An Exegetical Paper On Philippians 1: 27-30
An Exegetical Paper On Philippians 1: 27-30
In this exegetical study, the paper focuses on Philippians 1: 27-30 with the Historical-Grammatical method and it contains three chapters. The first chapter presents the historical context of the Epistle which contains authorship, recipients/addressees, occasion, purpose, place and date of writing. The second chapter follows with the literary context which includes the genre, theme and sub themes, the outline of the book, and the immediate context of the passages. The third chapter is the literary studies and it focuses on literary forms, syntactical-grammatical analysis, word studies and explanation of the passages which consist of logic/argument or flow of thought. And the paper is closed with personal and public applications. As doing exegetical paper is a very critical work, the strength to do this paper is from above and the writer of this paper relies on the help of the Holy Spirit. To find out the intended meaning of the text and its application for today, the important tools of dictionaries, encyclopedias, lexicons, commentaries and journal etc are consulted throughout the paper. New International Version is used for diagramming, charting and study.
I. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
The author of the book identified himself as Paul, together with Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus (1:1). And I also believe Paul as the author of this epistle due to his claim of the first person “I” that he used all through the letters referring to himself in his expression of giving thanks, love and prayer (1:3-11), his describing of present situation being in chain (1:12-18), his disclosing of inner feeling with exhortation (1: 19-30), his mentioning of friends- Timothy and Epaphroditus (2: 19-30), his expression of thanks for receiving gifts sent from Philippi while living in Macedonia and Thessalonica(4:15-19; 1: 5: cf. Acts 16: 9-10; 17: 1-9). Even in the style and language, “no letter can make a stronger claim to be from Paul”. Lots of Pauline vocabularies not only appeared through out the letters, but also phases, ideas and allusions to opposition of false teachers that show up here also appear in letters unquestionably written by Paul (Romans, I and II Corinthians, Galatians).
The city of Philippi was “built and fortified in 358-357 B.C. by Philip II of Macedon (the father of Alexander the Great) and named after him”. It was situated in a fertile region about eight miles far from the sea and it was also “enriched by an abundance of springs and by the gold that was mined there”. When Paul wrote his letter, Philippi was already an old city. It became part of the Roman Empire after the Persian fall in 168 B.C under the conquest of Roman and “belonged to the first of the four regiones, “districts,” of Macedonia”. The recipients of this letter were all the Christians who resided in Philippi, “together with the overseers and deacons” (1:2).
Even though there are some scholars who do not accept the church at Philippi was founded by Paul, I personally assume that the church at Philippi was Paul’s first established church in Europe “ca.A.D. 50” “during his second missionary journey”  (Acts 16: 12-40). Starting the church from Lydia’s house (Acts 16: 14-16), its members were added in numbers into the conversion of Jailer and his family (Acts 16: 30-34). Paul saw them physically during the second journey but as his first journey in Europe.(Acts 16: 12; Phil. 1:4, 25-26; 2:12; 4:1). And the church at Philippi was largely made up by gentiles–, Ephaproditus, Euodia, Syntyche, and Clements (2:25; 4: 2-3). Besides, the women played very important role in the community by physical provision of missionaries and working side by side for proclamation of the gospel “ help these women who have contended at my side in the cause of the gospel. (4: 3).
Paul was in chains and was put into Prison (1:13) during that time yet his chains for Christ became an encouragement and inspiration for the brothers to speak the word of God boldly and courageously (1: 14). While chaining into jail, Paul not only suffered the opponents of other Christian workers, but also felt pain for the wrong teachers who tried to mislead the Church at Philippi.(1: 15-18; 28-30). But he nonetheless found joy in the midst of his suffering because of his faith in Jesus Christ and the renewing concern of the Philippian believers. (4: 10). It is obvious that Paul and the Philippian believers had a profound relationship and partnership in the Lord by the ways how Paul concerned them (1: 1-9; 23-30; 3: 2-4; 4: 1) and how the Philippian believers supported Paul‘s ministry while facing financial crisis in Macedonia (4: 15) and in Thessalonica by gifts through Ephaphroditus (4:19).
