.

Instead of being gazed upon, fangirls are the ones doing the gazing, and their Female Gaze, though not identical in focus to the traditional Male Gaze, is no less objectifying.

Reshaping the World to Match Our Eyes

As the culture and sophistication level of fangirls has increased, so has their ability to directly reshape the world to match their own eyes. A direct Female equivalent of the Male Gaze occasionally appears in films centered heavily on female characters, especially if they are also directed by women.

One example occurs in the film The Virgin Suicides, directed by Sophia Coppola. As Trip Fontaine (Josh Hartnett) strolls down the school hall, the heads of his female classmates turn one by one as he passes - the female gaze made literal - while the camera lingers lovingly on the graceful swing of his hips, toss of his hair. As one reviewer wrote: "Coppola reportedly auditioned hundreds of young actors for the role, but with Hartnett she draws out a charisma and raw sexuality that can make you weak in the knees. [...] Watching Fontaine walk causes the same pang of guilty lust in women that Mena Suvari's character in American Beauty must elicit in men. But Coppola's scenes with Hartnett are a shrine to the fresh and vibrant carnality of teenage boys, a sort of reverse Lolita-ism. Eventually Fontaine becomes a catalyst for the film's central tragedy and his aura fades, but for one brief moment the seduction is complete."

Trip Fontaine

However, it is much more common for women and girls to subvert the intended gaze of media than to create their own Gaze. For many, this is an unconscious process; for others, it is knowingly revolutionary.

Take the fanvid "Vogue," which became something of an internet phenomenon after it was named one of the funniest videos of 2007 by New York Magazine. "Vogue" literalizes the Female Gaze by recutting the film 300 to the music of Madonna. "Strike a pose!" sings Madonna, as the vid lingers lovingly on slow motion abs and biceps and thighs in action, on graceful tilt of head, curl of lip, swirl of cloak. It is Frank Miller's racist and frequently misogynistic Spartan epic as women prefer to see it, distracted by the pretty. 300 is the hot bimbo you fuck so her mouth is too busy to talk.


Another fannish art form - the internet avatar or icon - also offers clues to the existence of the Female Gaze. Although personal avatars are widespread on blogs, forums, and other social websites as a representation of individuality, on certain popular fannish sites, especially LiveJournal, they are far more important. LiveJournal allows multiple icons, and many fannish users pay for even more - over 100 in some cases. These little 100 pixel x 100 pixel blocks of color serve many functions on the website and talented icon artists have great respect within the community.

Because LiveJournal icons are so small, they reveal a lot about what the artist considers important. Good cropping is one of the most valued skills among icon artists, the overwhelming majority of whom are female.  

So instead of this...
So instead of this... might get this. might get this.

Like Luminosity, the vidder who created "Vogue," fannish icon artists are literally recutting the world to match their eyes.

Mocked and dismissed as they are by mainstream society, fangirls have been staging a quiet revolution for decades - reclaiming the right of women and girls to gaze, as well as be gazed upon.

About time, I say!


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    • profile image

      LVTP 6 years ago

      DZ - She wasn't writing about why fangirls are focused on "in the media"; she was writing about why fangirls are looked down upon by the general population. There's really no need to argue just for the sake of arguing here.

    • profile image

      DZ 6 years ago

      And that's another thing: this bit right here:

      "However, I think there's more to it than that. Even if some fangirls were apparently raised by wolves, the majority are polite and decent people whose obsession doesn't derail their intelligence or courtesy. So what is it about them that makes people so uncomfortable?"

      The ones who are shrieking and annoying are the ones who get the media coverage BECAUSE they are shrieking and annoying. When the media looks at that, they don't necessarily think "these people are going against the established gender order, let's write about them", they're more likely thinking "these people are behaving like creepy idiots, let's write about them".

      As for the more level-headed fangirls you refer to, call it the classic situation of Vocal Minority/Silent Majority; the silent majority prefer to keep to themselves about their beliefs, but the vocal minority are loud and obnoxious about it, so the silent majority ends up looking bad by association. Not association with patriarchal emasculation complexes, mind you, but association with fannish obsession.

      I think to look at this situation and see a fight for equal gender rights is jumping to conclusions and hyperbolizing.

