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Hannah of 1 Samuel 1:1-28

Updated on December 5, 2017
Hannah did not forget to pray!
Hannah did not forget to pray! | Source

1 Samuel 1:1-28: Reflecting on Hannah and Elkanah

On reading 1 Samuel 1 I am always moved by the conclusion that Hannah was a wise woman. Her distinctiveness is in the fact that through faithful prayer she clung to faith in God during dark days of suffering. She was diligent to pray during daily life, not failing to pray even in times of celebration.

Though Elkanah apparently loved her to the best of his ability, he actually may characterize the fairly typical follower rather than a strong leader. But since he was a good provider and he was actively doing good within their community’s culture it’s doubtful that many suspected anything could be amiss in his life.

Hannah and Relationships

Hannah’s recorded example for Christian women has earned her a prominent place in history and I have been so thankful for the record of her faithfulness even when heartbroken. I’ve not had her particular difficulty, but the specifics of her trial are not the main point of the passage for us.

It is her response to her suffering that women throughout the ages have gained the most from and the only fair way to reflect on all that the passage offers us is to say that no human being can sustain the burden of trying to be the all in all to another.

No husband or wife can meet all of the needs of their spouse, no parent can for their children. Developing our relationship with God according to His Word is the only way we can make progress in our journey to completion.

By keeping her focus on God, Hannah made such huge strides in her journey that her name has been recorded with honor. Being satisfied in Him gives us a standpoint from which we can know where to get help for life’s difficulties.

It is imperative to search out what God has to say about our relationship to Him, yet this hub is taking a look at the record of a particular man and wife’s relationship complicated by circumstances that are bizarre to most who read it from today’s vantage point.

Complicated relationships can teach us much!
Complicated relationships can teach us much! | Source

Looking at Elkanah

History tells us that Elkanah, an Ehraimite from the tribe of Levi, was obedient to the law that the people of his day lived by and that he followed their traditions. Sadly, the two were sometimes mingled until even the leaders no longer knew the difference.

In great part, Elkanah was the father of Samuel because of Hannah’s faithfulness. Understanding her story in the context of the society she lived in will surely make your heart beat with compassion for her suffering because her husband had married two women.

For all the upstanding deeds that earned him respect with people, in some of his responses to both of the women chronicled as his wives he does not portray the image of one who feared God more than most (Nehemiah 7:2). Elkanah’s example should give Christian men serious pause for thought.

Whether he ever tried to reason with Peninnah (his other wife) about her insulting abuses to Hannah is not recorded as far as I know. It’s reasonable to think he might have done so, but some of his behavior makes me think maybe not.

Elkanah’s Behavior Toward Hannah

Elkanah displayed love and care for Hannah in many ways, but his thinking was flawed from the beginning. All human beings are imperfect and husbands are no exception.

We need to give them the benefit of the doubt whenever possible, for that is how we would like to have people respond to us. However, two wives was not how God designed marriage.

There’s more to that aspect of his life, and Elkanah’s reactions to the situation he was responsible for have in some instances, I believe, been misinterpreted with the best of intentions. A practical look at his behavior reveals classic problems.

How typical it is of those who are not seeking the mind of the Lord for the resolution of a problem to approach it by trying to throw money at it. This is a common human problem, and Elkanah’s response shows he had not risen above it.

In his self-satisfaction he did not understand the scope or the complexity of Hannah’s problem. Note the double portions he gives her and his question about whether he was good enough to her when you read the passage.

What can the poor woman say to this husband? It isn’t that she doesn’t love him or appreciate his special gifts to her, and it certainly isn’t that she thinks he has the power to give her a child.

He simply does not grasp what her need is and I can find nothing that says he really tries to. He is, after all, a busy man.

He does not reflect a humble attitude regarding this matter, nor is there an indication that he thought he might be part of the problem, though it would be inequitable to say that he never felt true compassion for Hannah.

Life is full of opportunities to give careful responses!
Life is full of opportunities to give careful responses! | Source

Hannah’s Blessed Response

The shining light in these awkward-at-best circumstances is Hannah’s relationship with and utter trust in God. She had made it her business to understand what she knew about her Creator. She spent time in prayer and He increased her faith through that communion.

She did not understand why through no fault of her own she was suffering so, but she knew God well enough to be unafraid to be honest with Him about it. She knew that as with everyone else she was not worthy of God’s good gifts, but she also knew she was not less worthy.

Most of all, she had a glimpse of His merciful character toward those who would bend the knee at His throne of grace. Through her desire to know Him and trust Him she had gained some understanding of His infinite knowledge and power.

