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Book of Confucius Ideology Chapter Ten

Updated on November 26, 2015

Passage Two Hundred and Thirty Nine

孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾。

English Translation

When Confucius speaks in front of the peasants, he is extremely respectful, as if he has no talent in a debate.

When he speak in a temple or in government, he express himself in a clear and analytical manner and is very careful when he speak.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty

朝,與下大夫言,侃侃如也;與上大夫言,誾誾如也。君在,踧踖如也。與與如也。

English Translation

'In government, when talking to junior rank ministers, be relax and happy, when talking to senior ministers, be calm and peaceful, when talking to the King, be respectful.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty One

君召使擯,色勃如也,足躩如也。揖所與立,左右手。衣前後,襜如也。趨進,翼如也。賓退,必復命曰:「賓不顧矣。」

English Translation

When the King sends Confucius to greet guests, Confucius expression is solemn, his footstep is quick. He greets people on his left and right, with gongshou. His cloth is always very tidy. When he walks fast, his footstep is always light. After the guest is gone, Confucius always report about the guest's departure.

Note: Gongshou is a custom in ancient Asia, similar to a handshake, high-five or a fist bump today.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Two

入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。攝齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞顏色,怡怡如也。沒階趨進,翼如也。復其位,踧踖如也。

English Translation

While entering the Federal government hall, Confucius remains very respectful, as if he doesn't belong here. While standing, he doesn't stand in the middle. While walking, he doesn't step on the door's lower threshold. While walking pass the King, his expression remains serious, walk carefully, his footstep is fast, as if he have no feet. He enters the hall, holding his cloth and bow, holding his breath while doing it. While leaving the hall, every time he got off a step, his expression start to relax, start to look nature. His footstep becomes faster. It was as if he is a bird who just learned to fly. Then he returns to his post, his expression become once again respectful.

Note: Different era and different culture have different formal customs. Modern formal customs in every part of the world is all very similar, due to globalization, but there are still some differences.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Three

執圭,鞠躬如也,如不勝。上如揖,下如授。勃如戰色,足蹜蹜,如有循。享禮,有容色。私覿,愉愉如也。

English Translation

When Confucius represents the nation in state function, holding onto the jade, he remains respectful, it was as if the jade is heavy and he cannot lift it. When he presents the jade to its position, his expression remains serious and careful, as if he is walking a thin line. While presenting gifts, his expression remains calm. While meeting with people in none government occasions, he remain very relax and happy.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Four

君子不以紺緅飾。紅紫不以為褻服。當暑,袗絺綌,必表而出之。緇衣羔裘,素衣麑裘,黃衣狐裘。褻裘長。短右袂。必有寢衣,長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去喪,無所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠不以弔。吉月,必朝服而朝。

English Translation

A true gentleman doesn't wear red on their sleeves. They do not wear red or purple underwear. During summer, he wears single cloth and always brings a jacket while going out. He always wears black underwear to pair with a black jacket. He wears white underwear, with a yellow jacket. He wears yellow underwear with a yellow jacket. The underwear is lower, but the right sleeve is shorter. He must have pyjamas, whose length is one and a half of his body length. His chair cushion is thick. After a funeral is over, he wears no decoration. Unless it is cloth for the formal occasion, the cloth must have its edge cut. During a funeral, he wears no black cloth or hat. On the first of every month, he wears the government uniform to government hall.

Note: In Asia, the funeral cloth is white.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Five

齊,必有明衣,布。齊,必變食,居必遷坐。

English Translation

Before bathing to practicing vegetarian, he must always wear bath cloth. When practicing vegetarian, your normal eating habit has changed, so you must be mindful of your living environment.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Six

食不厭精,膾不厭細。食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗,不食。色惡,不食。臭惡,不食。失飪,不食。不時,不食。割不正,不食。不得其醬,不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。惟酒無量,不及亂。沽酒市脯不食。不撤薑食。不多食。祭於公,不宿肉。祭肉不出三日。出三日,不食之矣。食不語,寢不言。雖疏食菜羹,瓜祭,必齊如也。

