Liberation War of Bangladesh
Liberation War of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Liberation War held in 1971 from March 25 to December 16. The conflict was occurred between East Pakistan and West Pakistan with the help of Indian army. In my paper I will focus on the core philosophy of Bengal, then I will explain the history of Bengal including liberation war and then I conclude with the post war situation of Bangladesh.
According to Mahavarata, the ancient script of India, Bengal is the place of Pilgrimage and people came here for teaching or learning morality and spirituality by knowing themselves. (Sharif, Ahmed. 2011. P.10). The old name of Bengal is Bongo or Vanga. Bongo was the gradual developed plain land of Himalaya. The north-east and east part of this land covered by Hill, the North West and west part covered by mangrove forest and the south part was covered by ocean. From the ancient period, the hill tract people are matrilineal and most of them were called ‘Kirat’ or ‘Kirati’. On the other hand, the ancient people of bongo were the mixed of Austric and Dravidian. (Sharif, Ahmed. 2001. P. 20). This mixed generation invented a philosophy called Samkhya. Later the philosophy was included into Veda, the oldest script of ancient Indian subcontinent, as one of the astika. The founder of Samkhya is Kapila. It is considered that Kapila was born in Kopil Muni in Jessore District in Bangladesh.
As a pilgrimage, the Guru (the Master) taught how to live with Shatasfurta life to his Shissho (apprentice) with the help Prakrti (the meaning of the word is ‘nature’ but it is used as the primal motive force and women are also considered as Prakrti). Shatasfurta is the Bengal word, Shatasfurta came from two words Sattva and Sfurta. According to Samkhya, Sattva (means oneself or purity) is the one guna or attitude of Prakrti and the other word Sfurta means sparkling. Shatasfurta is the moment when someone sparks with his/her true nature from the detachment of lust, anger, greed, arrogance, attachment and jealousy. In this pilgrimage people didn’t take children. This was the way of living in old Bengal. When this practice was obstructed the people of old Bengal select a king named Gopal by voting in 750 AD. From Gopal the Pala dynasty started and they ruled with the concept of Buddhism.
However, Hemanta Sen, came from Carnatika to pala dynasty to write the philosophy of this place, take over power and styled himself King in 1095 AD. He ruled with Brahmin style and tortured Buddhist and the traditional practitioners. In Sena Dynasry, the arya started to come to Bengal rapidly and tried to convert people to Brahminism forcedly. Before, Masters who were living and teaching, they didn’t have home they had their akra or shrine but after entering aryas and Brahmins, they started to grab their land, give birth and introduce patrilineal society. The philosophy and the life style of Bengal people was extinct and concealed due to the entrance of Brahmins. Therefore, Sena rulers became vulnerable without getting help from the public of Bengal.
Consequently, the Turk shoulder Malik Ikhtyaruddin Mohammad defeats Lakshan Sena and conquered Bengal in 1202 or 1204 or 1206 AD (Sharif, Ahmad. 2001. P 93). He introduced Islamisation in Bengal and he randomly destroyed the Buddhist universities, shins and converted those into Mosques and Madrasas. After him Sultani period had came (from 1339-1538) then Shershah (1539- 1575) Mughal period (1575-1757). In Mughal period Akbar conquered Bengal and he changed the regular calendar of Bengal. The old calendar was counted through sun but the new calendar that Bengali people are still following is counted through moon with the concept of Arabian calendar. Again, the muslim rulers used the Brahmins and the upper caste hindu to rule the general people and they tried to destroy the old Bengal culture of pilgrimage. Thus in the muslim era, the general people didn’t have good relation with the rulers. Thus there were always conflict within rulers and the general people. Lord Clive took this chance and defeat Shirajuddoula in 1757. From 1575 to 1757, the people of Bengal tried to adopt the new philosophy of Islam amalgamating with their own philosophy of the body. Lalon is the example of this amalgamation.
However, the natural process of amalgamation of philosophy in this region was destroyed from 1757 starting with British period. British rule introduce the modern states concept in Bengal and the Bengal presidency was established in 1766. The English ruler took production from Bengal to their homeland. Many feminine occurred in this period. T. B. Macaulays Education Theory destroyed entirely the cultural strength of Bengal. This education theory demolishes the concealed educational system of the old Bengal. The main goal of the education was to get a job under British governors because all production went to Britain, only service holders could survived by getting job. The opportunist, Brahmins and upper caste hindus’, who assisted the muslim ruler started to study with this education system and the converted muslim and muslim who came from other places became leg behind. For this reason, hindus’ became enemy of muslims. This irritation among religion was created by the education theory of T. B. Macaulay. Due to divide and rule theory Bengal was divided into two zones in 1905 by Lord Curzon. The Muslim League was established in Dhaka in 1906. Consequently, the British India was divided into two parts with the basis of religion and Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to India and the Eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal later East Pakistan. The circumstances of the partition were bloody religious riots in both Bengals. Thousand of villages were burned where villagers didn’t have the conflict among religion. Hence Bengali people lost her strength within the partition because the strength of Bengal was related with her land and people. Before partition, the believers of pilgrimage of old Bengal always traveled shrine to shrine within particular time but after partition that traveling is restricted.
When Bengal lost her strength, the ruler of the Pakistan started to humiliate and take chance. The beangli people was humiliated by urdu language people. The mother language people considered themselves better muslim than bangla language people. Thus Md. Ali Zinna announced that urdu would the only one language of Pakistan. However, Bengali people didn’t agree with the concept and there was a movement in 1952 about mother language. Many students were died in that movement. The Awami legue led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was emerged in 1960. In the election of 1970, Awami legue was elected but the leader of West Pakistan opposed this election. In March 25 in 1971 Pakistan army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and killed one third people of the cities if East Bengal. After arrest of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Major Zia ur-rahman declared the freedom of east Bengal. With the help of Indian Army Bangladesh got freedom within ninth month war.
Before two days of the declaration of independence, in December 14 the intelligent people of east Bengal, who knew the old history of old bengal, was killed. Still the researchers who research about the history of old Bengal are killed.
In conclusion, Bengal was the pilgrimage from the ancient period. if the people of Bangladesh don’t find their old glory the people of Bangladesh will never get liberation.