God proved Himself faithful to his child who was in the bondage of her humanity and in the grip of her culture. He sustained her for “just such a time as this,” as with Esther (Esther 4:14). It was God’s intention to do a great thing through her faith and the bitter circumstances did not prevent His plans from being fulfilled, nor did He let her faith fail (Luke 22:32).

Hannah’s torment and long awaited answer to prayer had great purpose even though she could not see how there could be any benefit in the problem at the time. To cover all of the facts about her situation is impossible here, but the record is there and it reaches into the future.

Her prayer of praise for His help acknowledges God’s omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence. Without reservation she pours out her heart to God in thanksgiving by rehearsing what she knew of His character and authority.

Her faithfulness in the trial magnified God, and it brought blessing to herself and her people. Her God-centered diligence not only ended her torment, but it did so in a way that highlighted God’s Name and Word for all of time and eternity.

Peninnah’s sons grew up and were installed as priests, likely increasing her mockery of Hannah’s aging childlessness, but Hannah’s miracle son became a true prophet of God. Still, his amazing life’s story, as with all of God’s people, is filled with brokenness along with victories.

In reading through the record of Hannah’s son’s life we see the golden thread of redemption sewn with the strength of God’s sovereignty over mankind, displaying that not even the failures of the best or worst men and women can prevent Him from actualizing His plans.

Eli, the High Priest

Eli was a mere man who had been given the great privilege of his office. He was not as careful as he should have been with his own sons, though we do have the record of his warnings to them. Without assuming too much, we know enough to know that Eli was no more perfect than other people.

He tried to faithfully attend to his service, gaining experience with human nature as he performed his duties. He had become skilled at recognizing behaviors for what they were. Profiling is an age-old technique that community leaders use in dealing wisely with people who are conducting themselves badly.

It’s not fool-proof, though. It must be used with truth as its frame of reference and that requires some knowledge of the situation and the person involved. In Hannah’s case Eli was initially mistaken and I can easily imagine that his integrity allowed him to apologize to her.

To his credit, once Eli understood the problem he displayed appropriate compassion for Hannah. Eli’s choice position before God that enabled him to help her is a mystery to me. The fact that I am puzzled, however, has nothing to do with God’s decisions or His power to accomplish what he decides.

It’s important for us to realize that He does not need our permission to work as He wills. I am thankful to know that He is compassionate to those who will come before Him with a humble heart seeking His mercy and it is enough that I have my own experiences with Him that have increased my faith.

A daily walk with Him according to His Word results in assurances for the future. The acquaintance that comes through close fellowship and a growing understanding of His work throughout history allows me to know His mercy and experience His grace as Hannah did so long ago. Though He has given me more, that is enough for what my today holds.

Eli knew this, too, and he displayed a settled conviction that God was not only in control, but that He cared deeply and that He had the power to answer any matter. Eli’s record shows that he humbly submitted to the way God was responding even to his own life and in his own family.

The final chapter was not his original expectation, but He knew there was one best response--rejoice in the fact that God is God and that He promises to work out our disappointments and failures if we will seek His help to act justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with Him (Micah 6:8).

Relationships with difficult people complicate life.
Relationships with difficult people complicate life. | Source

Peninnah Compared to Hannah

This wife had no mercy for Hannah and there is no record of repentance for her lack of it. Her name has literally gone down in history. Peninnah stands as a reminder to all of us, men and women alike, that God commands us to love mercy.

I’ve wondered what Peninnah's thoughts must have been when Hannah returned from her prayers for a child that day. To see joy and peace shining through her eyes, to see her enabled to rejoin the celebration having lost the sorrow that had been her longstanding companion surely must have perplexed the cruel wife.

It may be that Peninnah’s heart was so hardened that she could not begin to comprehend what it meant for Hannah to enter into the worship free of her burden. Rejoicing with Hannah would have been out of the question for the arrogant heart of this other wife.

She had no concept of how easily the tables could have been turned on her. Nor did she give any attention to the truth that in mercy God will allow people to go their own way, giving many chances for repentance, but that He says “only so far” in all cases.

As the antagonist in the situation she didn’t grasp who she was dealing with--it wasn’t Hannah. By being Hannah’s enemy she was dealing herself a heavy blow. Her blindness was that which Proverbs 4 warns us about.

Everything I read about Hannah’s character says that she probably tried to be kind to her husband’s other wife throughout the years, in spite of Peninnah’s maliciousness. It would have been difficult and probably subdued in the face of the abuse she received, and she probably had to keep her distance.

