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Creation, Evolution & Perception of God
Conflict Between Creation and Evolution
Summary: Does God exist as stated by monotheistic faiths and created mankind on this planet or every living cell & humans evolved gradually through the evaluation process postulated by Charles Darwin?
The controversial nature of “Creation vs. Evolution” argument had been part of human’s discourse and debates, especially during the last century due to the advancement of scientific discoveries in various disciplines. Apparently it is a recurring scientific and theological dispute about the creator, the origin of life and the universe. How the concept of a sole or plural God evolved during the history of mankind and what anthropologists suggest about the Chukchee religious belief of indigenous savage people may be of concerns for us to conclude rationally.
Disagreement among those who religiously believe in Creationist Point of View that God had created Adam, Eve & the universe verses those who accept evolutionary biology & universal support of the scientific consensus (geology, physics & cosmology etc.), are of concerns to many for better understanding and resolution.
During the last few centuries, discoveries of manlike fossils, geological radiometric age determination (1920 and after) and astronomical analysis has led modern human to believe that the earth is around 14.7 billion years old and manlike creatures were on this planet prior to the arrival of Adam and Eve. Darwin’s biological Theory of Evolution does not synchronize with the creationist point of view due to time variation.
Though humans have been utilizing scientific discoveries in their day to day life without objecting, but when it comes to debate how the universe & human were created, most of the people of monotheistic faith group, seem to be conservative and intransigent in accepting the reality of scientific discoveries and do not accept the presence of hominids and Homo erectus as well as biological evolution of human from apes to homo erectus & to current day modern man (homo sapiens).
Darwin’s hypothesis about the origin of species by natural selection is considered close to the reality by the majority of scientists but it has not yet been proved. However, ongoing scientific research and radiometric analysis of fossils found, support the existence of mankind on earth for millions of years. Darwin’s theory allows explanation of adoption by natural means rather than divine intervention by a supreme deity. At this age of science and technology many scientist advocates that myths about God creating the world and shaping human beings in his own image, does not look rational, Contrary to this, accepting origin of human through evolution, implies that all monotheistic sacred scriptures are a mere assumption or myth, nullifying the existence of God.
Irrespective of human composition in terms of matter and spirit; evolution contradicts the creation of Adam & Eve and indirectly the existence of God as creator. Hence this mode of creation is not acceptable to monotheistic group, especially by the three Abrahamic religions.
Living in total denial of scientific discoveries relevant to the existence of mankind on earth & relying solely on the religious perception of creation seems to be hypocritical. One has to accept a creator either through the Big Bang to start one or multiple universes, time, space and other possible dimensions, elapse of time and & beginning of life by cell, matter, organic molecules produced by sun rays and prevailing environmental condition and its fine tuning or creation by a supreme power (God) in the shape of Adam & Eve who were sent to earth to start the human race.
Hypothesis in favor of evolution by natural process of selection, suggest that the chemical soup of organic molecules produced after the beginning of the universe, may have joined together to form an integrated unit (cell) to initiate life and the process of evolution started and continued. There are many theories and hypothesis that suggest that life sprang up in the form of a cell & continued to evolve into the present living species on earth. Scientific discoveries also indicate that man has not suddenly appeared on this planet 10k years ago, but had been in existence for millions of years in varying shape and forms.
The purpose of this article is to address this issue of creation vs. evolution in a compromising way to accept both possibilities as postulate of evolution does not ascertain non-existence of God.
Mankind may continue to explore further in order to decide firmly & categorically about the creator when there is enough knowledge to support the stance.
Evolution of God & Religious Beliefs
A historical journey of mankind may reveal that the concept of the creator initially arose as illusion that subsequently turned into the evolution of the illusion about supreme power, that surfaced as God, gods or goddesses and relevant rituals came into being.
Early or primitive indigenous and savage people (people with no knowledge of reading/writing, agricultural or social know how) were scared of anything bigger. Anthropologists suggest that they evince mental inferiority and their minds were like that of a child. Though their ideas were not the result of deep thought; they seem to have influenced by the winds, thunders, sky, moon, stars, snake, river, ocean, mountain, etc. and had developed rituals about anything big as the supreme power behind their creation, purpose and ultimate destiny.
