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Jaina nude saints

Updated on August 27, 2014
 A nude saint removing his own beard hairs.Another nude saint is removing his hairs on the head.
A nude saint removing his own beard hairs.Another nude saint is removing his hairs on the head.

Jaina nude saints

proceedure of food taking by jain nude saints
proceedure of food taking by jain nude saints
 nude saint blessing devotees at a function
nude saint blessing devotees at a function
Nirgrantha muni(nude saint) at the feet of lord gommateshwara
Nirgrantha muni(nude saint) at the feet of lord gommateshwara
  Muni Shree Vidyanandaji taking bhiksha(food)
Muni Shree Vidyanandaji taking bhiksha(food)

Jain saints

Among Jains , there are two main sects- Shwethambara and Digambara. Shwethabars worship idols in pre-sainthood form whuile digambars worship god in the sainthood form.Nude saints are found in digambar jains community only.

symbol of great sacrifice

Sainthood itself, according to principles, is a symbol of sacrifice.Jaina saints follow strict principles.In digambar community, saints are of three catagories.

1. KSHULLAKA

2.AILLAKA, and

3. NIRGRANTHA

Kshullakas ware a safforn dhothi and asafforn colth is put across their bust.Aillaks ware only a piece in the waist just cover their penis, and nirgranthas are fully nude. This is always followed irrespective of seasonal changes.Female saints(nunns) are allowed only for the first stage and they are called Aryikas. Other two stages are not allowed for them.

Principles they follow

Principles followed by jaina nude saints are the following.

1 They wont take bath or brush their their teeth.They just wash their hands and feet and face after going for excretion. They just rub their teeth with finger after eating food. But they are not permitted to use brush and bathe , as we do. The reason is that, by that action, microbes and other small organisms on our body may die. And , a nirgrantha is to see that no creature dies by his behaviour.

2They take food only once a day.That too is a strict practice. They can not use dishes or dining table . They stand , stretch out their palms, and somebody put food into their open palms. That they test by perusing cleanly and, after confirming that no germ, nor any other dust is there in it, they eat it. If any such thing is found, they leave it there itself, and no food will be taken by them till next day.

3 If they hear any cry- of an animal, or a person in distress etc, while taking food , they give up their food then itself.

4.The food they take is simple and tasteless. They take rice, chapathis made of wheat, some curry( without salt), cocconut water.The food is just to get minimum sterngth required to maintain life activities.

5 They often take 'hunger vow'-i.e., no food for the day. Sometimes, this hunger vow continues for even eight days.The great nude saint of twentieth century, Acharya Shantisagarji maharaj, had a total period of twenty-six years of hunger in his life span of seventy years.

6 They should not use vehicles for movement.They have to walk by walking only.And they walk faster than us!As they are not supposed to use vehicles, they cannot be seen in foreign countries .They are seen only in India.

7 They do not use beds, sleeping bags, or bedsheets and rugs. They sleep on wooden planks or wooden cot, just with a mat on it.In sleep also they do not change their side,with the idea that some germ moving there might be get killed.

8 They do not speak at night.

9 They are not expected to involve themselves in any worldly matters.

10 Needless to say- they keep away from sex, not only phisically, but also mentally.

11 They keep only thse things with them -a pincha( a bundle of naturally fallen peacock feathers to brush away the dust while sitting), a kamandala( a wooden vessel to clean themselves after going for excretion) , shastras(religious books) and spects, if he is a person waring them.They do not keep money or any valuble things.

12 They are not supposed to get angry- even to one who blames them.

13 They don't even drink water after their regular food, i.e. once a day.

14 They remove their hairs on their face and head only with their hands/ They wont use tools for that.

Laughing at nude saints is easy. But how many of us can follow these things?

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A Jain nude saint gives up food during his last days.When he is about to die,other saints keep telling him th ephilosophy of soul and body

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    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 13 months ago from Tumkur

      Dear Mr. Vimal,

      Congratulations on your sincere interest to know the things. I shall try to answer your questions.

      1. Meaning of " Nirvana " according to Jainism is- attaining moksha. But in ordinary sense, it is used to mean peaceful death of a saint. In Buddhism, it means leaving the physical body.

      2 There is no relationship between Buddhism and Jainism. In original preaching s of Buddha, he doesn't mentions about soul, god and rebirth. Those concept s were introduced in it some years after his death. Ahimsa is not so delicate in it as it is in Jainism. Eating meat is not prohibited in Buddhism. But for Jain's, non violence or ahimsa is the greatest principle.

      3 participating book releasing function, or all- religion conferences is not banned for digambar saints.

      4 I have not practical my seen any Buddhist monk meeting jain muni. But they may meet a muni in order to know jain philosophy. Such meetings are not banned.

      I think I have convinced you atleast to some extent.

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      Mr.Prasad 14 months ago

      We do not compare religions ,but I want to know the deference between

      Buddhist and Jain , are there any relation ship isn't it.What is nirvana

      and sorry I don't know what and how about in Jain.

      I Found a photo and that's in 2008 or near about that,one of Jain saint involved Buddhist Tripitaka converting ceremony , Is that can be happen

      Most Sri Lankan People are visiting India for Some Business works or for

      Spiritual Places,Are they Visiting Jain temple or Meet Jain Saints ,

      do you know any thing about that

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 14 months ago from Tumkur

      Dear Mr. Vimal ji,

      There is no such age restrictions to become a digambar muni, except for the fact that he must be a major. But agamas prescribe on the guru who admits one to muni sangh that he must ascertain that the wisher has not come just by emotion, and he should test his self control etc, and then only he should give him the deeksha.

      As I know, the youngest person taking muni deeksha was just 23 years old. Now, the youngest digambar muni is 40 years old, approximately.