Now, though, that same kindness could be given from a heart full of the peace that only God can give a truly distressed mind. To my shame I cannot say that I have always sought and waited patiently on God’s timing to solve problems. Every time I look at Hannah’s life I am encouraged to become more like her example.

It is an extreme honor to be able to take God at His Word through the miracle of faith. Having the whole counsel of His Word filled with examples to follow when troubles come is a life-giving blessing. When all we see are ashes, impossibilities, and unbearable circumstances we need to continue praying for help until it comes.

To be able to pray with a humble heart like the prophets, with the honesty of Hannah, the courage of Esther, and the faithfulness of Abigail is to display faith. To persevere like the widow in the parable (Luke 18) with the humble trust of the centurion (Matthew 8) is to receive answers--but reading the Bible record shows us that answers do not always come like we expect.

There is help for life's complications!
There is help for life's complications! | Source

Closing Thoughts on 1 Samuel 1:1-28

The answer to our prayers may not be like the answer another receives, but God is much bigger than our expectations can ever be. We have examples of people who had quick answers to their prayers, and others like Hannah who waited long years. She teaches us to look for God's hand at work when all seems said and done--even finished.

We may have to push through the temptation to give up on a hopeless situation, but at all times He asks us to yet trust Him, He urges us to run to Him as our Stronghold and lean hard on Him, to ask Him honest questions with our hands open before Him. He wants us to ask Him for help even in our deepest distresses, when we think there is no help, when all seems lost and everything we know tells us that nothing can salvage a situation.

If we are confronted with the black hole of facing the end of our hope, faith can help us hold on as we trust God's way and timing. Don’t I think, though, that there could be more to Hannah’s life’s story than what I’ve put together here? Yes, of course. God’s Word is full of truths that we should pray about and take to heart because its wisdom is fathomless for those who trust Him through His Son.

I don’t pretend to have perfect understanding of this passage, nor can I explain why God leaves room for faithless people to misinterpret the bad behavior recorded in the Bible so they can twist it and say God condones it because it is in His Word. I’ve given consideration to Hannah’s life because my desire is to increasingly manage my responses to difficult situations the way she did.

Thankfully, with His help, I can do all things through Christ (Philippians 4:13). It is a wonderful thing to see the Redeemer’s work from Genesis to Revelation, to know that it encompasses time and eternity. The thought that this work includes the affairs of my individual life is phenomenal, speaking of the infinitely encompassing largeness of God.

Hannah lived close to nature and saw God’s hand in creation on a daily basis, she watched His hand at work in the affairs of humankind, and she embraced what she learned from the record of His Word with all of its promise for the future. She did not suppress the truth by demanding more proof from God, (Romans 1:18-19) but she fully turned to Him with a meek embrace (James 1:21) of what she did know, thereby gaining the help she needed for her righteous request.

Passages like Luke 18:1 and 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18 explain that Christians ought to pray with resolve, despising and disregarding hopelessness when it creeps in, as we give thanks and praise for fellowship with God and confidence in His promises of help. For a crushed, heartbroken, desolate person to be thankful for this instruction is for that one to have hope secured with promise. We may not be able to fully comprehend the difficulty Hannah dealt with, but we can, as she did, turn to God in faith and persistently seek His help for our needs.

Two Poems Drawn from Suffering

Mountain Breezes is an anthology of poems that have guided me in prayer in times of suffering.

• Two original poems drawn from the valley of suffering with a discussion.

Every Valley

Have you ever given consideration to Hannah's life before reading this hub?

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Are you familiar with Hannah of 1 Samuel 1?

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  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    5 years ago from the short journey


    Thank you, both for stopping by and for commenting.

  • profile image


    5 years ago

    Beautiful and so interesting!

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey

    Mommy Needs a Nap:

    Thank you for your kind comment. A study of Hannah's life is an encouraging study of faithfulness under fire and I hope to write more about her. I appreciate your visit very much!

  • Mommy Needs a Nap profile image

    Michelle Clairday 

    6 years ago from Arkansas

    Terrific work. I've always loved Hannah, and you brought up some excellent points. Thank you.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    Thank you for adding your feedback here. Though Hannah's society was far different than ours, her character qualities are timeless, especially in light of the fact that this fallen world is always filled with people who suffer.

  • profile image


    6 years ago

    RTalloni, This is such a beautiful tribute to Hannah. In particular, I like where you pull together her key attribute and those of other remarkable figures when you mention Abigail's faithfulness, Esther's courage

    (compassion, ingenuity, and integrity), and Hannah's honesty.

