He Who Established The Covenants
Abraham And Isaac Establish The Way Of God
Trek To The Vacant Region Of Jerusalem
This first instalment of the stories of Abraham establishing the conclusions of his covenants with God comprises verses and segments from a number of different sources. Each is numbered and referenced to a standard biblical format, or the Qur'an, whence S refers to a particular Surah and verse. The sequence is chronological, as best as may be determined.
(1) So it came to be after these [many] things, (2) when (Yitzhak) attained age (of a bar mitzvah), (3) that God did test Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham.”
And he said, “Behold, (it is) I.”
(4) And He said, “Do take your son, your only one, Yitzhak, whom you love, and you trek to the Moreyah region, and offer him up there (as) (for) a burnt-ascendant offering, on one of the mountains which I shall tell to you.”
(5) He said, “Oh my son, in the dream, indeed, I have seen that I am sacrificing you. So, look (out) [for] what you perceive.”
He said, “Oh my father, do as you are ordered. If-it-be God willing, you will find me of the patient ones.”
(6) So Abraham arose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his youths with him, and Yitzhak his son, and he chopped wood [for the] burnt offering. Then he ascended, and he trekked to the place which The-God did speak of to him, (7) in the third day. And Abraham raised his eyes and saw the place [marked] from afar.
(8) And Abraham said to his youths, “You remain here with the ass. Then the boy and I will walk up to there and worship, and return to you.”
(9) And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and placed it on his son Yitzhak. So he took the fire, and the knife in hand, and they walked together as a pair.
(10) Then Yitzhak spoke to his father Abraham and said, “My father.”
And he said, “Here, my son.”
And he said, “Behold, the fire and the wood. So where is the lamb for a burnt-ascent offering?”
(11) And Abraham said, “My son, God will see to it Himself for the lamb unto a burnt-ascent offering.”
And they both walked on together. Then they came to the place of which The-God had spoken unto him, and Abraham built the altar there, and arranging the wood, and binding his son, Yitzhak, he also set him on the altar, separated, atop [the] wood.
(13) Then when both of them had submitted, and he put him down upon his forehead, (14) and Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slaughter his son, (15) and (We)([, through] an angel of YHWH) called to him out (of the heavens and spoke) (thus), “(Oh Abraham,) Abraham!”
(16) And he said, “Behold, (it is) I!”
(17) And he said, “Restrain your hand raised toward the lad, and do not do anything to him! (18) Undoubtedly you have fulfilled the vision. (19) For now I know that you fear [your] God, and neither would you withhold your only son from Me.”
(20) And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and he looked, and behold, a ram subsequently snagged in a thicket from his horns. So Abraham came and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-ascendant offering to substitute his son.
(21) Indeed We reward the good-doers thus. (22) Indeed, this one, (he) [was] definitely the manifest trial. (23) And We ransomed him with a supremely-great sacrifice. (24) And We left for him [a word] amongst the succeeding generations, (25) spiritual-peace be unto Abraham. (26) Thus We reward the good-doers. (27) Indeed he, from-amongst Our slaves, [was] the believing.
(28) And Abraham called the place-name; YHWH-shall-be-seen (prophetically) (יהוה-יראה). That is being contemporaneously spoken of : 'In YHWH's mountain (he) is to be shown-forth.'
(29) And an angel of YHWH called to Abraham from the heavens a second time (30) saying, “YHWH said, I swear by My (own Name), for that which you have done, the word, exactly, and you have not withheld, your only son, from Me. (31) So-that a blessing I will bless thee, and greatly, greatly, your seed will-be-as stars of the skies, and as sand that rests-upon the seashore. And your seed shall seize their enemies' gate. (32) And through your seed, all nations of the Earth (shall consequently) be blessed, due-to-the-fact that you hearkened unto My Voice.”
(33) And who [is] superior [in] a decreed-way than whomsoever submits his face to God, and he [is] a doer of good, and follows Abraham's prescribed-religion; upright (Arab.-hanif)? And Abraham was taken by God [as] a near friend.