When Paul wrote this epistle to the believers at Philippi, he had many purposes. He wrote this letter for giving thanks to their financial support (1:5; 4: 15-18). He provided official information about his circumstance and the advance of his imprisonment for the gospel for their encouragement (1: 12-26). He also commented about Ephaproditus, their messengers and Timothy his co workers (2: 25-30). He expressed his deep affection and personal regard for them in the Lord (4: 1). Despite his suffering, he sent encouragement and comfort (1:9-11:27-30). For expression of his concerns, he reminded them that he never forgot them in his personal prayer (1: 3-11). He insisted them not to be proud but to be humble like Jesus (2: 5-8) and challenged to shine forth like the stars in their lives (3: 14-18). Especially, he informed that unity with Christ didn’t come by obeying the Jewish law or circumcisions, but by the grace through faith alone in Christ (3:4-9). Thus, he warned them to be aware of the false teachers (3: 2-3).
In this letter, Paul exhorted them to stand firm in the Lord as one spirit no matter what kinds of situation they are encountering (1: 27-29; 4:1) and challenged them to rejoice in the Lord(4: 4-6 ). Besides, he also told that the peace of God will be with them and supplied all their needs (4: 7, 19 He challenged them to have unity, humility, virtues (2: 3, 5-11) but to avoid any personal disagreements that had arisen (4: 2-3) and he also inspired to have perseverance in their struggles and counted it as blessing (1: 30). Above all, he mentioned how much he loved and cared for the believers at Philippi through out his letter.
E. Place and date of writing
Paul wrote this letter from prison and it is one of his prison Epistles (1: 7, 13-14, 17) yet the exact location where this letter was written is not mentioned. Some believed that he wrote from Rome, yet a few writers believed that he wrote from Ephesus or Caesarea. Of the three cities, Rome seems most favored because of the following reasons- the facts that he was both imprisoned and executed there( 1: 7, 13, 14, 17), his contemplation of martyrdom (1:19-26;2:17), the references in Philippians to the praetorium (1: 13) and Caesar’s house-hold (4:22), though applicable to other cities, are most appropriate for Rome and of the imprisonments described by Act, the one in Rome(Acts 28: 14-31) most closely matches the circumstances describe by Paul in his letter. The date of writing this epistle in favor of Rome was likely A.D 60-62 or “63” which falls within Paul’s imprisonment in Rome. If it is in favor of Ephesus, the date will fall on A.D. 53
II. LITERARY CONTEXT
The epistle of Philippians is well arranged by means of the traditional Greco-Roman format of letter writing of the first century. The letter is opened with greetings which both identified the author and the recipients (1: 1-2) followed by thanksgiving to God and recipients for their faithful support regarding his suffering for the sake of the gospel (1:3-5), his exhortation and prayer for the recipients (1: 6-11). The next is the main body of the letters (1:12-4:20). And the letter is closed with final greetings (4: 21-23). The sub genres or structures of this letter include virtue lists (2: 1-5, 14; 4:8-9), Exhortation (4:4-7), peristasis catalogues (4: 11-12) and Greeds/Hymns (2:6-11). This epistle is a personal, friendship letter to the Philippians and it was not intended for general circulation to all the churches (1:1).
B. Themes and sub-Themes:
Paul’s desire for writing the epistle is to let the Philippian believers know everything happens to him and them is because of all about Jesus (1:6-8; 12-14). Thus, he encouraged to live worthily even in their suffering (1; 27-30) and exhorted them to rejoice in the Lord (4: 4).
The major theme of the epistle isthat knowing Christ is the key to all life in everything (1: 4, 18-30; 3:7-10).That’s why Paul was in chain for Christ (1: 13), defense of the gospel (1:16). He also mentioned that Christ is the one who began good works in us (1: 6; 2:13). Paul counted loss of all things compared to the greatness of knowing Christ (1:7-9). And run to get the prize that was in Christ Jesus’ hand (3: 14). Christ is the controllers of everything even our life and circumstances (3: 21). Righteousness in the side of the Lord comes by faith in Christ alone, not by law or human effort (3: 9). Paul mentioned Christ as the source of his powers/strengths in everything (4:13). God will meet all our needs “according to the glorious riches in Christ Jesus” (4:20).
The other sub themes are joy, suffering, serving, believing, giving for the sake of the gospel. (4: 4-7; 1: 3, 18: 2: 16-17), an attitude of humility in Christ and self –sacrifice for the sake of the gospel in Christ (2: 2-9; 12) , unity with Christ and the churches (2; 1; 4: 2-3 ), an attitude of thanksgiving and prayer ( 1: 3-5, 9 ; 4:15-18 ). All the above sub themes are suited in knowing Christ as key to life in everything. Besides, Paul also stressed about Christian conduct as pure and holy for the gospel. (1: 11; 2: 15; 4: 8-9).