      I don't think you can take advice from a muni on phone or email. You have to meet them personally when you come here. But,for your spiritual guidance digambar muni is not always essential. There are many kshullakas who can guide you. For some problems, people like me who have studied philosophy and seen life, can also answer. You can write to my e mail.Padmaprasad 7@gmail.com

    • profile image

      Vimal 15 months ago

      Mr.Prasad

      Pls Let Me Know

      @ what age can become jain digamber muni means jain saint.

      Who is the Youngest Saint Living Know,The Honorable Name and Honorable Birth Year.

      We are not in India so how can we get a speak with a saint honor,and take us some spiritual advice.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 2 years ago from Tumkur

      Dear Mr. Kishore,

      Your principle point -that Moksha is attained by soul, not by body, is indisputable.But the logic here is-soul can't become fully rid of Karmas in a female( not in a male also, just for the reason that he is a male).When females do tapas , follow vratas and go on getting rid of Karmas, automatically they take birth as males. If they keep on conuing their tapas etc, eventually that takes them to moksha.

      Even tirthankaras mothers did not get moksha as females. it is just like, a bank cashier may have lot of money in his custody when he is on duty. But he himself cannot use it.

    • profile image

      kishore 2 years ago

      Thanks to PRASAD jain for his wonderful explanations to all questions that were asked.

      But my one question is : when the ability of soul of either men or women are equal in all respects then why women can't attain moksha and have to wait to be reborn as male. Agreed that female body is more exposed to impurities. But attaining moksha is related to soul and not body. Even thirthankar mother's were also women.

      As per my understanding : any person who is self realized whether with or without clothes, men or women can attain moksha in same birth.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 3 years ago from Tumkur

      Maine nude isliye likha ki videshi log ise jaan sake. Mai heading me Digambar badalne ke liye tayyar hun. AAp comments me diye huye mere uttar ko pure pade to ai kis tarah se Digambar muniyon ka samarthan kiya hun. who aap jaan lethe the.

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      SHAILENDRA JAIN 3 years ago

      prasad ji aapne bahut kam likha hai, nude ki jagah digamber awastha word use kijiye,( aap apne father ke liye baap bhi bol sakte hain or pita bhi, kya achcha hai aapko samajhna chahiye) digamber awastha me rehne ke liye jo tark diye hain , ve adhure hain, digamber jain sant kisliye aise rehte hain ye to aapne bataya hi nahi ,

      agyani se alpgyani bahut khatarnak hota hain, kripya apne lekh ka cistar kijiye.

      shailendra8980@gmail.com

      mob 989351247

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 3 years ago from Tumkur

      thank you Mr. Jayesh, for your detailed comment. I request you to go on reading Jain philosophy concept by concept,discuss about your doubts with learned. Then perhaps,you may start feeling proud of being a Jain.

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      Jayesh 3 years ago

      To begin with...Prasadji you are doing a very commendable job of answering queries with openness and transparency. There are times when I am faced with similar queries and I give people choice of either follow good things the religion has to offer or move on, instead of criticizing it to no end with no particular purpose.

      My Views on two hotly debated topics here:

      1. Nudity of Saints -

      It is really surprising that so many people are bothered by nudity of saint who has given up all Worldly materialistic desires, indulgences and wants. Firstly, I would like to suggest them to get a ban on Porn (soft and hardcore) first which is available at one click to everybody from new born to dying, m sure that is disgusting & awkward for all age groups. Once they achieve this they should go out and stop rapes, atrocities on women, gender bias. God Bless if they achieve this they should try living a restrained life with basics of life and devote their lives to God (any they would like to). If they are still surviving then try moving into the phase of these saints and experience first hand , how it is to be on the other side rather looking at with disrespect.

      2. Inequality towards Women -

      I again respect Prasadji for taking a stand and reiterating that Women has to reborn as men and continue the path of Moksha, even though I dont agree with it. Lets look at it from more practical view....Are you really that insane that to ask for a women to practice nudity in a society where even clothed women are not safe. Have we as humans evolved enough to appreciate that and not otherwise? Even nudist societies in the World (based on my limited knowledge) where women are members, practice strict rules and ensure safety of women. Do you really think that is possible for us the society at large to safeguard women saints who will practice nudity? Especially in India where we end up living in societies withing societies. Arguing just for the sake of arguing doesnt make sense to me (normally). Now to put up a religious point of view (my assumption but follows logic).....there is a cycle to attain Moksha... So first you take a Ekendriya (single sense- Jain term) form and continue your path to subsequent births by evolving in each birth and moving on to become Beindriya, teyindra..-panchendriya (five sense) ...- then you take birth as humanbeing - female...and at the end of cycle born as male and complete your path to Moksha. The cycle is completed provided that in each birth you practice your path to Moksha only with single focus. I guess that helps in understanding why being Man is at the end of continnum. On a lighter note we can always ask why a dog cant directly attend Moksha.....say he is guarding a Temple...it can be complicated to no end.

      I like the way Prasadji doesn't force his view but only shares it. I am born in Jain family and try and practice it infrequently. I have concluded myself to be an agnostic, so I respect what everybody has to say and practice unless it is hurting anybody (alive or dead) else's feelings.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 3 years ago from Tumkur

      Those who feel it awkward must understand that they have given up the ambition on their body.I recently saw Jain nude saints giving pravachans in Delhi, even in this chilly weather, when had clad ourselves with woolen clothes. You must tell them them that not only follow nudity, but also external and internal purity,follow very difficult vows. When people see only external view without thinking other hard vows followed by them, it looks awkward. But, nudity is only one of the several vows followed by them . As they have to follow 'Aparigraha'-i.e. vow of non-possession, they have to shun clothes.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 3 years ago from Tumkur

      It is phblished by bharatheeya Jnana peeta,with commentery in Hindi.

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      Sukumar 3 years ago

      Dear Sir,

      It looks like you are trying every possible way to protect your argument of nudity in Jainism. A set of Jain Monks traveled on a busy lane, a public bus stand near my house in Bangalore. It was so embarrassing for so many school & college students to view them like that.

