Evolution Theory - Fact or Fiction?
Do you believe in Evolution Theory?
The question of whether or not we believe in Evolution Theory is asked in much the same way as questions of faith – Do you believe in God; do you believe in Jesus Christ; do you believe in the presence and power of the Holy Spirit?
Often posed by researchers and interested persons, the question itself – do you believe in Evolution Theory – reveals the truth that it takes faith to believe in all that is postulated within the theory. Why is faith needed? For the same reason it takes faith to believe in God and creation. We cannot see God with natural eyes (though the reports of those seeing with spiritual eyes are countless), nor witness the ancient events of creation. Likewise, we cannot ourselves see a long-ago “common descent from a universal ancestor” central to Evolution Theory.
Faith is needed for belief in Evolution Theory further because that which we witness in life contradicts the idea of any uncreated magnificence. We see that creation by someone is involved in all that is brilliant and excellent – music, paintings, writings, buildings, computer programs, medical equipment, and on and on. We witness order and greatness not arising without a purpose or plan, but rather only from very specific and intelligent design.
Do believers in the Lord (the Word in the flesh) tend to oppose Evolution Theory? Some believers take the stand that God used the process of evolution as proposed within evolutionary theories in his acts of creation. Others believe that there exist some elements of commonality in the proposed processes or events set forth by evolutionary theorists and the process of creation, so that evolutionary theorists may be accurate in some assertions and far off in others. Still others believe that evolutionary theorists and scientists are radically off on many or most of their assertions based on faulty assumptions, limited findings, use of faulty methodology, faulty interpretations, biased selection, and so on. While Christians may have differing interpretations of Scriptures and differing levels of opposition to Evolution Theory, our belief in God stands in opposition to any godless assertion that evolution and related phenomenon account for our universe apart from the will and actions of God. The unifying truth recognized by believers is that God is the Creator of all that is seen and unseen, as revealed by the Holy Spirit and the Word, and that in one form or another truth has been revealed through that Spirit and Word.
While many believers in God question Evolution theory, the opposition certainly is not limited to that centered on the faith of believers. Many frequently noted limitations and problems of Evolution Theory will be addressed, including those that are scientific, logical or philosophical in nature. The significant limitations and widely noted problems point to a vital question related to the necessary role of faith in the theory’s acceptance – Does belief in the Theory of Evolution require substantial faith because the theory ultimately lacks provability?
Separating Fact from Inference within Evolution Theory
We’ve all heard it – “Evolution is a fact”. But what exactly is fact when it comes to evolution? We evolve – that is we adapt and change over time – and this happens through mutation and natural selection. No arguments here. We can make observations of this within the laboratory, just as we can witness it in daily life, and few would argue against this evolution of life as fact. Believers generally understand that God has put natural laws and driving forces into place to shape the world. We praise God for making creation to change and adapt, thereby surviving and thriving, just as we praise God for the great multitude of ways he has designed the universe so magnificently.
But what about the inference that we all descended from a universal ancestor long ago? Or the suggestion that the “driving forces” of evolution (mutation and natural selection) occurred without ultimate design or direction, yet (because of a theoretically great amount of time) somehow caused the vast array of all that is within the universe to occur so precisely and brilliantly?
The key word is INFERENCE – inferences cannot truthfully be said to be factual. At best the claim can be made that it appears to evolutionary scientists, for example, that based on their findings and interpretation of those findings, we evolved from a universal ancestor long ago (others have far different interpretations of the findings). Yet we know this is NOT the way the theory is presented. Rather we are taught these mere assumptions about long-ago life (based on particular interpretations) as factually as we’re taught the observed, factual changes we witness.
What is the Evidence and What Does it Really Reveal?
The evidence for Evolution Theory is in large part that for the occurrence of what has been labeled by some as “microevolution” – evolutionary change within a small group of organisms or species, especially within a short period of time. This is readily studied and observed within the laboratory. But does the occurrence of microevolution necessarily imply anything about a common descent from a universal ancestor? No such implications are necessary, given the obvious and necessary role of microevolution to current life – microevolution is necessary for life to survive in changing environments. Without the ability of life to “evolve” in this manner, various life forms would quickly go extinct. Thus we would expect and predict microevolution as a necessary part of creation.