    Respectfully, and with many thanks for sharing one of my favorite stories from the Holy Bible, Derdriu

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    Thank you for visiting this hub and for your comment.

  • girishpuri profile image

    Girish puri 

    6 years ago from NCR , INDIA

    An addition to my knowledge about Hannah, the strong one, thank for haring.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    Thank you for your encouraging words. Hannah's life is indeed a beautiful lesson for us and I very much appreciate your response to this hub about her.

  • picklesandrufus profile image


    6 years ago from Virginia Beach, Va

    I really appreciate this detailed and well developed hub. It is a beautiful lesson in faith and sacrifice. What a strong, trusting and faithful person Hannah was.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    Sacrifices of the heart do indeed mean much to our Lord and Hannah's sacrifice came from a heart full of thanksgiving. Her life's circumstances, the culture she was born into, and her faith in the face of all she dealt with are pretty far removed from our thinking, but her responses to her difficulties are an example for all people in all times.

    It's an interesting study to try to search out Samuel's exact age when he went to live with Eli. It was apparently common for Jewish women to nurse their children into their 3rd year, but some historians say he could have been as old as 12 years when he began his studies with Eli. From what I've read, I believe he was quite young, but not as young as 2. I do not mention this to you to debate the question, but simply as food for thought. What ever his age, he was young and it was a priceless sacrifice that Hannah made, but she made it with confidence in the one who gave her the child. God did not leave her comfortless for he saw to it that she could be in touch with her first son and express her love for him. God also gave her 5 more children to occupy her heart and home. I agree with you, though, parting with Samuel for the majority of his daily life could only happen because of a strong faith that God granted Hannah which she nurtured into maturity.

    You offer all believers an important question--what priceless sacrifice have we made by faith for our Lord? Thank you very much for adding your comments to this discussion.

  • teaches12345 profile image

    Dianna Mendez 

    6 years ago

    When I read of Hannah's story I think about how much she had to give up. I cannot imagine having to leave your child at two in the hands of others. She was a strong woman of faith. I wonder how much we would be willing to give up to obey God's plan for us and others. Sacrifice of the heart means much to our Lord.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey

    The Dirt Farmer:

    It's a packed passage, isn't it?! I hope you were able to use the link to 1 Samuel 1 for easy access to the book.

    The importance of our individual relationship with God, independent of a husband or wife, is a concept that we absolutely must keep in mind. The obvious reason is that not everyone gets married, but the most important reason is that God relates to His people as individuals. That's not to say that we don't have a responsibility before Him within and for a marriage if we are in one, just as we do if we are members of a church with other Believers, but He is a personal God to us. There's more to the topic, of course, but it is important for us to strive to develop and maintain that personal relationship with Him, to seek Him according to His Word on an individual level.

    So appreciate that you shared your response to this hub with these comments!

  • The Dirt Farmer profile image

    Jill Spencer 

    6 years ago from United States

    It's been so long since I've read I Samuel that I had to reread Hannah's story in order to understand your hub. One interesting point that you make, to me anyway, is the importance of maintaining one's own, individual spirituality, independent of one's husband or wife.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    It is the beauty of her life that she turned to God and received His help. How long she waited and prayed for His answer to her problem is a remarkable example for us. Thank you very much for adding your comments to this hub.

  • Pamela-anne profile image


    6 years ago from Miller Lake

    I see Hannah as struggling through the hardships in her life instead of lashing back at those who caused her pain she instead turned to God for comfort and guidance. Thanks for sharing take care.

  • RTalloni profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from the short journey


    Thank you for stopping in and for adding your comments to this hub.

    Hannah's struggle is a representation of the struggle of all mankind. The fact that she turned to God, rather than responding in like kind to Peninnah or in anger to Elkanah, but in so much trust of God that she prayed so earnestly that Eli misunderstood her desperate plea all makes her example of faithfulness to pray in spite of years of difficult circumstances an important example, especially for Believers who are suffering.

    Indeed, God is our all in all for all things in time and eternity!

  • sofs profile image


    6 years ago

    Interesting discussion, I was drawn in by the title.

    To me Hannah's struggle represents the struggle of all mankind. No matter what you have or have not, even a dedicated and loyal and loving husband like Elkana is not enough to fill the God shaped vacuum within. You need God... would be my end statement, he is the lifter of your head. Hannah knew it very well.

    Peninnah wasn't the only person who looked down on Hannah. The shame of barrenness was like a leper's garment upon her... her only hope was God... that is my take on this subject. He is our hope... there is none like Him.


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