Primitive religious thoughts of Savage people as recorded by anthropologists and others give some ideas about how religious concepts evolved gradually. Chukchee or Savages of Siberia, 3 to 4 millennia ago used to talk to the winds, thunders and other things of large magnitude, while pulling their body covering down, considering them as the cause of creation or protection. This concept is regarded as animism in which life is attributed to wind, thunder, river, sky, moon, stars, etc. It was a common factor in visualizing the creator as human mind was not developed compared to the mind of modern human and was very primitive.
Animism had been the “infant philosophy of mankind created by ancient savage philosophers who saw living and nonliving things alike as inhibited by a soul or sprit, river and clouds, birds & beasts. People were supposed to have this soul, ghost-soul, vapor or shadow as the cause of life.
This desire to find the creator evolved gradually through the history of mankind and varies in concept between various faith groups compared to those who believe in scientific evolution.
In early era of human history, it was natural for people to wish for long life, good health and immortality. Those indigenous people were anxious to know who created them and why were they on earth. By the time they gained self consciousness and started to live in groups and communities; they become aware of human constraints and limitations against their desire to gain freedom from their problems and miseries. Being born with reasoning capabilities, they become curious to find a transcendent & omniscient superpower that could help and liberate them from fear of death, extinction and other constraints of life. In that quest, anything that was proportionally big like sky, ocean, thunders, mountain, trees, etc., were considered sacred having vital power. They might have thought that the super powers could be persuaded to help them at the time of need and grant them their favors.
In pursuit of a desired Omnipotent & transcendent power that surfaced gradually as illusions & myths; they started telling stories of gods who could reduce their anxiety about survival. These myths turned into mythology to deal with human experience in coping with a problematic human predicament. Spiritual consciousness and religious awareness fell into the theological domain.
The Gods so perceived were of supernatural & metaphysical existence, individually selected and accepted by others to form sects, tribes and groups sharing the same perception of the creator. Polytheism became the need of the time with multiple Gods perceived and worshiped by people. Around 3500 YA, all pagans have had created Idols for their Gods, housed in sanctuaries for worship and ritual practices.
The early religious beliefs so developed, include the oldest Aryan religion Hinduism. It represents an assortment of religious belief, mostly based on Vedas and Bhagwad Geeta’s scripts. Accordingly sun, moon, planets, animals, trees and even humans are considered as manifestations of God. However, recently many Hindus are of the opinion that there is only one God responsible for all creation. In addition, Buddhism and Confucianism also existed along with Atheists who do not believe in any God and say that mankind has just made it up.
As the mankind progressed intellectually, the concept of monotheism surfaced with the declaration of one deity ‘Allah’, by prophet Ibrahim, followed by Moses, Jesus and Mohammad. Monotheistic faiths that emerged during the last 3000 years include 3 major faiths, Judaism (followed by the Jews), Christianity (followers of Jesus) and Islam, followed by Muslims. These are all Semitic religions and followers of these religions believe in one supreme God. Sikhism (offshoot of Hinduism founded by Guru Nanak and 10 other Gurus, the last one being Guru Gobin Singh, is also known to be monotheistic faith.
Emergence of Gods
Deities of various perceptions were practiced by indigenous people of the world for many thousands of years prior to the arrival of monotheistic belief around 3000-3500 years ago. These concepts may have emerged as resultants of human short falls and fear of death and extinction.
A number of Pagan religions featuring Gods and Goddess emerged gradually in Africa, Europe and other parts of the world. The early Arabian people were of nomadic tribes who used to live in different groups believing in multiple Goods & Goddess. By the end of 5th century (~600BC), Nabataea’s culture prevailed when they settled in Arabia. Being followers of polytheism, they had
Visualized the shape and figures of their respective deities & created idols to represent God & the Goddess of their choice.
Yemen on Arabian Peninsula was regarded center of the older civilization in the Middle East and home of Semitic people who migrated to settle there and promoted Semitic Culture. Mecca along Red Sea coast was an important city. When the Quraysh tribe got settled there, they took control of Mecca. As the area nourished with traditional religions with varying gods similar to those known to other Semitic people; it was deemed necessary to avoid conflicts on the basis of religious perceptions and all tribes converge peacefully, under the protection of religious practices. For this purpose an agreement was made, by mutual consent, between Kinana Bedouins, Quraysh & other tribes to get together and build a sanctuary for religious practices and events.
The Ka’aba, a sacred sanctuary for its holiness and religious tolerance was selected to be the main sanctuary where people were allowed to bring and put idols of their tribal Gods. It is known through the history of the area that Ka’aba used to contain 360 idols or images of gods from various tribes or faith groups; including statues of Jesus and Mary to represent one deity for each day of the year or the number of tribes involved therein.
