Jehoiada, a Man Who Started Well and Ended Well.
The wisest human being who has ever lived in one of his accounts in the book of preachers says, “better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof: and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit.” (Ecc 7:8).
It is unarguably certain that all humans wanted their lives to end well, no one wants to end his life badly, not even those who are doing evil and who believes there is something called Karma’s law.
As we all want to end our lives well on earth, it is a fact however that it is not everyone who ends his life well on earth.
The sorrowful part of it however is that sometimes those who are doing right (righteous people) died like wicked people. And this makes some people to be asking of what it means to end one’s life well on earth.
The wisest human who ever lived again studied this and would not leave it without making mention of it as he says,
“There is a vanity which is done upon the earth; that there be just men, unto whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked; again, there be wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous: I said that this also is vanity.” (Ecc 8:14)
This writeup is essentially not written to address this “vanity” or “anomaly”, but it is raised to make it clear that such also does happen and it confuses people, righteous people, believers such that they become confused on saying what really is a good ending when something like that happens to such a one.
As could be seen from the topic we shall see that this article is centered on a man called Jehoiada. His account is written in the books of second Kings 11-12 and second chronicles chapter 22 from verse 10 all through to chapter 24 verse 15.
The books where his history is written are stated to distinguish this noble man from other Jehoiada that could be found in the bible for example; Jehoiada father of Benaiah (2Sa. 8:18) and another Jehoiada who worked with Nehemiah (Neh. 3:6)
Who is Jehoiada in the Bible?
This Jehoiada is a high priest and he married Jehosheba, sibling of King Ahaziah. The name Jehoiada is written in Hebrew as “יהוידע”, Romanized form is yehôyâdâ‛ (phonetic spelling is yeh-ho-yaw-daw') which means Jehovah knows.
This man had the mind of Yahweh in him such that he carried out his services to Yahweh with fear, mental dexterity, good judgement and bringing the people to God. During his days the fear of God rules in the heart of the king and it would be sensible to say that joy envelopes the entire nation.
Chronological Time of his Birth till Death
He would have been given birth to during the days of Jehoshaphat because King Jehoram did not live long, he assumed the throne of his fathers at the age of 32 years and spent 8 years on the throne making 40 years. He witnessed the one year of his wife’s sibling’s reign; Athaliah’s six year’s reign and was instrumental in protecting Joash for six years before assuming throne when he was seven years old and would tutor him for about three decades before he died. The summation of these years are 77 years or less. Since he lived for 130 years before he died (2 Chr. 24:15), it is logical to say that he was given birth to during Jehoshaphat’s reign, because Jehoshaphat assumed the throne when he was thirty-five years and spent twenty-five years on throne, making 60 years (1 Ki. 22:42)
From the online Wikipedia we get this
Name of King
1 Ki 22:42
2 Ch 21:5
2 Ki. 8:26
2 Ch 22:12
2 Ch 24:1
Bible students shall recall that during the days of Rehoboam the kingdom divided into two: northern and southern protectorates (kingdoms). This therefore makes Rehoboam the first King of the (officially) divided nation and fifth king of Judah (viewing it from the perspective of when they were yet to be divided and bearing in mind that Ishbosheth also reigned for 2 years before the Kingdom was taken off him (2 Sa. 2:10)).
“Ishbosheth Saul's son was forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and reigned two years. But the house of Judah followed David.” (2 Sa 2:10)
Therefore, the table is showing the periods of rulership of 8th to 12th Kings of Judah.
Had Understanding Woman as Wife
The name of his wife is Jehosheba, the daughter King Jehoram she probably was not the daughter of Athaliah and was given birth to by another woman, wife of the King in the palace. Some scholars believed that assuming she was the daughter of Athaliah Jehoiada may not marry her being a Levite and priest worshipping Yahweh and since the woman was a daughter of Jezebel he knows that marrying her would mean that he was invoking fire into his home and may likely not follow Yahweh as he ought to again and would become one of the priests of Baal.
However, to some other schools of reasoning, it is believed that she may be the daughter of Athaliah too but had been imposed on him by his parents because parents have large impact to play those days in whom a man or lady gets married to.
“If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.
“But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth; not any of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the LORD shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her.” (Num 30:2 & 5)
This assumption is based on what this bible says that the father disallows what the guy wants to do and since he is yet living with the father, the father’s rules shall abide on him. As the book of proverbs also says that sons should listen to their fathers.
“My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother:” (Pro 1:8)
On the other note, the man may have gotten married to Jehosheba because the king and his wife wanted to use their daughter as a snare for the man, as King Saul did unto David ensnaring him with his daughter.