Given the necessary and predicted role of microevolution, there is no real need to theorize further about evolutionary events. We could just as logically predict that while the various types of creatures must necessarily contain a mechanism for adaptability and survival in changing environments (which would lead to changes within the types and new species), if types are to be maintained, then we expect to see inhibitors to greater evolution of the various distinct creatures. Much evidence supports such a prediction – we witness distinct types in life and in the fossil records; we find evidence from fossils that many ancient creatures exist in strikingly similar form today (“millions” of years later); we see that mutations are detrimental; we see that interbreeding of different kinds often produces sterile offspring, and so on.
“Macroevolution” refers to any changes at or above the level of species, so that it refers to greater change, such as the splitting of a species into two (speciation) or the change of one species into another over time. A more direct way to study macroevolution is to examine the fossil evidence; however, this stronger type of study has often yielded findings that contradict the theory, and overall has not proven strongly supportive of Evolution Theory. To study and provide indirect evidence for macroevolution, evolutionary scientists make predictions that would be necessary if macroevolution were true, and then see if those predictions are indeed found to be true. This indirect type of evidence is circumstantial, and cannot legitimately be said to prove Evolution Theory (in much the same way that “correlational” studies cannot be said to prove causality because there always exists the possibility of a third confounding variable that is responsible for the correlation). While attempts are made to present various circumstantial finds as strong evidence of Evolution Theory, the truth remains that the evidence is all similarly weak evidence based on its circumstantial, indirect nature. In fact, regardless of what “evidence” is purported, because Evolution Theory lacks the ability to directly observe macroevolution and universal common descent in the distant past, the theory does indeed lack provability!
While many understand that Evolution Theory ultimately lacks provability, the evidence from fulfilled predictions may be seen as more or less supportive of the theory. It becomes critical to understand that any predictions should not be able to be accounted for by alternative explanations if they are to be taken as truly revealing or supportive evidence. Evolutionary scientists report that the predictions they’ve made have been shown to be true. For example, evolutionary biologists predict that if all life descended from a common universal ancestor, then organisms will be very similar in their structures and mechanisms responsible for the basic life processes, and this prediction has proved to be true. The vital question for this merely circumstantial evidence becomes – is there an alternative explanation for the similarities in structures, mechanisms, DNA and such?
Alternative Explanations through Creation
Setting aside the many overzealous attempts to “prove” Evolution Theory that turned out to prove nothing but a troubling willingness to use manipulation and fraud, let’s assume truthful and full reporting of all evolutionary finds. Are there other explanations for the findings? Remember for a finding to be truly revealing, it is important that no alternative explanation exists. If other explanations do exist, then a finding reveals nothing. The following may illustrate: If it were theorized that a woman named Pat had once been a boy, people could make several predictions that should be true, and then determine if the predictions were indeed true. They might predict they’d find Pat wore only pants as a youth, played sports, wore no make-up, wore short hair and so on. If all their predictions turned out to be true and consistent with their theory, could they then say they’ve proven that Pat was indeed once a boy and this is now fact? No, of course not, because there yet exists an alternative, true explanation – Pat was simply a tomboy and all their predictions were accounted for by this fact, not the false idea that she had once been a boy.
How about an alternative explanation for that rightly predicted commonality amongst the structures and mechanisms of various forms of life? Purposeful creation provides that explanation – Surely a Creator who is “common” to all life, and who purposes that life for greatness and durability, would be inclined to use the same magnificently effective mechanisms and structures for all that created life. Since the design works so brilliantly, wouldn’t we expect to see that it was used throughout creation? The existence of a “common Designer” at least as readily explains similarities amongst life forms. Further, if we take note of the message that God’s process for creation involved the land producing the creation (as noted in 1:11, 1:24, Genesis), and thus all creation was likely formed from common elements and in common fashion, we would have many of the same expectations as evolutionists.