(34) So Abraham returned to his youths, and they arose, and they trekked together to Beer-Sheba. And Abraham dwelt in Beer-Sheba.
(1) Gen.22:1a, (2) S37:102a, (3) Gen.22:1b, (4) Mas./Sam. Gen.22:2, (5) S37:102b, (6) Mas./Sam. Gen.22:3, (7) Gen.22:4, (8) Gen.22:5, (9) Gen.22:6, (10) Gen.22:7, (11) Gen.22:8, (12) Gen.22:9, (13) S37:103, (14) Gen.22:10, (15) Gen.22:11a/S37:104, (16) Gen.22:11b, (17) Gen.22:12a, (18) S37:105a, (19) Gen.22:12b, (20) Gen.22:13, (21) S37:105b, (22) S37:106, (23) S37:107, (24) S37:108, (25) S37:109, (26) S37:110, (27) S37:111, (28) Gen.22:14, (29) Gen.22:15, (30) DSS/Sam. Gen.22:16, (31) Gen.22:17, (32) Gen.22:18, (33) S4:125, (34) Gen.22:19.
And An Angel Called...
Mas./Sam. Gen.22:2: Moreyah, as in Mount Moreyah where He had appeared (2Chron.3:1). It is from here that instruction goes forth, but the Pharisaic Targum Onkelos of the Tannaic era renders, the land of service. This alludes to the service of incense, which included myrrh, spikenard, and other spices, and myrrh (מור) is phonetically similar to Moreyah (Rashi).
The complete story of Abraham has been debased, shrouding the prophetic picture of its narrative. Did God permit this to happen as a divine punishment (S5:13, 78-81)? Despite these matters, the text remains a holy work which retains much integrity, but not a fullness. The time of this corruption is not known, but it clearly predates the Masoretic text. It may have occurred after the time of David and Solomon. Certainly the Tanakh acknowledges a serious problem when the Mosaic Torah was basically unknown (2Kgs.22:8) approximately 2640 years ago. By the Masoretic, and other texts, the age of a bar mitzvah is emphasised (Gen.17:25), but in a context which seems irreconcilable to sound reason, being associated with a teenage Yishmael. Yishmael was separated as a tot, if anything is true. In terms of a credible chronology, Yishmael and Yitzhak were born not long after Abraham's eighty-sixth, or ninety-nineth year. Then the offering up of Yitzhak occurred when Abraham was around one-hundred years old, or most likely thirteen years thereafter.
Gen.22:4: Third day is when they reached a point near the great hill, but it seems as though it was a fourth morning at the time of ascent.
Gen.22:9-S37:103: Yitzhak's trial is accounted by the oral tradition, that his hands and legs were tied (tightly) together behind him (Bab. Talmud, Tract. Shabbat54a), and the Qur'an confirms this opinion insomuch as he was facedown, suggesting a definite integrity in this particular oral tradition. There are two specific words associated with the meaning.
S37:105a: Abraham fulfilled the vision as opposed to breaking the prophetic picture (cf. Num.20:11). This is the clear meaning of "fulfilling Torah", a slogan of the Netzerim.
Gen.22:13: Passover lambs are accounted individually as the substitute sacrifice of that ram on Moreyah in the Northern-Israelite tradition (Benyamin Tsedaka et al, The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah, First English Translation Compared With The Masoretic Version, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.A., 2013, pp.47-48).
Gen.22:18: Nations shall all be blessed... The literal rendering is, and they were blessed.
S4:125: Abraham, a friend of God (2Chron.20:7, Isa.41:8, James2:23). According to Maimonides, the city of Hebron is a contraction of the Hebrew words, friend, and beloved (חבר , נאה) (The Israel Bible - 70th Anniversary Edition, New Jewish Publication Society translation (1985), Naphtali “Tuly” Weisz et al, 2018, Menorah Books, Koren Publishers Jerusalem Ltd.).
The Abrahamic Covenants Through Isaac And Ishmael
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