“And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.” (1 Sa 18:21)
Thus, they may have it in mind to lure the man to sin so that he would become one of the idol priests in Judah, as many have been converted to that in the Northern Kingdom where Jezebel dominates. Unfortunately for them their plans did not work out as the couple stick to Yahweh.
One of the best things that can ever happen to a man in life is having a loving, caring, accommodating woman as a partner.
Some Words on Priests
Online Wikipedia says, Priests essentially act as mediators. They represent the Supreme Being, Yahweh, to his subjects, the people and feed their God back on their behalf. They are ambassadors Yahweh has chosen to save the people and represent him.
They take orders from the high priests of the land and were broken into orders, sections during the days of King David.
Those who become priests in the land are heirs of Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah.
“The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:” (Gen 35:23)
It is not a position for anyone in the land as it has become a covenant and a memorial for ever with them.
Thus, from their childhood they would have been dedicated and consecrated for the service of God because they were not given birth to in the family per-chance. (Exo. 29:29)
Some Words on High Priests
After serving faithfully in this position of priests, selected one would be called to the office of the high priest of the land. He would be consecrated to this office and they are the next in rank to the king of the land. (Lam 2:6). They give orders to the priests who are under them, consecrate them and are expected to be tender hearted and compassionate. (Heb 5:2) One of the rules to be fulfilled is ensuring that they be married to virgin among their people especially among the Aaron’s (Levites) family (Lev 21:13-14). They have special garments for this office. (Exo. 28:6ff)
Online Wikipedia summarizes everything pertaining to the high priest by saying according to the doctrine and covenant of God with the Israelis, it is the high Priest’s duty to preach, explain, expound, encourage and baptize and administer sacrament.
According to Leviticus 21:10 new high priest shall be anointed while Exodus 29:29 says that the official garments worn by his predecessor shall be worn by the new incumbent while he is anointed and during the seven days of his consecration.
How he Carried out his Services to Church (or Temple) and the Nation
His wife played a pivotal role in his success a high priest and leader of leaders. John L. Kachelman Jr. says this of his wife that “when anyone finds a man playing a big part on life’s stage, one would indubitably find in sight or just around the corner, a great woman”.
1. His Wife Worked with Him
Jehosheba cooperated with her husband greatly such that when the unthinkable happened in the kingdom they rose to the occasion.
“But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the king's sons that were slain, and put him and his nurse in a bedchamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest, (for she was the sister of Ahaziah,) hid him from Athaliah, so that she slew him not.” (2 Ch 22:11)
- The Unthinkable that Happened:
Athaliah being the mother of the king, the senior Queen in the palace and daughter of Ahab and jezebel the people who carried the children of Israel to Baal their God, on hearing that her daughter has been killed by Jehu also commanded that the children of the King be gathered together to be killed.
She heard this, and being a princess herself, she entered the Palace and took Joash and hid him from the older Queen, Athaliah and thus prevented him from being killed by the older Queen.
Joash, because of proximity, was at first hidden in the bedchamber before being taken to the temple where he was hidden from Athaliah for six years.
“And he was with them hid in the house of God six years: and Athaliah reigned over the land.” (2 Ch 22:12)
Together with her husband, they ensured that the word of God on the house of David continued to prosper.
2. Strengthened Himself
Having kept the neonate for close to seven years with them, Jehoiada thought the time was ripe to act and to deliver the country and the church from the hands of the terrible woman, an idolater.
“And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.” (2 Ch 23:1)
Strengthened in Hebrew is, “חזק”, Romanized from is châzaq, pronounced as khaw-zak' which means being strong, encourage. He encouraged himself in the Lord like David did on what to do about the dicey situation on ground in the country. Matthew henry says of what he did that he probably contacted prophets or Urim or both before taken this action, because he knows the importance of what he wants to do. (1 Sam 23:9-12; 30:7-8)
3. Acted When the Child Could be Assigned Roles
According to psychologists’ studies on developmental stages of children, the age of 3-6 is the stage of initiative and enterprise while ages 6-12 is the period of middle childhood. The bible says, “in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself". The time when the High Priest decides to take this action was the time the Psychologists called the middle childhood.
It is said of this stage that; the stage is diverse from culture to culture. 5-7 years period is regarded as the beginning of the “age of reason” (Rogoff etal 1975). At this stage the children are assumed to develop new capabilities and are assigned news roles and responsibilities in their families and communities.