“Scientific” Explanations Only – No Higher Truth Allowed
Even though creation provides the alternative explanation, it does not necessarily provide an explanation that is considered scientific (it is not limited to science and is not fully testable), therefore it may not be included within the “scientific” explanations, and so it remains as the often unstated yet truthful alternative to Evolution Theory. Whether believers view creation as occurring through similar evolutionary processes as described in Evolution Theory (yet at the command of God), or instead they see creation as an entirely different process than anything proposed within Evolution Theory, believers generally agree that the truth of creation will never be fully amenable to scientific study. God alone knows all the mysteries of creation and he has not fully revealed them to anyone, as full knowledge and wisdom belong to him alone. Thus there exists a gap between ultimate truth and that which is controllable and knowable by humans and their scientific methods. The scientific method may contribute to greater and greater earthly knowledge, but that knowledge has tremendous limits and ends quite abruptly at the naturally observable. God alone gives wisdom and knowledge from above, and such knowledge is not limited by that which is observable in the natural realm.
The conclusion for the believer? Creation (in one form or another) does in fact account for that which is predicted and found true by scientists, but likely will not be given its place of truth within the scientific community because it is not in whole part a testable, scientific theory, but rather will always be beyond our earthly understanding and ability to test. The believer comes to truth by God through the Holy Spirit, not by the teachings of any human or the so-called “knowledge” of any age.
Spiritually Based Concerns with Evolution Theory
Those who honor the Word or the Scriptures as inspired by God are more or less inclined to question the truth of Evolution Theory, depending on specific interpretations of Scriptures (e.g., literal versus symbolic) and depending on beliefs regarding the transmission of the Spirit-inspired message (e.g., whether or not God corrected every human thought given within his Spirit-inspired message). Evolution Theory contradicts heavily with a strictly literal interpretation of Scripture, though not necessarily a figurative or symbolic interpretation. Even a more literal interpretation of the Word may be viewed as somewhat varying in the considered incompatibility with Evolution Theory, depending on the understanding of various factors (e.g., If the universe was created in a rapidly sped-up manner, for instance, then that which occurred in a timeframe similar to a literal six days would appear AS IF occurring over an extended time period, and would in this area be more compatible with current theories).
Some believers who are not attached to any particular interpretation of the creation account within Scripture are nonetheless hesitant to embrace Evolution Theory for a variety of reasons, including 1) its attempt to control and explain that which is beyond full human control and explanation; and 2) the belief that it MAY contradict the Word and truth, and so caution is used where the believer has no direct revelation related to the creation account.
Surely we do not want to embrace anything that stands opposed to the true Word of God – that is to Jesus Christ, the Word in the flesh. Remaining faithful to our Lord Jesus Christ, we avoid union with anything that is of the world rather than of the Holy Spirit. To deny the Word is to deny our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the Word!
We see that Evolution Theory has amongst its strongest proponents those who exalt human wisdom, bring forth questions regarding the existence and involvement of God, and ultimately seek to undermine or do away with God’s place as Sovereign Creator and Ruler of the universe. While Evolution is nothing but a proposed process that would necessarily still need a Creator, the goal of many advocates of Evolution Theory is to reduce or eliminate the role of God our Creator.
General Concerns and Arguments against Evolution Theory
Beyond the concerns related to faith and the Scriptures, many (believers and others) have numerous scientific, logical, philosophical, and other concerns with the Theory of Evolution and related theories. Many have noted that the evidence in fact does NOT line up with Evolution Theory, though great attempts are made to manipulate findings to fit with the theory and to silence anyone who opposes the beloved theory. It is not the intent here to cover all of the arguments against Evolution Theory, but simply to highlight some of these. The following are some of the significant and often noted concerns and problems with Evolution Theory:
- Concerns related to the astronomically complex universe (which we learn is ever more complex in all areas than ever previously assumed, so that a single cell is as complex in its workings as an entire city) and the IMPOSSIBILITY of our infinitely complex world without divine design (this concern/argument is not limited to that of “irreducible complexity”). Concerns here relate to the absurdity and lack of believability inherent in the idea that our remarkably and incomprehensively designed universe, and our astoundingly designed bodies, minds/souls and spirits could ever result from little more than the interplay between mutation and natural selection, at the “direction” of nothing but natural processes. Atheistic evolutionists appear to grossly underestimate the complexity of all that is within us and our universe.
- Concerns related to the evident beauty, meaning and majesty of life, especially human life, and the implications inherent in any godless evolutionary and related theories regarding an element of purposelessness, meaninglessness, hopelessness, eventual doom and the like.