      How can you defend this act?

    • profile image

      jain M 3 years ago

      may I know if I can get the granth 'Moolachar' with the meaning of each gatahas online ???

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 3 years ago from Tumkur

      meet any Jain saint, listen to his pravachans and if you are satisfied, then ask him to gyve you diksha

    • profile image

      chetan 3 years ago

      Hello Mr.Prasad jain

      Born hindu by birth...currently at the age of 21

      had read many things about jainism,finally up to the decision to take diksha

      can i know the procedure to take diksha?

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Sorry,I don't know anything of that sort.But I have heard that in Kerala, such Ayurvedic treatments are done.But in Bangalore,One 'Hosmat Hospital is there, which, I have heard,can do such difficult surgeries.

    • profile image

      Kamal 4 years ago

      one of my friend met with an accident and he has broken the spinal code

      doctors are saying that is not recoverable please inform any place with Ayurveda or supernatural something can be done

      immediately he is suffering so sad with children and wife

      that is very "Punya Karma" for you

      thanking you

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      If it is a religious conference, he might have gone to attend it. Such attendings are are banned.My email: padmaprasad7@gmail.com

    • profile image

      sudhee 4 years ago

      I can remember there's a photo in Google about two of jain digamber muni s walking towards with Buddhist monk for a buddhist temple @ that time a function held , a big banner " Indian Maha Bodhi Society"

      Thripitaka function

      if you can give me an email address I can attach that and send you

      expain me pls

    • prasadjain profile image
      Author

      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      No.But there are Jain munis who have visited jails to preach prisoners.Munis have met religious heads of other religions,but separately, not in their functions.

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      sudhee 4 years ago

      There a any jain digamber muni that visited to the other religious celebrations I mean Buddhist or any other celebrations or special moments

      Please tell me where

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      I do not remember it correctly right now. But i know that there are munis of 32 years of age, and they took deekshabefore their 30th year of age. Sri Tarun Sagarji took muni deeksha at the age of 26 it seems.

    • profile image

      sudhee 4 years ago

      who is the youngest jain digamber mnui lived india and the age of him

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      This could be done only for a short distance, for the satisfaction of devotees..Otherwise, even a digambar saint with illness, if to be moved to a longer distance, has to be carried on a plank tied to a bamboo by ropes, andcarried by people-either two or four.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      You can scan them and post here as comments,if posting photoes is permitted by hubpages. They will be published after I approve them.Or, you can send them to me by email padmaprasad7@gmail.com,which i will add later.

    • antoniraj profile image

      Antoni Raj 4 years ago from Tamil Nadu

      I was staying with a Jain family in Dongargaon, Chattisgarh when the Jain Muni Sri Tarun Sagar visited their home. He traveled up to the town limits in a motorcade and then was lifted in a pallak by the devotees. Travels in a luxurious air-conditioned car. I have seen another muni being pushed by devotees in a wooden cart. Mostly, the women sadhus walk in groups.

      Here is one picture of the Muni during his visit

      http://yourshot.nationalgeographic.com/photos/1607...

    • antoniraj profile image

      Antoni Raj 4 years ago from Tamil Nadu

      Dear prasadjain ji,

      I was staying in a Jain family home in the first floor in Chattisgarh, when the Jain Sadhu Sri Tarun Sagar ji visited their home. He traveled up to the town limits in a motorcade and then in a pallak carried by jain followers. He does not wear any clothes. I got few photographs of his visit to the house. How can I post the pictures here?

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      They are not allowed to use vehicles. They have to move by walk only. Hence they cannot go outside.

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      samen 4 years ago

      why jain digamber saint not travelling around the world and preach

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Yes,there are Naga sadhus. Some Aghoris also remain nude. But they do not follow other rules which are so subtle and aimed at maintaining non-violence, and sense of detachment, which Jain saints follow.If you are interested to know about the rules followed by Jain nude saints, you can read-'Bhagavathi Aradhana' prakrit work, available with Hindi/Kannada commentary.

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      One thing I would like to tell, that there are naga babas in north India , they also practice nudity. Thank you. And, we shall certainly debate.

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      As mentioned in your hub, 'Jainism, the religion of nonviolence', we shall certainly debate.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      No.But i agree that you have right to have that opinion.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Mr.Anurag Arya,

      Nothing will happen by knowing the point whether I agreed with your point or not. WE can move on our paths as they are not going to cause harm to anybody. As You have firm belief in Krishna, I have firm belief in Jina.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      I too have heard this legend. There are many epigraphs which record the fights between Jains and Vaishnavs, atrocities caused to Jains etc.Even these battles find a place in Folk songs.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Thanks for the pains taken by you, to enlighten the readers.

    • prasadjain profile image
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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Jainism existed prior to the advent of Vedic age. For a simple reference, read- " Compendium of Jainism" by Justice T.K. Tukol.Published by- B.T. tukol,Kuber Nivas, Elephant rock road, Jayanagar 2nd block, Bangalore -560012.

      Story of First tirtankara Rishabh appears in Rigveda itself.

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      Sri Rangam was part of the medieval Chola Kingdom of South India. The ruler during Sri Ramanuja’s time was Krimikanta Raja Raja Chola. The King and Sri Ramanuja had opposing religious views, which resulted in Sri Ramanuja leaving Sri Rangam . During his period of exile, Sri Ramanuja found shelter in the Hoysala Kingdom ( modern day Karnataka State ).

      King Bittideva who was then the ruler of Karnataka, became a disciple of Sri Ramanuja. He converted from the Jain religion. The Jain scholars who lost royal patronage became angry with Sri Ramanuja and challenged him to a religious and philosophical debate . A contingent of one thousand Jain scholars assembled for this event. Sri Ramanuja was undisturbed. Like a true scholar, he accepted the challenge. The site of the debate was established at the ancient Yoga Narasimha Swamy temple, on a small hillock at Thondanur.