Historically, in many cultures, the age of 6 and 7 was the time at which children were absorbed into the world of adults helping shoulder family responsibilities and fill work roles alongside their elders. This, however, is gradually changing because of schooling. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
Having seen what the scholars have said about this age, it is sensible to think that Jehoiada acted psychologically when addressing this issue at this age, he and his wife patiently waited till the child comes of age of being involved in taken responsibilities in the society before they decide to take action and work things out with people to getting him to the throne of his fore-fathers.
4. He Acted to alleviate the Suffering of the Populace
He acted when he acted when he saw that the populace was in great suffering under the rule of Athaliah. A person who could kill all the children who could be crowned did so because she wants to be there perpetually and wanted to be ruling as she likes and this essentially happened because it is said that when she was dethroned, there was joy in the city (nation).
“And all the people of the land rejoiced: and the city was quiet, after that they had slain Athaliah with the sword.” (2 Ch 23:21)
5. Internal Campaign Preceded Other Steps
He couldn’t have succeeded assuming he did not carry others along after making himself strong in the Lord for his people. We shall recall from some of the duties of the High Priest stated above that after the king according to the law in the land he was the next person. However, since kingship position has been forcefully taken over by the older queen, the mother of the late King, he piped low and was seeking for the right time to carry out his action.
“And the seventh year Jehoiada sent and fetched the rulers over hundreds, with the captains and the guard, and brought them to him into the house of the LORD, and made a covenant with them, and took an oath of them in the house of the LORD, and shewed them the king's son.” (2 Ki 11:4)
Matthew Henry in his commentary on what he did in contacting and bringing others up to speed of what was happening said, the people did not suspect imposition because the people were shown the heir to the throne, who was Joash whom he and his wife had successfully kept for six years and above. Because they did not suspect imposition in the manner of his presentation, they supported the move.
Abinitio, the people have been thinking that all the heirs to the throne, the lineage of King David has been wiped off, thus they couldn’t take a step, neither thought of doing anything in that regard until Jehoiada presented the heir to them.
We need to here in note that some of us have not been making headways in what we are doing because of the manner of presentation of our case to people. When we present our case in a way that want to show us as an impostor people would rebel and they would not support our proposals and dreams.
To wit, it is imperative for us to know, learn how to present our cases to people it is crucial to our development and goals, it is vital to our wellbeing. Some ministries, some homes would not have had problems assuming the duo learnt how to present their cases and when to present themselves.
6. He Acted in the Country’s Best Interests
Shall we flash back our minds a bit to the history of the wife of this wonderful priest? We shall recall that the wife has the gene of David running in her systems because she was a princess, she was the daughter of Jehoram. Being a princess therefore, this man had right to chase off Athaliah from the throne and get himself enthroned as the King over the people of God because of his marriage to Jehosheba, but he did not think along this line, he thought it is better to free the country from the enemy’s hands rather than becoming the king. By this he acted in the country’s best interest.
It is being said that we should always think of what we can do for our nation than what the nation can do for us, and this was clearly demonstrated in this man’s life, he considered the nation first and suspended his personal ambition and gains.
This essentially was what Jesus Christ did for mankind by coming to the world to come and save our souls. He did not think about his position, but he considered what humans shall benefit to be better than his position, he valued us greatly thus he left his throne to come to die for us, to come and deliver us from the devil’s hands.
Don’t you think you need to reciprocate this kind gesture of Jesus Christ by giving him your life?
“And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon.
“And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon.
“And one of the elders saith unto me, weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.
“And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.
“And they sung a new song, saying, thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;” (Rev 5:3-5; 7 & 9)
Jesus has shed his blood to bring us back to God and it would be better for you to accept his kindness, his uncommon love by also giving yourself unto him.
7. Citizens are Bound by Law to Respect and Obey Him
As next in rank to the King, in the land, he was like the Vice President or Prime Minister of a country, thus the people are bound by the law of the land to listen to him, respect him and do what he says.
“And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel.” (Deu 17:12)
Being next in line to the King, and having done what is needful, he puts to use what he has in the law to call the people together of what they need to do about the situation on ground.
8. Started from His Jurisdiction
Being the High Priest, priests are directly under his leadership and authority, he thence started from there, started assigning them to duties, started telling them what he expects them to do to ensure that the mess in the land be cleared.
“And they went about in Judah, and gathered the Levites out of all the cities of Judah, and the chief of the fathers of Israel, and they came to Jerusalem.” (2 Ch 23:2)
When King David was on throne, he has divided the Levites, priests into different groups to ensure continuity in the worship of God. This was made use of by Jehoiada when planning on how to get rid of the Queen, he started from his territory before moving to other departments in the country.