C. The Outline of the Book of Philippians:
An apostle Paul starts his epistle with a salutation (1:1-2), and he moves to thanksgiving for their partnership in the gospel (1: 3-8) and prayer for their growth to the glory and praise of God (1: 9-11). Paul talks about the progress of the gospel due to his suffering (1: 12-14) and mentions preaching Christ from different motives (1: 15-18). Next is Paul’s perspective of life and death in knowing Christ as the key to rejoice regardless of circumstances and reunion with them (1: 19-26). He exhorts to stand firm in unity and courage in the face of opposition (1: 27-30). He further calls to have mutual consideration (2: 1-4). Then, Paul gives supreme examples of Jesus’ attitude and humility to imitate in their lives (2: 5-11) and encourages working out for their salvation and shines like stars in the world (2: 12-18). In the following verses 2: 19-30, Paul comments Timothy and Ephaproditus with their role as models in the service of the Lord. The next is Paul’s warning against false teachers and his experience and life of knowing Christ as the key in everything (3: 1-12), He also urges them to imitate his models, warning against imitating other teachers and challenge them to put their hope in heaven.(3: 13-21). The last chapter is an exhortation to stand firm, to have unity, to rejoice in the Lord without anxious, to focus and follow godly models (4: 1-9), and the following verses 4: 10-20 is his gratitude expressed for the Philippians’ generosity. Then, the epistle is closed with final greetings and benediction (4: 21-23).
D. The immediate Context of Philippians1:27-30:
Chapter 1: 3-26 mentions the conditions of Paul, the concerns of Paul, the close relationship of Paul with the believers at Philippi and the suffering of Paul with his exhortation. Paul was in prison with chains and couldn’t do anything (1:7), but because of the gifts that he received from the believers at Philippi, he was strengthened and incredibly thankful in the Lord (1: 3-6). In other words, Paul and believers at Philippi have a good relationship or friendly relationship in the Lord that’s why Paul also long for and prays for their growth in the affection of Christ (7-11). From verses 12-13, Paul encouraged them from his testimony that his suffering advances the gospel. Regarding different motives of preaching, Paul still mentions that he is joyful because Christ is preached (vs. 15-18). He let them know that because of their prayer support, he has hoped to be released from prison yet not sure of his condition. He also mentioned that the reason why he chose to live is as for Christ, for the sake of gospel and their progress (vv19-26). That’s why he exhorted them from Vv 27-30 to stand firm and conduct worthy of the gospel as one spirit and not to be frightened by opposition, but facing their struggles courageously by faith as he did whether he visits them again or not.. Then the following chapter continues the preceding chapter by ways of their unity in serving one another with humility and imitating the attitude of Christ (2; 1-6).
III. LITERARY STUDIES
As seen in the immediate context of the passages, the apostle Paul concluded his personal matters (1: 12-26) and turned to his concerns for their affairs to stand firm and have unity in the face of the opposition during his absence (1: 27-30). He called on believers at Philippi to maintain their spiritual commitment, to continue to behave in a manner that was consistent with the gospel of Christ (cf. Eph. 4:1). He admonished them to look carefully into their own hearts whether they stood firm in their faith because he believed it was necessary for their spiritual well-being. Though he was confident that the Lord would allow him to remain and continue to live, he was not sure when would he visit them again. Thus, “the Philippians ought to adopt the same course of action as Paul has taken” and regardless of whatever happened to him, he besought them to live according to the gospel of Christ.
27. The apostle Paul used “whatever happens” (Gk. Monon, lit. “Only”) in the opening of his admonition as emphatic. And the meaning is ‘above all, at all costs’. He wanted the pilippian believer’s lives to reflect worthily on the gospel of Christ“Conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ”. Here the phrase conduct yourselves (Gk verb politeueomai) appears only two time in the NT (1:27; Acts 23:1) and both places refer to one’s conduct as a citizen. or “to live as a citizen of a free state”, “to take an active part in the affairs of the state”. The meaning “to live in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ is to live as a good citizen of an earthly state, fully discharging one’s duties and responsibilities to that state . In those days, Philippi had the distinction of being a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), a highly privileged status and took great pride because of their citizenship. Thus, they disqualified their identity as bad conduct. On the other hand, Christians are made citizen of heaven, a member of a new community and the church through the preaching of the gospel (3: 20; cf. Eph 2:19; Heb 12: 22-23; Rev 21: 2-3). Therefore, it had more obligations to fulfill its calling and Paul charged them to conduct themselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ, to live as faithful citizens of heaven (cf. 3:20). To live worthy of the gospel, then, also means that the Christian live as good citizens of this new state, governing their actions by righteousness, peace, faith, love, mutuality, interdependence, good deeds, service to one another, worship of the living God, and so on. In other words, it means living with integrity in every part of life.