      Sri Ramanuja spoke to the Jains as follows, ” I shall respond to all your challenges in one go, while I sit behind this curtain. All one thousand of you must speak at the same time “. The Jain scholars took Sri Ramanuja’s words lightly. They talked among themselves, ” What can this one Brahmin do behind a curtain. It does not change the fact that we are one thousand and he is one”.

      Sri Ramanuja reveals his divine nature at Thondanur

      Sri Ramanuja assumed his position behind the curtain. Sri Vaishnavas held the curtain on either side. The thousand Jains hurled a thousand questions at Sri Ramanuja at the same time. Sri Ramanuja replied to the thousand questions in one go. When the responses came, the audience heard loud hissing noises, like those of a cobra. The curtain was removed. The Jains saw Sri Ramanuja in the form of Adi -Sesha with a thousand hoods. The Jains admitted defeat and dispersed hastily.

      King Bittideva appointed Sri Ramanuja as the Raja Guru. Sri Vaishnavism became the state religion and Thondanur , the seat of Sri Vaishnava activity. Several citizens who had previously adopted, the Jain faith converted to Sri Vaishnavism and contributed to the spread of Sri Ramanuja’s teachings in Karnataka. To commemorate this episode , an image of Sri Ramanuja as Seshavatara has been installed in the Yoga Narasimha Swami Temple.

    • profile image

      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      - Does morality without faith in God have any value?

      - Some people accept worldly morality, but they do not accept God. To protect themselves, they say that morality without faith in God is always fearless and dutiful. If one does not accept God, all his worldly morality is useless. (Caitanya-siksamrta 3/3)

      - Have the mundane psychologists or scientists done any good for the world?

      - Those who have written volumes of books on the subject of psychology, with the help of arguments but without understanding the real form of psychology, have simply poured oil onto ashes. They labored uselessly and became intoxicated with pride while accumulating name and fame. What to speak of doing good for the people of this world, they have created inauspiciousness. (Sajjana-toshani 8/9)

      - What is the difference between metaphysical truth and transcendental truth?

      - Until one realizes the subtle scientific difference between metaphysical truth and transcendental truth, one does not distinguish them when using these terms. Dry speculators find it very difficult to awaken transcendental love of God.

      Due to an immense amount of piety, one develops attachment for transcendental subject matters; one cannot see the transcendental variegatedness by staying on the other side of the wall in the form of metaphysical arguments. (Sajjana-toshani 6/2)

      - What is the purpose of the Vedas?

      - Vedic literature teaches one to engage in pure bhakti – pure devotional service. According to the nature and qualification of its so-called followers, Vedic literature has recommended various processes such as karma and jnana. Due to the faults of these followers, various opinions have cropped up. Actually, the Vedas are the only evidence and the instructing spiritual master of mankind. On account of misinterpretation, various opinions other than pure devotional service have been preached. (Bhagavatarka-marici mala 1-6)

      - Which Sastra is the essence of all scriptures?

      - Srimad Bhagavad-gita is the essence of all scriptures. For one who has not received the nectarean instructions of Bhagavad-gita, studying other scriptures is like an ass carrying a big burden. (Sajjana-toshani 12/2)

      - By studying which literature can one achieve auspiciousness?

      - One should study all the Vedas, Smrtis, Puranas, Pancaratras, and conclusive writings of the mahajanas wherein the topics of pure devotional service are instructed and discussed. By studying literature containing other opinions, one simply learns useless arguments. (Sajjana-toshani 11/6)

      - Which Sastra reveals the true meaning of the Vedas?

      - The Puranas reveal the true meaning of the Vedas. The Vaishnava community believes that the Absolute Truth, which is ascertained in Vedic literature like the Upanisads, is explained in the Puranas in simple language by personalities like Parasara Muni and Vedavyasa. (Tattva-sutra 2)

      The meanings of the Vedic statements are extremely confidential. To help the people of the world understand the purport of the Vedic statements, the great sages have put those purports in the Puranas. (Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya 6/143 to 148)

      - If everyone has a right to study the Puranas, are they not inferior to the Vedas?

      - Just as everyone has a right to chant the Holy Names of Krsna, the essence of all Vedic literature, everyone has a right to study the Puranas and Itihasas, which are as good as the Vedas. The same Vyasadeva who divided the Vedas compiled the Puranas and Itihasas; therefore, the glories of the Puranas and Itihasas are equal to the Vedas. (Sajjana-toshani 11/10)

      Natural Brotherhood (Bhaktivinoda Thakura):

      "Gradually, when the offensive portions of the established religions are destroyed, there will be no more differences in the bhajana performed by the various Sampradayas nor any quarrel between them.

      Then as brothers, the people of all castes and countries will spontaneously chant the Holy Names of the Supreme Lord together.

      At that time, no one will hate anyone or consider others dogeaters; nor will anyone be overwhelmed by the pride of high birth.

      The living entities will not forget the principle of natural brotherhood."

      The pastimes of Sri Krsna are always transcendental. Although they appear in the material world, there is no tinge of matter in them.

      The supremely exalted pure pastimes of Sri Krsna have appeared in the material world along with Vraja from Goloka by the energy of the Lord for the benefit of the living entities.

      The association between male and female in this world is most abominable. A living entity attaining Krsna’s association and a gopi form in a spiritual body is beyond the 24 material elements. (Sajjana-toshani 10/6)

      - What is the evidence that the philosophy of Vaishnava-Dharma is eternal?

      - The constitutional duties of the Vaishnavas existed from the time of creation of the living entities. Lord Brahma was the first Vaishnava. Sri Mahadeva is also a Vaishnava. The original prajapatis, or progenitors, are all Vaishnavas. Sri Narada Goswami, who was born from the mind of Brahma, is also a Vaishnava.