If we are to make appreciable impact in life we need to start from the lower place, we need to start from where we have “mouth”. There is an adage in this part of the world that says, it is from the lowest ebb that one starts eating bean-cake wrapped in leaves.
When we start from the lowest ebb we shall succeed because it is from there we shall be advancing to other levels, but someone who wants to start from apex would likely not achieve anything. Starting from ground up ensures success than starting from up down.
He knows he has authority and direct influence over the priests, thus he starts from them.
9. He Moved to Other Levels
After starting from those he knew would believe him inside out, those whom he knew would not doubt the authenticity of what he was saying which were the priests under his jurisdiction being the high priest over them, he moved to other facets of rulership in the land as he started to invite the guards and instructing them on what they need to do after bringing them to speed of what was happening.
“Moreover Jehoiada the priest delivered to the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, and shields, that had been king David's, which were in the house of God.
“And he set all the people, every man having his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, along by the altar and the temple, by the king round about.” (2 Ch 23:9-10)
10. Most Interesting Aspect of the Planning
One of the most interesting aspect of the planning was that no one among those contacted, even the guards who were guarding the Queen seemly find it fit to gist the Queen about what was on going. They maintain a complete secrecy of the matter until all arrangements and plans were perfectly sealed.
You may wish to say that they have entered covenant with themselves and an attempt to break the covenant would result in repercussions. Well that is true to some degree but I want you to know that before the repercussions happen, the people would have been killed with the heir to the throne eventually killed too and what they thought they would do, delivering their nation and themselves from the pangs of the enemy would have been a mirage and the usurper would have been glorying and enforcing herself and her idol on the more on the people of the land more than before.
11. Entered Covenant with God, People and King
He ensured that he entered covenant with the people, and he makes sure that the new King entered covenant with God and the people.
“And Jehoiada made a covenant between him, and between all the people, and between the king, that they should be the LORD'S people.” (2 Ch 23:16)
This simply saying they rededicated themselves unto the Lord.
Matthew Henry while commenting on this says, that, covenants are of use both to retell us and to bind us of those duties which are already binding us.
They have forsaken their duties by following Baal, by worshiping Baal, by being loyal to the Queen, but it now time to wake up to what the law says, what the law expects of them to do and by extension what Yahweh expects them to do to deliver themselves from the hands of their enemy and God’s enemy.
By accepting Jesus Christ into our lives, we also enter covenant with God by the blood of Jesus Christ.
“For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.” (Mat 26:28)
“Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,” (Heb 13:20)
12. King was Crowned
The king was crowned by the people under heavily guarded army.
“Then they brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king.” (2 Ch 23:11)
This is what they had been planning to achieve for days, weeks and perhaps months, and it becomes a success. When they became successful in this noise of joy rent the atmosphere such that those who perhaps were in the dark as per what was happening heard about it and that was how the Queen, Athaliah also heard. Success will always attract outsiders, whether we like it or not.
13. Athaliah Heard, Came and was Killed
All the planning as from the outset has been secretive, but now that their aim has been achieved with the noise well heard miles off, it becomes no secret again. Athaliah also heard and instead of sending people to go and see what was happening she did not but came to the venue herself. She couldn’t sent anyone to check for her, because she knows that she has been sitting on a keg of gunpowder all this while.
“Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD:
“And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason.” (2 Ch 23:12-13)
An author says of her coming that maybe they have been planning to go to her after the crowning of the King, but now that she’s come to meet them at the temple, she reduced their work and makes their judgment faster and easier.
On getting to the venue, she was arrested and killed by the people because she has overstepped her bounds and the Lord has rendered her powerless.
The devil like Athaliah has been rendered powerless over all believers, that is why Jesus said all power on earth and in heaven has been given unto him, all we must do is key into this promise of God.
Poll 2: Promise
Have you keyed into God’s promises for your life?
“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, all power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” (Mat 28:18)
“Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.” (Luk 10:19)
In Jesus is all of God’s promises for a believer’s life, thence the more you know Jesus the more you get keyed into God’s promises for your life. Therefore, get to know more of Jesus every day and you wouldn’t be terrified by the devil any longer.
14. Baal Renounced, Priest Killed, Desecrate the Temple
After the Queen who was the mastermind behind the worship of Baal has been killed the people moved to the shrine of Baal and killed the priest there.
“Then all the people went to the house of Baal, and brake it down, and brake his altars and his images in pieces, and slew Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars.” (2 Ch 23:17)
An author says, it was Mattan the priest that was found there, that it may mean other worshippers of Baal on hearing what has happened they have fled for their lives.