- Concerns related to the revealing lack of DIRECT evidence for macroevolution or the “vertical” transition of one kind into another more complex kind (direct evidence of “horizontal” transitions abound and microevolution is a well-established fact). While such vertical transitions are said to have occurred in the distant past and the “defense” is that they cannot be expected to be directly observed today, the absence of direct evidence nonetheless necessarily limits Evolution Theory. As noted previously, this absence of direct evidence for theorized past events is the reason Evolution Theory lacks provability, in much the same way our beliefs in God and creation lack provability.
- Related to the overall lack of direct evidence are concerns regarding the unmet expectation of a multitude of new kinds (rather than simply new species) continuing to gradually arise, apart from interbreeding of different kinds (often producing sterile offspring). Conceding that apes and monkeys are not proposed as the ancestor of humans, we thus concede that according to the theory we would not expect a modern monkey or an ape to evolve into a human (and so would not see any at stages between a monkey or ape and human). However, the concern nevertheless continues regarding the lack of evidence that monkeys and apes are gradually turning into an altogether different kinds of creatures, and likewise the lack of evidence that humans are turning into any different kind of creature (as opposed to simply more evolved or different apes and monkeys, or a simply more evolved human). Even the defense that this occurs “too slowly” to observe does not satisfy the expectation that some kinds should more evidently be well on their way to becoming a new kind of creature altogether. We have a multitude of monkeys, but they are still monkeys. We have a multitude of apes, but they are still apes. And humans are, well, still all humans.
- Concerns related to the basic similarities of humans made in God's image. While some people tend toward racist views that emphasize the differences amongst humans, the truth is that the human race is an extremely homogenous group. For example, differences in IQ scores amongst various groups are quite small considering the potential for great differences. The most basic needs, behaviors and such of humans are very similar. If Evolution Theory were accurate, we would expect to see those groups who were on their way to being something other than humans altogether.
- Concerns related to the missing fossil evidence for the theory, despite the logical prediction and expectation in this area. Of the utmost importance, the fossils (while quite revealing and supportive of alternative explanations) have failed to reveal the proposed “molecules-to-man” evolution.
- The unaccounted for great gaps found between kinds, which in fact fulfill the predictions of contrasting theories that do account for the great gaps.
- Striking fossil evidence that greatly conflicts with (and many assert disproves) Evolution Theory, such as that related to the Cambrian Explosion – Within a relatively short time known as the Cambrian Age, at least 100 phyla suddenly appeared fully formed, with nothing but single-celled (and a few very primitive multi-celled) creatures before them.
- In further contradiction to Evolution Theory, the ancient Cambrian creatures resemble the creatures of our day. If Evolution Theory were true, the creatures of today should have within the time estimated at millions of years, radically evolved from the creatures found from the Cambrian Explosion.
- The striking conflicts between the more direct fossil evidence and the human or computer created “evolutionary tree” and subsequent phylogenies or phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic trees have exhibited a multitude of problems, including their failure to display extinctions known to exist and the mentioned failure to match fossil evidence.
- The failure of Evolution Theory to account for the fact that the differences between organisms are greater than the similarities amongst them.
- Due to the lack of direct evidence for macroevolution and universal descent, comes increasing reliance on merely “circumstantial evidence”, such as similarities in DNA, which is particularly weak evidence and reveals nothing if accounted for by alternative explanations (See “What Does the Evidence Really Reveal”).
- Concerns related to the Law of Increasing Entropy (Second Law of Thermodynamics), which many note contradicts Evolution Theory. The counter argument is that the Law of Increasing Entropy is limited to “closed systems” and the universe is an “open system” (e.g. open to the energy of the sun); however, in cases of decreasing entropy (increasing organization) in open systems, a guiding program and a mechanism for conserving energy have been needed (and such factors as heat from the sun are known to increase entropy, not promote organization).
- Concerns related to the fact that more “vertical” change has been detrimental rather than beneficial. Observed scientifically, mutations are disorganizing, not organizing mechanisms. In this way, Evolution Theory appears to stand opposed to that which has been observed scientifically. We might go so far as to say that since this is a finding of science, evolutionists oppose science in this area, in the same way persons of faith are accused of opposing science based on their beliefs.