In conducting a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ, they are to love one another (1:9) and grow in the knowledge of God deeper and deeper (1: 9; c.f Col. 1:10) They are supposed to live a life that set good citizens as pure and holy for the praise and glory of God (1:10; cf. 1 Thess. 2:12; I Thess. 4:1). They are to imitate the humility and obedience of Jesus even to the point of death (2:5-8), on the other hand, they are called to leave selfish behavior and vain conceit, but to consider others interest (2: 3-4). They are to shine out for the Lord like shining stars and blameless in the face of the oppositions, serving the lord without murmuring and fighting each others. (2: 14-15; c.f. 2 Peter 3:11, 14). And Paul especially exhorts them to count their sufferings as blessing and stand firm in the Lord as one spirit with joy no matter the circumstances are terrible and dangerous, reminding them that God even allowed their suffering for the gospel as Paul and Jesus also did. The Philippians are not only to enjoy and appreciate what the things confers by being a citizen of Rome and a citizen of heaven that has come through the gospel of Jesus Christ; rather they have to reflect what they receive in their lives according to the gospel. Thus, Paul admonishes them to live as good citizens of both Roman citizens and heavenly citizens to obey rights and privileges, avoiding pride of their citizenship rather to live and walk according to the gospel.
The gospel in the sentence is the good news of salvation through JesusChrist “Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures” (1 Cor. 15:3–4). Paul’s intention here was to see the changes in their lives as they were the recipients of the gospel through faith in Jesus Christ (cf. 2 Cor. 5:17).
“Whether I come and see you or only hear about you in my absence” is a message of caution that they should not wait for his return but put a reformation of their church life into the effect immediately, so that what he hears about them at a distance may be an encouragement to him.. He longs to hear about their steadfastness and harmony with one another. He desires that they trust the Lord and live worthy of Him. Thus, he profoundly expects to hear that you stand firm, and unity, in one spirit, contending as one man for the faith of the gospel because they are in a battle and that a united front is the best strategy for victory.. Stand firm conveys the idea of firmness or steadfastness, or unflinching courage like that possessed by soldiers who determinedly refuse to leave their posts irrespective of how severely the battle rages (cf 1 Cor 16.13; Gal 5: 1; Phil 4:1; 2 Thess 2: 15; Eph 6: 13-17). It also “indicates the duty of the soldier in battle, or to describe the taking of a position vis-à-vis that of an adversary”. As seen in chapter (3: 2-4) church at Philippi is challenged by their adversaries, perhaps Jewish Christians or pagans. Therefore, Paul exhorts them so that they may be able to resist the challenge and overcome their adversaries being in one spirit.
The phrase in one spirit here can both refers to the Holy Spirit (divine Spirit) who works in the believer’s lives and the human spirit. It is true that the Holy Spirit is the one who teaches and strengthens the believers (1 Cor 12: 13; cf. Eph 2:18), to have harmony and unity in the midst of trial (2: 1; cf. Eph 4: 3), however the stress of the passage seems to show that the person of the spirit is the primary meaning here. Therefore, in one spirit may serve well as Christian harmony, unity, a common spirit, a community spirit, joining together as one and one mind (cf, 4: 32) to maintain a courageous witness against the oppositions.
Contending as one man for the faith of the gospel indicates the internal harmony of the believers at Philippi. Their unity is to be ‘with on mind’ (RSV), mia psyche, i.e. presenting a united front, and not weakened by internal disaffections and rivalries. Though, NIV renders as one man, it can still indicate the believer’s inward disposition.. It would be sorrowful for Paul to hear about the divisions of the church and more of that it would be danger even for the church itself in the face of the constant threat of the adversaries arriving on the scene.
