The first verse was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad,
"Read in the name of your Lord who created." 1
There is no evidence that Prophet Muhammad never learned the art of writing and generally people agree that it is a lifelong illiteracy. A verse on the alert not about the question of illiteracy, but the importance of a sound education for people in the future. Prophet Muhammad devote every effort that may be made in the development of education, benefits and rewards for students and the legal penalties for restraints of science. Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet Muhammad once said,
"Who chooses the way of seeking knowledge, Allah would open up for him the way to heaven." 2
Instead, he warned,
"Who asked who has mastered the science and hide it, that person will be wrapped around the fire in the Day of Judgment." 3
Prophet Muhammad asked the scientists and which has yet to be cultured in cooperation advise those who have never learned, and intellectuals to want to expand their knowledge on the jiran.4 Emphasis is placed on any paper that has expertise in a hadith in which affirmed that taking the role like a father to anak.5
Nabi is the pioneer of free education where `Ubada b. as-Samit receive a gift from a student (with the intention for the sake of Islam), the Prophet Muhammad admonished,
"If you want to receive the circumference of the fire in your neck, then take the gift." 6
Non-Muslims are also given the task of teaching reading at the time of the apostles.
Ransom prisoners of Badr is also different. Some of them got a job teaching writing to children anak.7
1. Prize Learning, Teaching, and read the Quran
Prophet Muhammad never wasted efforts and desires of the community in learning the word:
'Uthman bin' Affan reported that the Prophet Muhammad said, "The best among you is there] ah who study the Qur'an and teach others." 8 The same words are also reported by `Ali ibn Abi. Talib.9
According to Ibn Mas'ud Muhammad commented, "Who reads one letter of the Book of Allah, He will be rewarded good, and the good deeds will be rewarded ten-fold. I did not say Alif Lam Mim is one letter, but one letter Alif, lam one letter and one letter mim. "10
Among the immediate reward those who learn the Qur'an is the award-Muslims to act as a priest in prayer, an important position is typically given at the beginning of Islam. 'A'isha and Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari reported that the Prophet Muhammad, "The one who be] taught that memorization has the most should be the chief sha] at.11 Salima al-Amir bin Jarmi told that the people of his tribe found Prophet Muhammad declared themselves to be converted to Islam. Before leaving they asked, "Who will lead the prayers we?" He answered, "The man who memorized the Koran, or learn more." 12 In the final moments of the life of the Prophet, ranked priests Abu Bakr was given to prayer every day. This is a great honor when determining the caliph of Muslims.
Another positive aspect is the likely cause of the angels with us. Usaid bin Budair was reading the Koran in the latter part of the night in which a horse leaping in fear. When it stopped, horse All was silent, and when reading, the horse jumping back. Then he stopped fearing trampled her. As he stood near a horse, he saw something like a tent hanging in space full of shining lights reaching to the sky and then disappear. The next day, he went to the Prophet Muhammad tells what happened that night. He informed that constantly read and Usaid bin Budair replied that he stopped because the safety of his son, John. The Prophet Muhammad said, 'They are the Angels are listening and you should continue to read it, anyone else can actually see in the morning because it will not hide from them. "13
Ibn 'Umar narrated that, "Jealousy is allowed only in two things: someone who has received the knowledge of the Qur an and read in the afternoon and evening and people who have been given the richness of God and to help others at night and by day." 14
'Umar bin al-Khattab explained that the Prophet Muhammad said, "Through this Bible, God exalt some people and degrade others among us." 15
The older ones among illiterate people memorize the Qur'an with difficulty in which the mind and the soul felt weak. They do not get the blessing rejected any kind because of the reward promised to those who hear of the Qur'an are recited while. Ibn 'Abbas used to say that anyone who hears the verses of the Qur'an will have light on the Day Kiamat.16
It is very possible that someone who is not able to memorize well to read from the memory may be a little lazy in seeking written text. Therefore, the Prophet Muhammad said, "without the help of someone reading manuscripts, berhakmendapat reward of one thousand levels are the readings using mushafakan reward doubled to two thousand." 17
In explaining the good of those who memorized 'Abdullah bin' Amr told that the Prophet Muhammad said, "A person who devotes his life to the Al-Qur'an will be asked on the Day of Resurrection went upstairs to read carefully as he did during the in a world where they will go to heaven forever after reading verses terakhir.18
For the lazy view of these concerns, the Prophet Muhammad with a warning against it. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet Muhammad once said, "A person who is not interested in AI-Qur'an is like a house that has hancur.19 And he denounced memorize the Qur'an is considered a great sin to forget the past and advised to always repeat it. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari informs that the Prophet Muhammad said, "Refresh your knowledge of the Qur'an and I swear in the name of God in which the life of Muhammad in His hand that it is more important to avoid wild camels whose feet were tied. "20
Al-Harith ibn al-A'war tell you what happened after Muhammad's death.
"During the past the mosque, I accidentally saw the persons involved in the talks whispers. Then I met 'Ali tells it. He asked if it was true and I confirm. Then he said,' I heard an explanation that mentions the Prophet Muhammad, Disputes is bound to happen. ' I asked him how to avoid it. He said, "Allah is the only way because it includes anything that happened before you, after this news, as well as future decisions about the problems that may arise between you , He is a separator and not a joke. If there are people who have the power accidentally left his teaching, God will create divisions and who seek guidance from other sources, Allah will bring it to the path of error. Holy book the Qur'an is from Allah tall binder resilient, intelligent alerts, go right where her desire unmistakable symptom of error, the tongue will not be confused, and intellectuals would not be able to understand it completely. Al-Qur'an will never be obsolete because of repeated and will not be a glutton will stop studying science. He is a creature of the jinn who did not hesitate to issue a word of praise when I hear, 'We have heard a wonderful recital that shed light on the truth and we believe in him,' the people who read it will always tell the truth and for acting according to his teachings will reap blessings life, according to a law enforcement will do justice teachings, and who invite others, it will call to the straight path. "21
The next issue we will penetrate in depth how the Prophet Muhammad succeeded in achieving the goal of teaching the Koran to Muslims. It will be revealed with good if we divide the discussion into the situation in the days of Mecca and Medina.