      The names of those who are especially renowned have been mentioned in history. Actually, we can not estimate how many hundreds of more Vaishnavas there were during the time of Prahlada and Dhruva.

      Later, the kings from the sun and moon dynasties, and many great sages and ascetics became devotees of Lord Vishnu.

      In the age of Kali, these things are mentioned about Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga, and Dvapara-yuga.

      Sri Ramanuja, Sri Madhvacharya, Sri Vishnuswami, and Sri Nimbaditya Swami of South India brought many thousands of people to pure Vaishnava-Dharma. (Jaiva Dharma Chapter 10)

      - What is the history of the fully-blossomed Vaishnava religion?

      - The Vaishnava religion is just like a lotus flower. It gradually blossomed with the help of time.

      At first, it was in the form of a bud; later, it blossomed a little, and ultimately, it became a fully-blossomed flower.

      At the time of Brahma, this Vaishnava religion, which consists of knowledge of the Absolute Truth, devotional service to the Lord, sadhana, and love of God, manifested in the hearts of the living entities in the form of seeds.

      During the period of Prahlada, these seeds appeared as buds.

      Gradually during the time of Badarayana Rsi [Vyasadeva], these buds began to blossom and during the time of the Acharyas of Vaishnava religion, they became flowers.

      When Sriman Mahaprabhu appeared, these flowers of love of God became fully blossomed and began to spread wonderful fragrance to the people of the world.

      Sriman Mahaprabhu has revealed to the people that chanting the Holy Names of the Lord with love is the most confidential goal of Vaishnava religion. (Jaiva Dharma Chapter 10)

      - How were the authorized sampradayas established?

      - The flower of devotion in the hearts of the devotees became unsteady as it floated in the current of Sankaracharya’s arguments.

      Based on the strength of Sankaracharya’s philosophy, Ramanujacharya, by the mercy of the Lord, wrote a commentary on Vedanta that differed from Sariraka-bhasya. Thus, the strength and prosperity of Vaishnava-Dharma again increased.

      Within a short time, Vishnuswami, Nimbarka, and Madhvacharya all introduced slight variations of the Vaishnava principles by presenting their own commentaries on Vedanta. They followed in the footsteps of Sankaracharya; they all wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad-gita, Vishnu-sahasra-nama, and the Upanisads.

      At that time, people thought that in order to establish a sampradaya, one must have commentaries on the 4 above-mentioned works.

      From these four Vaishnavas, the 4 Vaishnava sampradayas, such as the Sri-sampradaya, were introduced. (Sri Krsna-samhita Introduction)

      - Where does spiritual science reach its peak?

      - By studying the history of the world, it is found that spiritual science reached its peak in Navadvipa.

      The Supreme Absolute Truth is the only object of love for the living entities. Unless one worships Him with attachment, the living entity can never attain Him.

      Even if a person gives up all affection for this world and thinks of the Supreme Lord, still the Lord is not easily achieved. (Sri Krsna-samhita Introduction)

      Do you understand ?

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      - Why did Buddhism and Jainism appear in the world?

      - By composing selfish religious literature, the so-called Brahmanas began to cheat people. Being unable to fight, so-called kshatriyas lost their kingdoms and eventually began to preach Buddhist philosophy. The so-called vaishyas began to preach philosophies like Jainism. As a result, India lost a great deal of business. The so-called sudras, being unable to engage in their natural service activities became plunderers. The study of Vedic literature gradually diminished. Taking advantage of the situation, the kings of the mleccha countries attacked and conquered India. (Caitanya-siksamrta 2/3)

      - When the philosophy of Godless secularism was very prominent in India; when the Vedic literature, which is full of transcendental truths, was accepted only as religious literature; when the mundane brahmanas promoted secularism as the path of the Vedas; and when such brahmanas tried to attain sense gratification by performing sacrifices and searching after perpetual happiness and the association of the Apsaras in heaven after their death, at that time Sakyasimha established Buddhism.

      Becoming dissatisfied with material happiness, Sakyasimha, who was born in the family of a kshatriya, established the philosophy of Buddhism, whose ultimate goal is the happiness of nirvana.

      There is much evidence that even before Sakyasimha, others preached the philosophy of attaining the “happiness” of nirvana. However, since the time of Sakyasimha, this philosophy has been widely accepted, the followers of Buddha have accepted Him as the original preacher of this philosophy.

      Before and at the same time as Sakyasimha, a scholar named Jin, born in a vaishya family, preached a similar philosophy to that of Buddhism. The name of this philosophy was Jainism. Jainism was confined in India. The philosophy of Buddhism however crossed the rivers, mountains, and oceans and spread to countries like China, Tatara, Shyama, Japan, Burma, and Sri Lanka. (Tattva-viveka)

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      I didn't understand your answer. Do you agree with my viewpoint ? Actually, this viewpoint is not my own. It is of Srila prabhupada's and other acharyas in our disciplic succession. I ask again, do you agree with my viewpoint?

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      You are free to have your opinion and propagate it.

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      Anurag arya 4 years ago

      God created material world for our desire. We wanted to enjoy happiness separate from him, thus, he created the material world. Creation is certainly NOT a game.

      And, inert matter cannot itself transform and take different shapes. You see, if you keep cement, water , and bricks together for thousands of years , they will not transform into a building by themselves. Similarly, collections of mere, inert matter cannot make a complete universe.

      And pure, spiritual love is passionate, but it can free us from material bondage. The ultimate goal of our lives is not liberation, but to attain pure love for the supreme lord , krishna. Please read Bhagavad Gita As It Is by Srila AC bhaktivedanta swami prabhupada and you will know perfectly the absolute truth. And a religion CAN be perfect. Please study acintya bhedabheda tattva philosophy of Vedanta sutra, ( and not advaita, which is totally atheistic ) and you will understand.

      For this purpose, you can download govind bhasya commentary on Vedanta sutra,

      http://gaudiyahistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/...

      And also Prameya ratnavali:

      http://gaudiyahistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/...