All faithful, around the Arabian Peninsula, was allowed to assemble once a year for a duration of few weeks to honor an autumn practice of time immemorial tradition (Hajj), persecuting the sun to bring winter rain. During the Hajj time no violence between the parties or tribes was permitted.
Having God and Goddess, as their deities, people decided to differentiate between them & started to call male god as “Lah”, whereas female Goddess were called “Lat”,. The Chief God in Ka’aba was “El” or “aL” Since it was a male God, hence it was known as “al-Lah”. ‘Al’s’ sister and daughters were also housed in Kaaba, along with other idols. The three main goddesses were “Al-Lat” (Chief Goddess), “al-Uzza” (the Mighty-Goddess of the moon or deity of spring water), “Manat” (the Goddess of destiny) – these were considered as Holly Virgins and often paired with all.
The Nabatean deity “Hubal” was also put in Kaaba & his worship was connected with the black stone of the Kaaba. The black stone was said to have fallen either from sun, moon, stars or meteorite and used to represent cosmic forces. This stone is still at the Kaaba and Muslims considered it sacred assuming that it has fallen from heaven. Muslims do encircle it during the Hajj as a tradition of Prophet Mohammad. . Muslims 2nd Caliphs, Omer is quoted to have said that Muslims do kiss and circle the black stone to follow the tradition of the prophet; otherwise, the stone is just a stone that can neither do good nor evil. Hajj in Islam is an essential element of faith that every Muslim is asked to perform, once in a life time, if possible. After Muslim took control of Ka’aba, all idols were evicted & it was declared a sacred Islamic house of worship for Muslims to worship Allah, alone.
Followers of monotheistic and polytheistic faiths, even exist today and do practice their faiths in spite of convincing advanced scientific knowledge in hands.
The reason for that could be twofold.
- Whatever faith, one is born with, he/she will have hesitated in denying and changing the faith. That includes prominent scientist like Albert Einstein, Neil Bohr, Max Planck, Charles Darwin, Galileo, etc., who have changed the shape of the world but continued to follow the faith till their demise.
- Mankind has not achieved perfection in their struggle to explore and gain knowledge to make a rational judgment on these two fronts of theological & scientific modes of origin. We are still at the infant stage to say categorically with a fair, rational consciousness that who created mankind and what is the purpose of life and human presence here.
Though the creator of the universe with 240 billion projected galaxies, may not care for the earth and its inhabitants who are like chromosomes compared to the universe; the way God is perceived and believed, is the cause of religious conflicts in the world, that needs human attention to reconciliation and bridge building among all humans to promote peace and harmony in the world.
Whether, modern humans are descendent of Adam & Eve or that of Homo erectus/sapiens, irrespective of that one has to ascertain who came first on earth - Adam & Eve to start human race or hominids turned into Homo erectus & Homo sapiens in succession? If one succeeds in proving that Adam is the source of the human race, then the concept of a creator will have credibility against the proposed evolution phenomenon. Contrary to that if Homo erectus are the source of the human race the evolution will have an edge over creation.
To understand this, one may like to review, how human came into being on earth and how it relates to the concept of God
Origin of Humans – (Creation or Evolution)
Human Origin is viewed in terms of the followings
- c. Created by God as revealed in the divine scriptures (Torah, Bible & Quran)
- d. Scientific Research, Investigations & Theory of Evolution
- e. Age of earth – Young vs. Old
- f. Origin of Universe
Abrahimic faiths assert a belief that there is only one God responsible for life. The sacred scriptures, Torah, Bible and Quran reveal that God created Adam from mud/dust and Eve from his rib in the Garden of Eden and sent them to earth when they failed to comply with God’s commandment of not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, on the persuasion of Satan or Serpent. This implies that both Adam & Eve were the first to start the human race on earth after they arrive on earth. It is incumbent upon the followers of the monotheistic faiths to concur with this doctrine of creation in its entirety. No option is available for people differ, deviate or argue about the validity of the subject.
Though the divine scriptures describe the creation of human, but most of the scriptures are not explicitly clear and descriptive about creation of other living species on this planet. A brief reference, regarding the creation of the animals is mentioned in the Quran where in verse Noor (24:45) says that “Allah has created every animal of water. Of them is (a kind) that goes upon its belly and (a kind) that goes upon two legs and (a kind) that goes upon four. Allah is Able to do all things.
