Book Review – Starlight & Time
Subtitle: Solving the Puzzle or Distant Starlight in a Young Universe
Author: D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.
Length: 137 pages, 2 chapters, 3 appendices, 1 index
Dr. Humphreys earned his Ph.D. in Physics from Louisiana State University. He has worked for General Electric and Sandia National Laboratories. He has written many articles on creationism.
This short book explains Dr. Humphreys “White Hole Cosmology”. He begins by explaining the problem; we can see light from astronomical bodies that appear to be billions of light years away, but the universe is only 6000 years old. Next Dr. Humphreys suggests a process that can answer the problem; gravitational time dilation. Time Dilation is an affect of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. In plain terms, the greater the gravity, the slower time passes. This affect has been measured. The result of this process is that while six days passed on earth, billions of years would have passed in the outer cosmos.
Going back to the Big Bang, Dr. Humphreys explains the assumptions behind the Big Bang. There are four assumptions that guide the Big Bang Theory, 1/ the universe is expanding, 2/ there is no center to the universe, 3/ there is no edge to the universe, 4/ there is no boundary to the universe. Dr. Humphreys shows that while there is Biblical support for assumption 1/, the other assumptions are contradicted by the Bible. Dr. Humphreys then suggests that contrary assumptions can be made which yield a universe created in a Black Hole that becomes a White Hole. As the universe expands out of the White Hole, Time Dilation occurs at the Event Horizon. The parts of the universe outside of the event horizon experience the passage of billions of years of time. The parts of the universe inside the event horizon experience no passage of time.
In the second chapter, Dr. Humphreys provides a theoretical look at creation week. God creates a rotating ball of water, two light years in diameter, inside a black hole. All of the physical forces are in operation from the beginning. God expands the sphere of water placing a firmament, or expanse, between the waters above and the waters below. The waters below will form the earth. The expansion stretches out the heat waves from the first day and these become the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. God forms the earth out of the water on the third day, and creates the sun, moon, and stars, in the expanse on the fourth day. On day six God stops the expansion.
Dr. Humphreys now moves into the appendices. Appendix A reviews four creationist theories regarding cosmology, 1/ Mature Creation, 2/Moon-Spencer Theory, 3/Decay in the Speed of Light, and 4/ Heating of Galactic Gas and Dust. Each theory is summarized and Dr. Humphreys gives his reasons for discarding the theory.
Appendix B is a reprint of a paper written by Dr. Humphreys for the Third International Conference on Creationism. The paper is titled A Biblical Basis for Creationist Cosmology. In this paper, Dr. Humphreys provides the Biblical basis for his cosmology. His three primary points are ‘(1) The “expanse” of Genesis chapter 1 is not the earth’s atmosphere but interstellar space, (2) The “waters above the expanse” are cosmic in scale and represent a boundary for interstellar space, (3) the earth is near the center of the universe.’ Each of the points is discussed in some detail.
Appendix C is a reprint of a paper given at the same conference. Progress Toward a Young-Earth Relativistic Cosmology is the scientific argument for Dr. Humphreys’ cosmology. The language is technical. The math of the cosmology is explained and defended.
This book is for the specialist and I would not recommend it for the layman, specialist or not. There are other works that ably explain Dr. Humphreys’ cosmology without being as technical. The book could also use a second edition to update the cosmology using Dr. Humphreys’ latest work.
There is also a DVD of the same name. It is almost a companion DVD to the book. It consists of four chapters: 1/ Starlight and Time, a documentary style presentation of the material in the book, 20 minutes. 2/ Starlight and Time Revisited, a talk show style presentation by Dr. Humphreys with Dr. Baumgardner, 40 minutes. This is a presentation of the technical material. 3/ Black Holes and White Holes, an explanation of the aforementioned object, 30 minutes. 4/ Quantized Redshifts, an explanation of the evidence for, and the impact of, quantized redshifts, 30 minutes. There are also two audio files, a slide presentation, and audio presentations of the two scientists’ testimonies. While this is still a specialist resource, I believe the material in the DVD is more appropriate for the layman.
Dr. Humphreys has also appeared on Originstv. This is an excellent 30-minute show put on by Cornerstone Ministries. The two episodes that concern us are Starlight and Time and Center of the Universe. The first episode is, again, a presentation of the material in the book, but updated with Dr. Humphreys latest thinking and results. The second episode is a look at the evidence for our solar system being near the center of the universe.
If creation apologetics is of interest to you, I recommend watching the Originstv episodes, which are available on YouTube. From there, you can decide if you need the more detailed information available on the DVD, or the mathematics in the book.