    • kerryg profile image

      kerryg 6 years ago from USA

      DZ, I agree that many feminists are disturbed by Twilight's portrayal of a manipulative and emotionally abusive relationship as "romantic." I myself am, and discuss some of these issues with the books in another article, which you can read here:

      However, if you look at more mainstream critiques of the series, many of them boil down to "screaming fangirl cooties, ew" and that's the branch of Twilight "criticism" I feel needs some subverting. ;)

    • profile image

      DZ 6 years ago

      You say "people don't like Twilight fangirls because they make them insecure by undermining established power structures", I say "you're jumping to conclusions".

      Consider this: Twilight is generally agreed by intelligentsia of all stripes, feminist and non-feminist, to be profoundly disturbing and sexist in many different ways, from the way it handles its characters, gender roles, etc.

      So perhaps people are uncomfortable with the situation not because their supposed insecurities are being undermined, but rather because they see the popularity of this franchise, and the fact that so many young girls identify with the disturbing mindset the book/film sets up, as a bad thing in and of itself?

    • profile image

      Daisy Kenyon 6 years ago

      I have heard my whole life that "women just aren't visual" and I beg to differ. Perhaps women are less visual than men, but that doesn't mean we are completely visually challenged.

      I love looking at beautiful men. Gazing at them too! :)

    • profile image

      cyndi abdi 6 years ago

      Hey Kerryg,

      I have been researching the Male/Female gaze thing - as an Art student - and have found a lot of 'wordy' stuff. I am refreshed having read this piece of writing and very much look forward to reading your thoughts again...

    • lxxy profile image

      lxxy 7 years ago from Beneath, Between, Beyond

      So much food for thought here.

      I, too, have noticed a lack of "Female Gaze" in the media--and as you point out, even where the demographics were of the tender gender.

      The politics of gender among your species continue to fascinate me, although I don't know if it's for particular good reasons.

    • profile image

      Maureen 7 years ago

      Brilliant post! I have always believed this myself. Society continues to insist that "hetero women are not visual", but millions of screaming fangirls prove otherwise!

    • abinavis profile image

      abinavis 7 years ago from Bat Island

      That's a great hub. Thanks for sharing. Interesting idea.

    • Shelly Bryant profile image

      Shelly Bryant 8 years ago from Singapore and/or Shanghai

      Excellent post!

    • ahpoetic profile image

      ahpoetic 8 years ago

      I work with teenagers off and on as a substitute teacher. I've seen lots of talented girls. Visit my site when you can.

    • kerryg profile image

      kerryg 8 years ago from USA

      Thanks, Elena, Lita, and hot dorkage!

      This hub has been percolating for a LONG time, but I've had some trouble finding exactly the right words for what I wanted to say. I'm still not sure I managed and will probably tweak it more in the future, but I'm really glad to hear it worked for you!

    • profile image

      Leta S 8 years ago

      Excellent, Kerry!

      So happy to see this written. I wanted to go into the gaze concept on my 'beauty' hub, but the writing didn't quite take me there.


    • hot dorkage profile image

      hot dorkage 8 years ago from Oregon, USA

      Women objectifying men! Well that's just a step away from homosexuality! It's wrong. It's unnatural. It's OK for men to treat women like objects. We're used to it, so that makes it OK. But when the male gender gets a little taste of their own medicine, cry foul. It's so scary to them because it undermines the psychological mind control they have implicitly assumed was their right as males. Long live male domination, Ladies, stick to your cosmo and your passivity. They don't want you to look at them. Just focus on being pretty and waiting around for them to get horny and come and do something to you.

    • Elena. profile image

      Elena. 8 years ago from Madrid

      Hi, Kerry!  About time, indeed!  Great article, and very observant –no pun intended! :-)


      I continue to question why women objectifying men (or other women, for that matter!) raises so many eyebrows, while men have gotten away with it since the beginning of times!  Not that I think objectifying, per se, is a "good" thing, it's just that we all –male or female—have a right to pleasure our taste buds, in a manner of speaking! :-)

    • countrywomen profile image

      countrywomen 8 years ago from Washington, USA

      Of course "It Takes Two To Tango"

    • kerryg profile image

      kerryg 8 years ago from USA

      Thanks, CW! I'm working on your dancer hub so we can practice what we preach! ;)

    • countrywomen profile image

      countrywomen 8 years ago from Washington, USA

      Kerry- And it's about time female gaze is noticed and accepted. Great hub and will watch the video later.