Recently, some scientist and theologian claim that some future of the universe and living things are explained comfortably by an assumption of intelligent design that can neither be approved or rejected like scientific hypothesis but can be regarded as essentially a creationism.
Charles Robert Darwin, a British Naturalist and Scientist proposed through his books on the origin of species and natural selection that all species on this planet have evolved or descended over time from common ancestors, including mankind who has evolved from apes to its current shape and form and had not come from heaven as proclaimed by monotheistic religious groups (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). He speculated & showed that in the shape of a branching tree pattern of evolution resulting from a process, he called “Natural Selection’. His proposed theory explains the diversity of life on earth and is a cause of concern for creationists.
Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838 and published that in 1859. His theory correlates with the finding of Alfred Russell Wallace, who had travelled up to Indonesia working on the same subject. His friends, including Thomas Huxley strongly promoted biological evolution as proposed by Darwin and debated with people of the faith.
Darwin's theory of evolution was a matter of explanation that has established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. His idea of evolution in the development of different species had stirred the people of the faiths who think that the each species, including mankind were created by the God and sent to the earth.
As the concept of Adam & Eve is contrary to the theory of evolution, let us see who came first in terms of human existence on earth.
Scientific research, excavation of various sites & studies of human fossils found in various part of the world indicate that Apes and human like creatures were on this planet many million years ago before the time of creation.
Different human like species seems to live together on this planet and a gradual transition from one to another took place in accordance with the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Robert Darwin. His scientific theory suggests that the modern human trail of evolution started many million years ago from Apes, and it took 6 million years to evolve from Apes to hominids and then to Homo erectus, Homo Neanderthal, Homo sapiens and then finally to modern humans, in succession.
Around 6 million years ago, hominids (early human like creature), developed a distinct physical change from Apes. They started walking on two legs instead of 4. This enabled them to conserve energy which contributed an increase in their brain size. Consequently, around 3-4 million years ago
Hominids changed to Homo erectus who used to walk upright & had larger cranial (brain size) than their predecessor.
Hominids are known to have originated in Africa and existed on this planet ~5 to 6 million years ago. The hominids gradually evolved into Homo erectus (set upright) which are considered the ancestor of modern human & existed in Africa around 4-5 million years ago. The scientific and biological theories of human development and migration, considering Single or Multiregional Origin proposes that Homo erectus (set upright) migrated out of Africa and spread to China, Java and other parts of South East Asia. A Dutch anatomist, Eugene Dubois set out for Asia and in1891 his team discovered a human fossil on the island of Java, Indonesia. He described the species as Homo erectus based on skullcap and other similarities like that of Homo sapiens found from the bank of the Solo River in east Java. This finding was named as Java Man.
This scientific version of human evolution can also be related to the discovery of “Lucy”, a 3.2 million year old skeleton, found by Donald C. Johansson, professor of anthropology, Arizona State University; in 1974 in Ethiopia. Another human fossil of a child that was discovered by Zeresenay Alemsged of California School of Science; is estimated to have existed 3.3 to 3.4 million years ago in Ethiopia in an area that was full with volcanic dust which is estimated to be 3.5 million years old.
He named it “Salaam”. These finding do provide convincing proof of human existence prior to Adam and are in line with the proposed scientific evolution process. Convincing proofs are often deemed necessary for the satisfaction of human curiosity. Both Lucy and Salaam were walking on two legs and were around 3.5 million years ago. So it is estimated that the transition from Apes to Hominids must have taken place around 5-6 millions YA.
In addition to the above a women’s fossil had been discovered in Africa who may have existed approximately around 130-200k YA. This woman is known as Mitochondrial Eve, based on DNA analysis & is regarded as the mother of all human, by research scientists. The Darwinist view is that all humans are the product of evolution and traces of evolution can be found in our genes. In human genetics Mitochondrial Eve represents the most recent common matrilineal ancestor from whom all living humans are descended. It is passed from mother of the offspring and as such all mtDNA into every living humans are directly descended from her.
The reason, she is called as Mitochondrial Eve is due to the fact that all humans have two types of DNA. One is Nuclear DNA (nDNA), that makes us what we are genetically - we get this, half from mom and half from the father. The other one is Mitochondrial (mtDNA). This is a single DNA is found in human and female only passes this DNA to her offspring. For this reason women’s mtDNA could flow one generation to the other. Although it is also believed that Mitochondria can be inherited from both parents. The reason for mentioning Mitochondrial Eve is to show that human existed around 130KYA, and if this Mitochondrial Eva had really existed and assumption is correct (some people think that it is mythical and invalid), then it does not synchronize with the Eve mentioned in the divine messages due to time discrepancies that is 6000 vs. 130K-200K years.