- Concerns related to our own observations in life that blind chaos and disorder do not ON THEIR OWN become beautiful, meaningful, useful or magnificent order. We ourselves are the witnesses that only design and creation in life results in superior form and function, or excellence of any kind, such as that created by humans in the areas of music, art, architecture, life-saving techniques, and so on. Belief in Evolution Theory seems to represent an effort to turn a blind eye to this witnessed fact of life and to imagine a life of the reverse of the natural rule.
- Concerns related to the unavoidable limitations and inadequacies regarding human findings and the piecing together of finds, as well as the limitations and inadequacies in human interpretation of findings, and the like. The obvious fallibility of human effort and the inability of humans to account for all the countless unknown factors.
- Limitations and inaccuracies in methods utilized for scientific study.
- The inability of any one of us to witness ancient events.
- The inability to recreate the atmosphere or life as it was in ancient times (e.g., early earth’s true atmosphere).
- Concerns related to the withholding from students and the general public of documented contradictory findings and evidence against evolution.
- The use of manipulation through drawings, computerized images, exaggerations, misleading photographs and the like. This often represents an attempt to make us believe by “seeing” (young students are especially vulnerable to belief through this falsified form of presentation).
- The inability to rule out all alternative explanations for predicted circumstantial findings, especially those that relate to the acts of Deity. The inability to understand or control for that which occurs outside the natural realm or the natural laws of possibility. The ever present possibility of unseen confounding factors.
- Concerns related to the unwarranted confidence in an unproven (and unprovable) theory full of limitations, demonstrated inconsistencies with many findings, and so on. Here we find concerns related to the rigid, forceful presentation of Evolution Theory without proper recognition of its limitations and fallibility, and the related demand for absolute acceptance of the theory instead of encouragement of either an open-minded or a questioning approach. Unfortunately, many have experienced ridicule, mockery and the like used by many evolutionists to obtain control and force acceptance of the beloved, even idolized theory.
- Concerns related to the dishonest and fraudulent activities of overly zealous evolutionists that have been exposed, and the implications for the potential untrustworthiness of evolutionary scientists and others who are overly biased and motivated in one direction. Examples include the infamous “Piltdown Man”, falsely created from the remains of various animals and a human, and the frequent textbook use of Heackel’s infamous embryo drawings that gave false, manipulated similarities in the embryonic development of various animals.
Atheistic Push for Evolutionary and Related Theories
“For the time will come when people will not put up with sound doctrine. Instead, to suit their own desires, they will gather around them a great number of teachers to say what their itching ears want to hear. They will turn their ears away from the truth and turn aside to myths” (4:3-4, 2 Timothy).
Evolution Theory is esteemed greatly by many atheists for a very particular reason – it is claimed that the theory does away with the NEED for a Creator, and thus aids the one who does not believe and desires not to believe in God. A combination of random mutations and nonrandom processes of natural selection are said to ON THEIR OWN fully account for all we see and experience within ourselves and within our universe. It is theorized that given enough time, all that exists within us and our world was capable of coming to be without any design or intelligence. While many recognize that a process (such as that proposed in Evolution Theory) would need a Creator as surely as anything else, it is a common occurrence for the claim to be made that evolution requires no Creator.
Amongst atheists, we often find ridicule of anyone who questions or disagrees with any aspect of Evolution Theory, as well as rigid control over what findings and interpretations are presented. Popular online sites, for example, may permit such unscientific writings as that related to terra cards, for example, yet restrict any links to creationism websites. Many atheistic evolutionists mock and label those with faith in the Creator. Given the extreme response by many devout evolutionists toward anyone with differing views or simple questions, we have begun to recognize the exaltation of Evolution Theory as a form of religion itself. Anyone who opposes the “god of evolution” will suffer the wrath of the allegiant followers of Evolution Theory.
Whether believers lean more toward belief in creation through evolution (or a similar process) or lean toward creationism, they understand the ultimate hand of the Creator in the process. Given that some believers are content to consider that God may have used evolutionary processes in his creation, the question arises – Why the great controversy over the current Theory of Evolution?
The theory’s godless presentation of the universe, our bodies and all that is within us as merely resulting from natural processes is a supremely dangerous presentation in that it places a stumbling block in the way of belief for those who have not yet met the Lord. We have been given all of creation as a powerful testimony to the existence and nature of God. To look at a sunset, a mountain, a flower, a horse, and certainly a newborn baby is to know something of God. It is written: “Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. So they are without excuse.” (1:20, Romans), and “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.” (19:1-4, Psalm).