15. Joy Enveloped the Land
After the people have succeeded in doing this, they became happy. This shows that they have been in sorrow and anguish of mind all this while that the Queen was on throne.
“And all the people of the land rejoiced: and the city was quiet, after that they had slain Athaliah with the sword.” (2 Ch 23:21)
When the wicked is on seat of leadership, there would be sorrow in the land, but when they are no more the city would have joy.
“When it goeth well with the righteous, the city rejoiceth: and when the wicked perish, there is shouting.” (Pro 11:10)
People have been hiding themselves when the wicked woman rises, they couldn’t do anything and they all have been looking at where her case would land to, but when she was taken off, with the temples of idols destroyed, the people got out of their hiding places to worship God and to associate themselves with Yahweh and good things that are ongoing in the land.
“When righteous men do rejoice, there is great glory: but when the wicked rise, a man is hidden.
“When the wicked rise, men hide themselves: but when they perish, the righteous increase.” (Pro 28:12 & 28)
16. Jehoiada Continues to Instruct the King
The new king being naïve, young and a person who is being introduced into different kinds of things needs tutorship, and Jehoiada being the High Priest did not leave him alone, he continued to instruct him on how to worship God.
“And Jehoash did that which was right in the sight of the LORD all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him.” (2 Ki 12:2)
Instruct in Hebrew word is “ירא ירה”, Romanized form is yârâh yârâ' (phonetic spelling is yaw-raw', yaw-raw') which means to point out, to teach, direct, inform, to show.
High Priest Jehoiada started informing, teaching and showing the new King the ways of the Lord, what God expects of him and what he does not expect of him, what he shall do if he wants to be successful in his position as a king over the people of God and as he was doing this for him he was listening to him yielding to his counsel and as long as he was doing this the bible says he prospers, because the nation equally prospers and was in joy of the Lord.
When one has a good mentor that one listens to and yields to his or her counsels one shall continue to wax strong and hot, one shall continue to succeed.
Outside teaching him the ways of the Lord, he ensures that the King gets married to good ladies in the society, ladies who would not lead him back to the way of the gentile, ladies who would not lead him to sin as did Athaliah.
“And Jehoiada took for him two wives; and he begat sons and daughters.” (2 Ch 24:3)
17. Jehoiada’s Death
During his days on earth, the people of the land the King not exempted follow the laws of the Lord and they continually did what was pleasing unto the Lord. The fear of the Lord reign supreme in the hearts of all, the worship of Yahweh was not toyed with during his days.
“And when they had finished it, they brought the rest of the money before the king and Jehoiada, whereof were made vessels for the house of the LORD, even vessels to minister, and to offer withal, and spoons, and vessels of gold and silver. And they offered burnt offerings in the house of the LORD continually all the days of Jehoiada.” (2 Ch 24:14)
As we know that all humans have been indebted to death since the fall of man in the garden of Eden, the man grew old and died at 130 years.
“But Jehoiada waxed old, and was full of days when he died; an hundred and thirty years old was he when he died.” (2 Ch 24:15)
18. Burial Place
The people of the land recognized his services to the nation and to the temple and they mourned him. After mourning him they resolved that he shouldn’t be buried like ordinary person, he shouldn’t be buried among the ordinary people and they resolved to bury him among the kings.
“And they buried him in the city of David among the kings, because he had done good in Israel, both toward God, and toward his house.” (2 Ch 24:16)
Whatsoever we are doing people are seeing and they are noticing they would surely pay us back; our end would show what people’s perception of us is.
19. Preservation of God’s Covenant
God used this man to preserve his covenant and promise with the house of David assuming he acted otherwise, perhaps there wouldn’t be what is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah today.
“And all the congregation made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said unto them, Behold, the king's son shall reign, as the LORD hath said of the sons of David.” (2 Ch 23:3)
The devil will always want to destroy the covenant of God, with our lives by several means, we are the ones who will wake up and would not allow that. We shall wake up by our prayers, reading the word of God and doing other needful things that we read in the bible.
Jehoiada was a high priest of impeccable character, who believed in God and followed God wholeheartedly even when the country was not in good standing with God. He saw evil and looked at evil in the eye with his wife, pulling the kingdom of devil to the ground with his administrative style and mentorship roles. He brought his children up in the way of the Lord. Through him the covenant with the house of Judah was preserved and thence God’s plan for mankind could be fulfilled in Christ Jesus. People know this and couldn’t have appreciated him less than burying him among the Kings that did well in Judah, the Southern Nation of Israel.
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