28. “Without being frightened in any way by those who appose you”. Here, Paul wants to know that the Philippians are standing as one man, mind in the face of their opposition without afraid of anything. According to the discussion of Paul mentioned in (3: 2-6), these opponents probably Jewish hostiles, yet it was not stated clearly to point that they were Jewish opponents. The fact which stated clearly was that these opponents were eternal foes not false teachers inside the church. Perhaps, Paul generally spoke any kind of church adversaries no matter Jewish or pagan. Thus, the Philippian Christians are to stand fast in the apostolic faith in spite of their affliction and it is very important for them to have unity and courage in the face of their oppositions as one man for standing in the faith of the gospel.
This is a sign to them that they will be destroyed, but that you will be saved- and that by God. This phrase explored that the unity and courage that they have in standing as one spirit is a sign for destruction of their opponents. Being in unity and obedience of Paul’s teaching about the gospel, the believers at Philippians would stand firm in their faith and they would not be shaken or frightened by the foes rather the adversaries would be defeated by their unity as one. On the other hand, being in unity and courage is a sign for their salvation. Both signs of destructions and salvations are the outcome from God. “And that by God” refers grammatically neither to “salvation” nor to “sign”(both of which are feminine nouns, for which the feminine form of “that” would be required, rather than the neuter, which was used), but to the entire fact that believers have been granted courage from God to stand firm in their struggles and so are demonstrating their salvation.
29. The sovereign control and purpose of God was seen in the previous verses and the privileges enjoyed by Christians included the ability not only to believe in Christ initially at regeneration and subsequently throughout the Christ life, but also to suffer for him . For it has been granted to you (i.e. by God; this passive form is to be understood as a common feature of Hebrew thought) on behalf of Christ… also to suffer for him. Therefore, there is no accident in their suffering, nor is it a mark of divine punishment as though God were angry with them. On the contrary, it is a sign of his favor.. It has been granted (echaristhe) is derived from charis-“grace”, “favor” and it comes as a gift of God’s grace. Then, to suffer “on behalf of Christ, which can mean the same as ‘for the faith of the gospel’ (v27) is actually a privilege given by God. Thus, the apostle Paul reminded the Philippians that they were not only given a privilege to believe on him and enjoyed the gifts of his grace but also to endure sufferings and pains for him as Paul himself did in his life (c.f. 2 Cor. 1: 5; 12: 10; 7: 5; 13: 5; 4: 7-12).
30. Paul concludes this exhortation by reminding “…. you are going through the same struggle you saw I had, and now hear that I still have”. In this matter of suffering, the Philippians were experiencing the same sort of struggle Paul had endured through his ministry. They had seen some of Paul’s suffering when he had been in Philippi (Acts 16: 19-24). They had heard of others he had undergone more recently in Rome (2: 26). The same struggle (Gk-agon) was endured by apostle and church. And it originally meant a place of assembly, then a place where athletic contests were held, and later the contest itself. Like the labor of athletes, the struggles of Philippians were often both physical and public, however, engaged in these struggles for different reasons from their counterparts in the athletic arena. As Paul mentions in another place, “they do it to get a crown that will not last; but we do it to get a crown that will last forever” (I Cor. 9:25-26). Moreover, the term also developed a metaphorical use for any kind of conflict, obstacle and danger. Therefore, Paul concludes his exhortation for the believers at Philippi as sharing the same struggles with him due to the gospel and that was even granted to them also on behalf of Christ from God. He encourages them to count it all joy whatever happen to them in the Lord, affirming them that suffering and struggles are not a curse for them rather it is a blessing from God. It’s a privilege to be in part of Christ’s suffering and that is precious in the side of the Lord.
For the conclusion of the passages, the exhortation of Paul in vs. 27 reminded them to live as a citizen of heaven no matter Paul can visit them or not. They are to live worthy of the gospel of Christ in a manner with purity, integrity, unity and an attitude of humility (2: 13, 5-8, 14-16). Paul wants to know that they stand firm in their faith as one spirit, one mind. In other words, He desires to hear that they are having unity and communal spirit in their faith of the gospel. As vs. 28 mentions, they would never be destroyed if they are in unity though their oppositions try to tear down them. Being unity inside the church is a sign for them that they are the winners and receivers of salvation from God whereas that is also a sign for their oppositions that they would be devastated by God. Thus, being unity as one spirit, mind for their steadfastness is incredibly crucial for their victory. In vs. 29, Paul exhorts them to count suffering or struggles as a privilege and blessings for them to partake in the suffering of Christ not as a curse or negative ways. And he concludes his exhortation in a way that they are not the only one going through the struggles, letting them that he is one of them from the beginning (v. 30).