      You may see www.krishnapath.org for further download of wonderful literatures by Srila prabhupada swami.

      Please give up your dry mentality of godlessness and accept krishna as the supreme lord. You will derive great benefit. Please get free from word and grammatical jugglery . Instead of reading all kinds of literatures, just please read Srila prabhupada literatures and you will understand. I would like to quote the first verse of bhaja govindam by sripad shankaracharya :

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      You can read the book "Compendium of Jainism" written by late Justice T.K.Tukol. It explains every important concept of Jainism in a convincing style. You can write to this email for the copy. But the postage may be costly if to be sent to foreign country.

      Mr.B.T.Tukol

      email: bahubali_tukol@yahoo.com

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      imneha 4 years ago

      Thank you so much sir...i had this question for a long time and now i got a reasonable answer.. now i will be able to explore it more...

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      That has a long story. To put it simply,Those who could not follow Jain principles strictly, followed it with some relaxation. Instead of remaining nude at the the highest level of sainthood, they wore white cloth.Instead of Taking food on their palm,they kept utensils and stored food in that to eat at the meal time.

      Apart from some such differences, all other basic principles remain same.

      it is said that such a split occurred at a time(in 3rd century B.C.) when there was a great famine for a long time when people could not follow certain principles.

      I congratulate you on your sincere interest to know the matter without prejudice.

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      imneha 4 years ago

      Thanks for the answer..

      I also would like to know that why the Jains were split into Digamber and Shwetamber. what is the story and reason behind.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Thank you for your inquiry.Clan here refers to genealogy or heritage( though I know fully well that there is subtle difference in the meaning of two words. Here I am using it in broader sense.).Buddha belonged to a genealogy which was well known as "Shakyas". Mahaveera belonged to another such group called Licchavis.In fact, Licchhavis was the common term for the people living in a geographical area.

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      imneha 4 years ago

      Dear sir,

      I have gone through many of discussions above but not all. I found it

      very interesting and informative.

      U had mentioned about "clans" [Buddha belongs to Shakya clan and Mahaveera belong to Licchavis]. please tell me about it.

      Thank you

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Answer is given above

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      Manu 4 years ago

      Dear,

      I respect each & every religion but, the same can be done by wearing clothes,preaching good things,praising lord,etc.

      But being nude doesn't make any sense.One more thing its for moksha of males only! What about the females? I just want to know what's the logic behind such an act.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Please read my replay carefully. The answer is clear there.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      I didn't get you.

      You mean that a saint can go to any extent without having any limitations even when it hurts the sentiments of the common people.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      A saint can be like that. He is expected to be so. But,not a family person. If a family person behaves that way, he fails in practical life.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      So every religion has got some impression in which they are being followed.

      But what if the religion being practiced in its extremity, wherein the religion becomes everything & any other thing becomes the secondary part of life, wherein the practitioner only thinks of the religion that he believes is right & the rest gets ignored completely.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Humanitarianism is an outlook.No religion can be devoid of that. But religion is much more than that. it is to satisfy one's spiritual hunger. humanity is for social living. Religion is both for social and spiritual.If everybody follows his religion in its real meaning, there can be no clashes.Problem arises when one misunderstands or imposes the religion.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      So do you think we should come to Humanity aspect, irrespective of caste, community Or Religion?

      One should preach Humanity & not the religion & follow the same, not hurting anyone in whatever way.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      In my opinion, no religion is perfect to the extent that could satisfy all.Religion is formed by the followers of a preacher. Some preachers have named their religions like-Islam, Christianity,Jewish etc.AS accepting a religion is a matter of mental satisfaction, and, as minds vary from man to man, Any single religion cannot satisfy all people in the world.If that was possible, there would not have been so many religions in the world.WE cannot force any religion an anybody.That's why poet has said-'There can be as many religions in the world,a s there are people' But, every one has the right to say,'My religion is great'-of course, in a smooth way.

      Hinduism has a specialty.It has no one single preacher.There are many who preached this religion and interpreted it in different ways.Jainism also has many preachers called 'Tirthankaras' but all of them have preached the samething.

      Even though I believe and follow Jainism,I know fully well that there are many people who cannot agree with one or many aspects of this religion. They have a right to differ in a honest way.I an only tell them what i know, if they raise their doubts.But I cannot make them or force them to believe it.After all, this is a Democratic age, and Jainism also believes in 'Anekanta vada' i.e. many dimensions of truth.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      You mentioned above in one of your comments that the religion has been developed by us & yet it is perfect in all aspects.

      How far do you agree this (Even considering the digambara sect) ?

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      So, finally we got one.

      This sound great that even in this world there are very few who follow the selfless path & they are even far ahead & far better who rather be on the selfless path busy in publicity stunts in order to highlight themselves.

      The people & the culture they follow belong to a religion & wherever they go, their identity go with them. Big posters & sounds letting us know their presence always.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      I have read about a yogini who used to remain naked and meditating in a temple in Assam. Details could be found in the book "With the great Himalayan Masters" by Swami Rama.(Pub: Kamadhenu publications, Sheshadripuram,Bangalore)

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      I wanted to ask this seprately,

      One man for long got busy with the social life suddenly while meditating under a tree came to realise the meaning of life & shun everything even clothes. He moves in the society & we don’t find anything unusual about it. Never.

      But have you ever wondered why this is happening to men only. The awakening. Why this kind of awakening never happens to women, throughout time & world. Why? Wherein she is the duty bound in herself & she is the only one which let life goes by child birth. Why God never found suitable gave her awakening ?

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      I said the person who unclothed himself on a railway platform is a lunatic.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Lunatic

      I don't know in what way I am LUNATIC PERSON.

      It was very much logical. You responded that the religion has been made by us & as we are not perfect so we can’t expect the religion to be perfect but still the religion is everything for us.

