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From the Beginning - Creationist Cosmologies
From the Beginning
Biblical creationists are often confronted with the suggestion that we need to provide our own theories rather than simply criticizing the theories of evolutionists. What follows are four Biblical creationist cosmological theories.
All creationist cosmologies, including the Big Bang, start after the beginning. What God did in that first moment when there was nothing, to create the something, is beyond us. It is what happens afterward that science attempts to describe. The Big Bang Theory was among the first to attempt that description. Proposed by the Belgian monk Le Maitre as the Cosmic Egg, it was modified by the Russian mathematician Friedmann to remove the center and edge to become the Friedmann-Le Maitre (FL) model, now known as the standard model.
The Big Bang Theory was a welcome apologetic at the time it appeared. Rather than living in an eternally existing universe, we now lived in a universe that had a definite beginning, just as Genesis 1 declared. The problem with the FL version of the Big Bang Theory is that it contradicts both the time scale (6000 years vs. Billions) and the order of creation (stars on day 4 after the earth was created vs. stars coming into being, going nova and the earth being born in a third or fourth generation solar system). Some creationists, happy with the Big Bang Theory, simply followed an earlier pattern of conforming the Bible to science and allegorizing the first chapters of Genesis. Other creationists realized that there was a need for a better theory, not only one that accorded more closely with Genesis, but also with the data.
Variable Speed of Light
One of the first to re-examine the data was Barry Setterfield. He looked at the speed of light over time and suggested that c was not constant with relation to time. He saw the speed of light slowing down over time, which would account for the cosmological red shift. Evolutionists have also suggested that the speed of light has varied over time. If the speed of light is variable so is the rate of radioactive decay. For Mr. Setterfield this provided an explanation of the apparent radioactive age of the universe among other things. A variable speed of light also impacts other theories adversely. Other scientists looked at the data and saw errors in it.
Barry Setterfiels's Research
White Hole Cosmology and Beyond
Dr. Russell Humphreys considered the problem and he came up with a different solution. He proposed a White Hole cosmology. A white hole is the opposite of a black hole, with energy and matter being spewed out rather sucked in. At the event horizon there was a time dilation effect, outside the event horizon time moved faster than inside. Two major differences in this cosmology are that it assumes a center and an edge to the universe. The earth being near the center of the White Hole it was late emerging, and therefore the passage of time on earth was slowed in comparison with the rest of the cosmos. Within the event horizon time moves more slowly than at the edge, therefore billions of years could elapse outside the event horizon while only days pass inside. This cosmology had the advantage of being easy to understand and explain, alas, Dr. Humphreys has abandoned the White Hole while retaining Time Dilation.
Time dilation is an effect predicted within the Theory of Relativity. Basically, time is affected both by velocity and gravity (and this has been confirmed by measurement). Dr. Humphrey’s cosmology uses gravity as the prime affecter for time dilation. In his model Genesis 1:6-7 need to be understood on a cosmological scale:
And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters And God made the firmament and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
In the center of the cosmos God placed a small mass of water that became our solar system, around the edge of the cosmos God placed a large shell of water, in between is the firmament. It is the gravity from this mass of water at the outer edge that provides the time dilation. So far, Dr. Humphrey’s theory has explained the Pioneer anomaly and correctly predicted the strength of the magnetic fields of Uranus and Mercury, as well as the decay rate of Mercury’s field. Its success has not, however, prevented it from being challenged.
Cosmological General Relativity
Dr. John Hartnett is an expert on time dilation. He works on the affect of time dilation on GPS systems. His cosmology differs from Dr. Humphrey’s in that it uses velocity as the prime factor in time dilation. Dr. Hartnett also uses a variation of Relativity called Cosmological Relativity. With standard Relativity dark matter and dark energy are required to explain some of the observations made of the universe. Moshe Carmelli, an Israeli physicist gave some thought to this and decided that both dark matter and dark energy were shortcomings of Einstein’s Theory; he modified the theory with a 5-dimension universe that uses velocity as its fifth dimension, he called this modification Cosmological General Relativity. Calculating Relativity this way removes the need for dark matter and dark energy.
- A 5D spherically symmetric expanding universe is young
A technical explanation of Cosmological General Relativity. Includes the math.
Cosmic Center Universe
The problem with all of the above theories is that they require expansion as an explanation of red shift. Some scientists challenge expansion itself, and if expansion is falsified, so are all three of the theories mentioned. Dr. Robert Gentry, made famous by his studies on radio halos, has proposed that galactic red shift is caused by the motion of the galaxies; this makes the red shift a Doppler effect rather than an expansion effect. There is no way to tell the difference between the two by observation, but mathematically (or the physics of the theory) it makes a big difference.
Dr. Gentry’s Cosmic Center Universe model accounts for many of the same phenomena that the Big Bang Theory does. His theory differs in that it maintains a 6,000-year-old universe with both a center and an edge. At the edge of the universe, the CCU model predicts a large hydrogen shell with Population III stars. No such stars have been observed and no such shell.
- Orion Foundation: Ten Censored Papers
Dr. Gentry's research.
Mature Universe Cosmology
The final cosmology has two variations. It has been suggested that the universe was created mature, thus, the Mature Universe Cosmology. The first variation of this is purely miraculous. The universe was created as it is and the light was created in transit. To many people this means that the information contained in the light is fictional. Theologically this is a disturbing concept and therefore an alternative solution has been sought.
Dr. Jason Lisle, currently Director of Research for the Institute of Creation Research, has proposed the Anisotropic Synchrony Convention. By itself, this is not a cosmology. Dr. Lisle accepts that God has created a mature universe but that the light contains real information. That light arrives here at Earth instantaneously. It does so because the one-way speed of light is anisotropic, that is, it is different in all directions. This occurs because within Special Relativity it is possible to calculate the speed of light using either a position dependent variable (Einstein’s preference) or a velocity dependent variable (Dr. Lisle’s preference). Regardless of how the one-way speed is calculated, the two-way speed is not changed. When added to the Mature Universe Cosmology we get the ASC Model. This model explains the appearance of youth in the universe with maturity being an artifact of creation.
- Anisotropic Synchrony Convention—A Solution to the Distant Starlight Problem - Answers in Genesis
The clear biblical teaching therefore is that everything in the universe is a few thousand years old, it would seem that we should only be able to see objects within a radius of 6,000 light years.
Biblical creationists have produced cosmologies expressed in scientific terms. Each of these cosmologies is testable and falsifiable. Indeed, it can be said that they are exclusive theories, if one is true the others are falsified. What these theories hold in common is that God is true and Genesis 1 is to be taken literally. Not only do these theories account for the universe as described in Genesis 1, they can explain the universe as it is observed by us now. Like all theories they are generalizations of what we know, and as we learn more the theories will have to be modified (as with Dr. Humphrey’s White Hole Cosmology), or discarded. Regardless of which theory meets with the greatest approval, it can be shown that theories exist which support the Biblical narrative.
Dated because it is an explanation of White Hole Cosmology but still useful in its explanation of Time Dilation.
A very technical description of Dr. Hartnett's understanding of how Cosmological General Relativity applies to YEC cosmology.
A forum with Dr. Humphreys and Dr. Hartnett discussing their theories.
My novel of the pre-flood world.