Personal: It is a privilege for me to write this paper and I thank God for the strengths that he has given to work on this paper. I realize that Paul’s exhortation to the believers at Philippi in the midst of their opposition is even so real to me. It makes me more a ware of conducting myself in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ daily. I sometimes failed to express moral purity, holiness, love, compassion, and concern to others. When things went wrong beyond control including sickness, my short temper, anger and old behavior tried to control my heart and end up my days with hopeless. Encountering all these matters, the temptation to loose hope, become impatient, angry, complain and murmuring became my friends. But I thank God who began a good work in me never leave me nor forsake me. Through working on this paper, a new strength comes in my heart to live in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ by expressing moral purity, holiness, integrity and humility and hope through the help of the Holy Spirit.
I can rely on the word of these passages that God allows me not only to believe on Jesus and enjoy the privilege of blessing, but also to suffer for him and for the gospel to understand better brand new blessings behind the difficulties. In realizing these issues, the struggles that I face being a student as financial problems, discourage, stress and anxiety do not let me down into misery now rather challenge me to stand firm in the Lord as a privilege to suffer with him for the preparation of greater opportunity to serve him now and the days to come. The Lord restores my strength and gives me victory over my situation. Praise the Lord! Amen!
Public: Having learnt the lessons of these passages and experienced the importance of the word of God in life, I hope to challenge others to partake their part in the ministry with confidence. As many people teach today as to be a Christian is to get rich, happiness, joy and blessing, there are many believers who anticipate only blessings in their Christianity. As a result, when they encounter problems and suffering, they are wavering like the tides and lose their hope and fall into backsliding. Moreover, many think and see the problems and struggles as a curse. But as Paul exhorts the Philippians that it is not only to believe on him and enjoy the privilege of blessings, rather there are pains, sufferings and struggles in the road of a Christian. I would challenge others to count their struggles and suffering for Christ in church and outside church ministry as a blessing from the Lord, realizing suffering not as a curse but as blessings and comes from God. It would be my immediate step to share the people these biblical truth of passages so that they may stand firm in their faith as one spirit, one mind when the problems, difficulties and oppositions arouse. They would conduct their lives in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ and stand firm for the glory of God.
M. S. Enslin, Christian Beginnings, 3:280.
Ralph P. Martin (Edt), Word Biblical Commentary, vol 43(Revised Edition), (Colombia: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2004), p xxviii.
J. Schmidt, “Philippi”, PW (1938), 19.
Geoffrey w. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol 3, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1986), 836.
J.D. Douglas, edt, The New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.M.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1962), 985.
Paul’s other prison Epistles are Ephesians, Colossians and Philemon.
D. Edmond Hiebert, An Introduction to the Pauline Epistle( Chicago: Moody Press, 1959),293
David Noel Freedman (Ed), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume 5, o-sh ( New York: 1992)
Hiebert, An introduction to the Pauline Epistle, 293.
Lightfoot, 1891, 30-46
Clinton E. Arnold (Ed), Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, volume 3 (Zondervan: Grand Rapids, 2002), 343.
Freedman edt,The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 320.v.
L. Gregory Bloomquist, “subverted by Joy: Suffering and joy in Paul’s letter to the Philippians”. Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology. Vol. 61, No 1-4, (July 2007), 270.
Ralph P. Martin, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians An Introduction and commentary, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1987), 85.
Arnold edt, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 352.
 Martin, Word Biblical Commentary: Philippians, 68.
R.R. Brewer, “The meaning of politeuesthe in Phil 1: 27.” JBL 73 (1954), 76-78.
Martin, Word Biblical Commentary: Philippians, 69.
Martin, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians An Introduction and commentary, 87.
Martin, Word Biblical Commentary: Philippians, 70.
T.C. Geoffrion, The Rhetorical Purpose and the Political and Military Character of Philippians: A Call to Stand Firm.Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1993, 55, cousar, 146.
Martin, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians An Introduction and commentary, 88
Frank E. Gaebelien, Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians through Philemon. Vol 11. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981, 119.
Martin, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians An Introduction and commentary, 92.
Frank E. Gaebelien, Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians through Philemon. Vol 11. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981, 119.
Martin, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians An Introduction and commentary,92.
Gaebelien, Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians through Philemon, 119.