Some mothers could, but I think well adjusted, normal, mothers would never be jealous of their daughter's life. They'd be happy if their daughter has a nice life or nice things in her life. I think what often happens, though, is if a daughter and mother have differences of opinion, and if the mother doesn't act completely thrilled with her daughter's choices, daughter's often jump to the conclusion that jealousy is the problem because younger people often automatically assume that being older is "awful" and that older people (especially women, maybe) "must be" miserable". What younger people don't realize is that a lot of mothers are pretty thrilled with their own lives, or are at least reasonably happy with who/what they are as people. A lot of mothers of grown daughters are glad they've got their own life built and would never trade places with their daughters "in a million years".
So, considering that, sometimes I think if mothers act like they're "having an issue" with something their grown daughter is doing, it's often just a matter of the mother either disapproving or else being worried that her daughter is making/has made a mistake that will cause serious problems in her life. Daughter's don't take well to feeling as if their mother isn't thrilled with all their choices; so, again, they may jump to the conclusion that jealousy is the problem when it just isn't. BUT, there will always be the occasional mother who may be jealous of her daughter (and any number of other people, for that matter); so saying "no" would be incorrect as well.