      And also, I gave you simple incidence & the reaction from others & just wanted to know from you, what your reaction would be for those & in those times & for those who did. Which I haven’t got & you won’t ever be able to.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      He must a lunatic!

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      I give you real life instance here. I completed my PG from Jabalpur. And as I am belong to Katni, often I used to do up & down from there.

      One morning, around 07:30 AM, at Jabalpur station while waiting for my train to Katni something happened. Someone came down from Mahamaya Express. And after reaching to plateform one he starts removing his clothes and after some time he was completely stripped. He was standing there for some time, then moved on after some time.

      No one came to greet him for whatever reason. With all this episodes I was looking at one woman who simply turned herself to other side. Now she was not facing the person who was busy removing his clothes without acknowledging anything & to anyone.

      I want to know. What went wrong here? What you have to say about that woman who wasn’t afraid of him but couldn’t get anything else. Also what impression you get about that person. In the name of God or whatever. How far he was right?

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      And as if we go by this than who played the dominant role became the basis of forming a belief which is being followed now in different names & places.

      I would like to further state that those being followed in the past remained the most influential & stronger in their times. Hope so you will also agree with this.

      A little detailing of the topic will lead us to the conclusion that all those had a different meaning of life for which they lived. And they continued with that for the rest of their life. Few liked that & few not.

      This became a culture or religion as we know.

      So who was the most influential or stronger in his times?

      Do you feel its men?

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      it is we. Following the preachings of one who we liked,we formed a group and named it.It later came to be called religion. Some preachers named their philosophy.Shankara, Buddha,Ramanujacharya, etc. But some others did not name their philosophy.Followers named it later.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      That was most interesting, But again, I would like to ask here,

      Who created the Religion?

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Dear Sir,

      Different religions and communities In Indian sub-continent have developed Remayan and Mahabharats in their own style.In India,Jain .Vaidic, and Buddhist paramparas are the main. Valmiki represents Vaidic parampara.That is more popular.But all these paramparas have originated from folklore.The cultural and social environments in these three styles are entirely different. So we cannot say the Jain and Buddhist styles are branched from the Valmiki style.

      In Indonesia ,Burma and Thailand etc,the Ramayans are recent-from 17th century onwards.They, in my opinion, are modifications of Valmiki style.

      Thanks a lot for providing me an opportunity to tell these points within the orbit of my little knowledge.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Who created religion?

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Hi,

      It is going to be a big surprise for all of us to know that Rama didn't kill any one, as stated & as per the jain Ramayan.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      I have answered this point in one of my my replies to a question by another reader. I don't want to repeat it again.

      Jainism has given equal importance to women.Education was first given to his girl children first, by first Tirtnankare Rishabh, and then he proceeded to teach male children.Women in Jains have ruled kingdoms,were allowed to manage business,and also to become nuns.Jainism never restricted women to remain in the house only.

      To be inteested/ agreeing with a philosophical point or not, is the will of the person.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      YES.I have answered this point while answering to your one of the earlier questions.

      You have to understand the basic difference in the concept of God,in Hindu and Jain religions.Hindus have a god concept wherein he is 'Dushta Shikshaka-Shishta Rakshaka'.There he is Omnipresent and Omnipotent.So killing of evils becomes a part of His duty and hence it is not wrong there.

      But Jaina concept of God is entirely different.Here, He is Omniscient only.Not- Omnipotent and Omnipresent.He has not duty bound.He doesn't takes incarnation as he is not the protector .That's why,Krishna is not accepted God at present.

      But Jains accept Rama as god.Because, In Jaina tradition Ramayana, Rama doesn't kills anybody.It is Lakshmana who kills Ravana.Rama, at the end of his life, becomes a saint, meditates and gets salvation.

      Every theory/philosophy has to be understood in its background only.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Hi,

      Krishna was not born but He was an incarnation of God.

      Still if as per jain religion He went to hell than does this mean that every personality that we, the Hindu Religion regard as God, as per jain religion would be in hell for some time because each one of them killed someone, if you go through our literature.

      Is it?

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Hi,

      Good to see your comments. But still every queries is not being including in this discussion wherein I have raised the nudity aspects of your saints.

      One man for long got busy with the social life suddenly while meditating under a tree came to realise the meaning of life & shun everything even clothes. He moves in the society & we don’t find anything unusual about it. Never.

      But have you ever wondered why this is happening to men only. The awakening. Why this kind of awakening never happens to women, throughout time & world. Why? Wherein she is the duty bound in herself & she is the only one which let life goes by child birth. Why God never found suitable gave her awakening.

      I am not interested in the Jain philosophy wherein their body kills more microbes is the reason. But in general in all time & world.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      How are Hindu temples built? Are they built in air? To what extent you have studied the analysis of Non violence in Jainism? At least go through the book 'Compendium of Jainism' by Justice T. K. Tukol.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Dear Mr. Anand,

      It is true that Krishna had to do so inevitably.That is called Karma.So long we are in the affairs of this world, we are forced to do one or the other sort of Karma . That definitely will have some result-good or bad.But if the condition is inevitable and the intension is good, even though it is the act of killing , accumulation of sin will be in lesser quantity.So, eventhough Krishna did it for social good, he can't escape from the sin of killing.

      Jaina philosophy views the things from this angle-So long as we are here, Karma and accumulation of punya or papa is inevitable.Only He is free,who is not 'duty-nound ' inany sense. Only HE is 'Mukta' or, the liberated.That's why, even though Krishna was a great personality, he is NOT mukta.

      Jainism and Hinduism have different concept of GOD.It cannot be settled by arguments.You follow your faith, I follow mine,with respect to each other.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      As per your religion Krishna was guilty & had been in hell for his doings. What as per you He should have doing to kill all those evils. PREECHING. Didn’t He do that.

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      Ved Prakash Anand 4 years ago

      Hi,

      If you can even imagine, that although being the oldest religion & simultaneously supposed to be the best practicing religion in this world but still remains the ignoring part of the total population.