Yet for more and more people, Evolution Theory as currently presented is silencing the testimony of creation about the Creator, and it appears that this is the very goal of those who most faithfully seek to promote Evolution Theory and exalt the god of evolution.
A Call for Educational Reform
What should be presented within our public educational systems? Should we include Evolution Theory, Intelligent Design, Creationism, simply a disclaimer that we have conflicting evidence and no proof of how life came to be? Should Evolution Theory be given preference and should it be given a voice of authority? Should any theory on our existence be given a voice of authority, or can we acknowledge truthfully that they are all unprovable? Exactly how should this area be presented? Should we acknowledge the always potential but unobservable existence of factors outside the realm of scientific study? Should we even mention that which is not scientific? Should we emphasize attained knowledge or limitations and fallibility? How can the system better educate in such a way that encourages exploration, consideration of all factors, openness to possibilities, and an understanding of our current limitations when teaching about life?
Some may consider Intelligent Design, Creationism and alternatives largely “scientific” theories with supporting evidence (certainly there is much evidence, though often not acknowledged or permitted). Yet many believers concede that due to the degree of untestable, unknowable, supernatural phenomenon within the details of God’s creation, the truth of what occurred does not likely fit neatly into a purely scientific model, as it involves much more. In one sense, the push to fit the TRUTH into a scientific theory minimizes that which occurred at God’s will and command. However, the push for divine explanations to be classified as scientific is understandable, based on the current thought that only that which is purely scientific should be presented as a viable alternative. Current thought appears to be that 1) we must give the impression of great knowledge and control over our universe, and 2) because theories that acknowledge the divine hand of God cannot be presented in a similarly known and controlled manner, the most amenable to human knowledge and control (currently the Theory of Evolution) should be presented as accurate and authoritative in its content and assertions.
Modifying the presentation of current theories, thoughts and possibilities would aid in reducing many of the conflicts and problems centered on controversial teaching within our schools and universities. Greater encouragement of questions and exploration, the allowance of differing views and beliefs, and the acknowledgement of yet unknown possibilities and unobserved phenomenon would benefit young minds, which may someday impact our understanding and world. Great caution should be exercised by leaders in educational systems who must avoid limiting or misdirecting students, and this includes honestly presenting findings and theories as fallible, rather than attempting to give authoritative voice to that which is limited and unascertained.
Taking a Stand as Believers in the Lord
The multitudes who have met the Lord will continue to acknowledge God’s role as Creator of the universe. Yet for the sake of others, including our loved ones, we cannot sit by passively and let the deceiver blind the eyes of the masses, convincing them that God’s hand can be removed from his creation. In response to the prophesied and now occurring fall from faith and truth in our day, it is vital that Christians unite in belief in our Creator and Lord, regardless of any differences in understanding of specific processes or time frame for creation.
Though attempts are made to silence believers and limit their voice in educational and other settings, we will not and cannot be silenced. October 18 has been set aside as Creator Day (aka Creation Day) – a day for believers to annually unite and declare the eternal truth that God is our Creator and Lord. This may be done through simple celebrations of our Creator and enjoyment of the creation, such as singing praises around a campfire or visiting the mountains or lake; or through declarative parades, festivals and parties in which creation-themed costumes or t-shirts demonstrate to the world our belief in our Creator.
We are involved in one of the most pressing spiritual battles of our day. Attempts to distort and deny the Creator are in full force, and we must take care to stand firm in our faith and present the truth to those who will hear with spiritual ears. The insistence that godless processes played out without the hand of the Creator in forming our universe, our bodies, souls and spirits, and all that is unseen but real and beautiful within the world – love, hope, faith, dreams, joy, peace – is a blinding force within our day, and we must stand together in the unity and power of the Holy Spirit, offering everlasting truth and light to those who will receive from the Lord.
“They exchanged the truth about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator--who is forever praised. Amen.” (1:25, Romans)
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In a culture that increasingly denies our Creator, Creator Day on October 18 is arising as a spiritually significant holiday and social movement to unite Christians in belief and to glorify our Lord.
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Evolution is nothing but an alleged PROCESS that takes us NO closer to eliminating the need for a Creator of initial elements, the potential for life, and any natural processes that shape that life.