English Translation

Don't complain about your food been delicate or the fish is cut too thin. If the food starts to smell or if fish or meat starts rotting, don't eat it. If the colour looks bad, don't eat it. If it smells weird, don't eat it. If it is not probably cooked, don't eat it. If it is cut in a weird manner, don't eat it. If it doesn't have a suitable sauce, don't eat it. Even if you eat a lot of meat, it should not surpass the main dish. You can drink as much as you like, as long as you don't get drunk. Dry meat or wine that are bought, don't eat it. You can eat ginger, but not too much. Don't talk while you are eating or sleeping.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Seven

席不正,不坐。

English Translation

If a chair is not set up straight, don't sit on it.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Eight

鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣。鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階。

English Translation

After finishing a feast, with a gathering of people, only exit, after the elderly have exited. When performing a ritual, to get rid of demons, you must wear your uniform and stand on the altar’s eastside.

Passage Two Hundred and Forty Nine

問人於他邦,再拜而送之。康子饋藥,拜而受之。曰:「丘未達,不敢嘗。」

English Translation

While asking a foreign friend to send a gift, on your behalf, you should bow twice.

Jikangzih sends medicine to Confucius, Confucius bow and said: I am not familiar with medicine, don't dare to try it.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty

廄焚。子退朝,曰:「傷人乎?」不問馬。

English Translation

The horse's stable caught on fire. After returning from government hall, Confucius asked: Is anybody injure?

He didn't ask about the horses.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty One

君賜食,必正席先嘗之;君賜腥,必熟而薦之;君賜生,必畜之。侍食於君,君祭,先飯。疾,君視之,東首,加朝服,拖紳。君命召,不俟駕行矣。

English Traslation

When the King give him food as a gift, Confucius always taste it properly first. If the King gives Confucius fresh meat as a gift, he would cook it, to worship the ancestors. If the King gives him living animals as a gift, he would keep it alive. While eating with the King or when the King is praying, he would taste the food first. When Confucius is sick and the King comes to visit, Confucius would greet him at the east, wearing government uniform. When the King summons him, he won't wait for the carriage to be ready, but walk there directly.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty Two

入太廟,每事問。

English Translation

After entering a temple, Confucius would ask about everything.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty Three

朋友死,無所歸。曰:「於我殯。」朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。

English Translation

When a friend is dead and has no people performing his funeral, Confucius said: I will do it.

If a friend sends you a gift, even if it is a horse, not meat, don't bow.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty Four

寢不尸,居不容。見齊衰者,雖狎,必變。見冕者與瞽者,雖褻,必以貌。凶服者式之。式負版者。有盛饌,必變色而作。迅雷風烈,必變。

English Translation

When sleeping, don't stay straight like an ice stick. When you are at home, relaxing, don't be serious like in, formal occasions. When you see a person wearing funeral cloth, even if it is your best friend, you must be serious. Seen a blind person or a person wearing government uniform, you must be polite, even if it is your best friend. When you saw a funeral party, while, on your carriage, you must be polite and bow to show your sympathy. The same respect should be shown, to those, responsible for the country. During major festivals, your expression must be serious and show your thanks. During thunder and big wind, your face must be serious, to show your respect to the gods.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty Five

升車,必正立執綏。車中,不內顧,不疾言,不親指。

English Translation

While entering a carriage, you must first stand up, then use the handrail to assist you, to enter the car. When you are in the car, don't turn back, don't be hurry to talk, don't point at things.

Passage Two Hundred and Fifty Six

色斯舉矣,翔而後集。曰:「山梁雌雉,時哉!時哉!」子路共之,三嗅而作。

English Translation

When Confucius is touring, he saw some wild chickens, resting on a tree. Confucius said: There are wild chickens on the back of the mountain, it is a good sign! A good sign!

Zihlu gongshou towards the chickens, the chickens cried a few times and flew away.


倫=logic

慮-concern

行=behavior

忠=loyalty

禮=polite, manner

恕=forgiveness

義=justice, just

士=paladin, scholar

仁=humane, kind

文=culture, scholar

君子=gentleman

小人=savage

恥=shame

禮樂=ritual

敬=respect

溫=warm

良=good

恭=respectful

儉=cheap, economical

讓=make way

信=honest, true to one's word, keep one's word, faith, believe

德=moral, kindness, ethnic

道=just, justice, principle, thinking, road

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