      If you could analyze the whole thing logically, this culture hurts the sentiments of the people which forms a society in various ways & which will not lead them to moksha irrespective of what your book says.

      And this has been proved so many times that this doesn't make any sense to you people any more, as we are getting habitual to those nude digambara saints in our daily life as these doesn't make sense to us but we have to live with those.

      You will find these nude & non-violence saints having attractive followers as women as it becomes a fashion along with body guards wherein they are teaching the meaning & importance of non-voilence & simplicity. Your temples are created which are the costliest one & which are erected after removing the vegetation & at the same time not thinking about the insects, animals, microbes. What your saints has to say on those.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Cough is a very simple variation in water content in the body, to get out of which, yogic power is unnecessary.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      You are right. there are some such yogis in India. I suggest you to read the book -"With the great Himalayan Masters". It gives account of such saints.

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      Umashankar Sharma 4 years ago

      Even though these days he himself suffering from Cough but not curing his suffering from his powers

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      Umashankar Sharma 4 years ago

      You are right gurudev is also not showing his powers to anybody but when any person who is sick, poor etc. or he feels that he requires help then he helps him otherwise many jains bagging on front of him but he not shows his powers and told that " MAIN EK AAM INSAAN HUN"

      when i meet him i was very depressed and not having any way to overcome from this i was thinking for sue site that time. So, he helps only those who not have any way

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Dear Sharmaji,

      I cannot say what kind of yoga cives that power. I only know that yoga means the concentration of mind and soul and meditating on the nature of self(soul). In Bhagavadgita, the word yoga is used in different meanings.When the true power of soul is realized, miracles could be done.Perhaps that's what muni Shri Pulaksagarji has told you.

      But that Muni himself is not interested in exhibiting or propagating that capacity of his.Because,these are the capacities a person automatically gets as he he ascends in the spiritual ladder.Giving more attention towords these, spoils one's chances of achieving self-realization.The same thing is told in Vaidc philosophy also.

      Bhagawan Sir Ramakrishna once told Narendra-" I have Ashta siddies like Anima etc. But it is of no use for me".When he was suffering from the cancer pains at the end of his life, doctors suggested him to lessen the pain by using his yogic powers.Sri Ramakrishna refused it.

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      Umashankar Sharma 4 years ago

      Prasadji i want to know one more thing that, when i was asked from gurudev 108 shri pulaksagar ji how you know that all about me and my questions which arises in my mind when i was first time meeting with him, he told me that " YE SAB YOG SE HOTA HAI"

      What kind of yog shakti is achieved by Gurudev shri Pulak Sagar ji?

      ( He is also having knowledge of Yantras which is very effective in all problems of us. he provides free of cost without discrimination of Religion HE IS A TRUE SAINT IN INDIA)

      You should also meet with him you also realized gurudev powers

      www.munipulaksagar.com

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Dear Mr.Sharmaji,

      Jains burn the dead bodies,no matter whether he is a saint or a gruhastha.Antim kriya will be performed by the society at large, under the leadership of a purohit. Asthi sangraha is done on the 3rd day( as it is done among Brahmins) and released to a river or pond.But Jains do not believe in the sacredness of any river.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      There arre blogs written by other writers here itself.Youc an visit them.Or, search it in Google/Wickypaedia.

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Thank you Mr.Sharmaji for understanding the life of munis.but all digambar munis are not of that level of achievement.But all of them do follow difficult vows.

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      Umashankar Sharma 4 years ago

      prasad jain ji,

      I want to know that when Digamber jain muni leave their body (got nirvana) what will be done with their bodies do samadhi or like hindus in fire, if fire what is the treatment of Asthi Kalash will bo done? and who done the ANTIM KRIYA?

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      rames 4 years ago

      let me know the names of Muni Vardhamana Sagarji 's brothers

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      rames 4 years ago

      I like to know about lord mahaveers life story

      parents , life ,saint

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      Umashankar Sharma 4 years ago

      I am not a Jain, I was meet 108 muni shri pulak sagar ji before meeting with him, i was also thinking rubbish on him that he is nude etc. but after meeting with him i realized that i was wrong because he is very good saint and after seeing his face i realized that it is having TAPASYA SHAKTI like SUN of sky, he is also having supernatural powers (i am not discussing here) that i realized he knows all questions of my mind, my name, my address without knowing me and i was meet him first time with him.

      I salute their Tapa

      Jai Guru Pulaksagar JI

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Muni Vardhamana Sagarji is an example.His two younger brothers also have become Digambar saints.They are in the same sanghe, but without any previous relationship.

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      rames 4 years ago

      May I know the name of that saint

      are there are any brothers two or more than that in a same family can enter for the digamber saint hood.

      are there are any brothers in the digamber saints

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      If a Digambar saint thinks that he cannot follow the principles of the sainthood of that highest order, he is free to relinquish it and lives the way he likes. Nobody can prevent him from that.Such incidents have rarely happened in the past.

      As far as I know, the age of of the youngest Digambar saint living now is-32 years.

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      rames 4 years ago

      After this digamber saint hood are the any saints that they converted or changed in to normal life.

      Is that possible

      Who is the youngest digamber saint and age

      thank you

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      Dr.S.P.PADMA PRASAD 4 years ago from Tumkur

      Jainism has a specific concept of Cosmology. i.e.-structure of the universe. The topmost point of this universe is called 'Siddhashila'.That is ' Lokagra.' Liberated souls stay there.There, all are equal.

      As Krishna caused some deaths,that karma takes him to hell for some time. After that period, he takes birth again and performs tapas, and becomes the tirthankara of the future time -cycle.This is what Jaina mythologies say.They agree that Krishna was a great personality.

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      Padduram 4 years ago

      Can you describe the place where people go after attaining moksha? What do they do there?

      And did the tirthankars predict that lord Krishna went to hell?