Homo erectus may be regarded as a descendent of early Homo Habilis, or H. ergaster. Presumably Homo habilis evolved into Homo erectus or they may represent separate lineages of a common ancestor as their crania (brain size) capacity differs. Homo erectus has a cranial capacity (830 cc?) Grater that that of Homo habilis. It is generally considered that modern human has a cranial (brain) capacity of 1100-1700 cc; and have evolved from Homo erectus. Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to live in small, socially formed society with fire and stone tools to hunt and defend against wildlife. Homo erectus remains one of the most successful and long-lived species of Homo.
Different populations seem to have become reproductively isolated, evolving independently into separate species, like the Neanderthals in Europe & Homo Sapiens 150-200K years ago in Africa who ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations without interbreeding. These theories were supported by human like fossils found in Africa as well as their tools and other artifacts.
Homo Neanderthals may have lived on earth at a time when there was not much sunlight due to volcanic dust pollution. Ice age came and survival was difficult and consequently they vanished around the 20-24K YA. Many scientists assume that Homo Neanderthals may not have evolved into modern humans, but contrary to that anatomical, archaeological and genetic evidences give credence to the view that modern humans are relatively a recent evolutionary phenomenon that could have surfaced from Homo sapiens, descendent of Homo erectors who are considered to be the ancestor of modern human. This view had scientifically investigated and proved.
Though hominids have been in existence for a long time, going through evolution, the population of all early humans halted around 70,000 YA possible due to catastrophic volcanic eruption, and global temperature variation. Around 20-25KYA, the era was regarded as ice Age in which temperature dipped so much that it was difficult to survive. Neanderthal disappearance could be due to inability to defend themselves against Homo sapiens, or hunger and lack of foods.
Around 10, 000Ya global warming started and sea level started increasing. Homo sapiens progressed gradually. They started living in groups and communities came into existence. By 6000 BCE town culture emerged and flourished.
With these two models of creations in hands (Adam & Eve vs. Homo erectus/hominids of evolution product), it would be appropriate to establish rationally whether humans were created by God or our existence on this planet is due to a natural evolutionary phenomenon, proposed by Charles Robert Darwin & believed by the majority of scientists in the midst of overwhelming scientific evidences.
Mankind has not been able to resolve the issue of human origin and there is no unanimous consensus on creation or evolution. Once we resolve this issue of how humans came into being, other questions like purpose of human lives, destiny, life after death, reward and punishment in heaven or hell or in the form of reincarnation of souls for upward or downward trends as well as other questions that pertains to planets, galaxies and the universe may be addressed properly to establish validity of a creator – either God or Evolution. In pursuit of establishing whether mankind came through evolution of creation, one has to analyze period when Adam and Eve came to earth in terms of known biblical history of mankind vs existence of Hominids on earth and age of the earth.
Age of Earth - Adam & Eve on Earth
Young earth creationism represents a belief that the earth was created within last 10,000 years ago. They also believe that the universe is about the same age as the earth.
The time variation between creation and evolution may also be addressed through evaluating young vs. old earth. Human history is limited compared to the universe and if mankind came recently it will be indicative of relatively young earth.
We know that Jesus came 2000 YA, and the difference between Jesus and Moses is about 1400 years. Time between Moses and Ibrahim is estimated to be around 500 years. This will take us to around 4000 years on time line. Based on approximation, it is likely that both Adam & Eve may have come to the earth around 4000-6000 (some estimate 5760) YA. This would imply that the earth is young and as such there should be other human on earth prior to 6000 YA.
Proof of young earth will have some validity in supporting the arrival of Adam & Eve around 6000 YA. Proof of young earth could only assume with respect to the arrival of Adam & Eve on earth. It could also be assumed that earth may be there in time with no humans on it. Theologically, we do not have any concrete proof of young earth apart from assumptions based on biblical stories.
Contrary to a young earth, the majority of scientists are in favor of scientific evidence from studies of sedimentary rocks, fossil patterns in geological context, radioactive dating, starlight from faraway galaxies and other research & investigations that the earth & the universe are very old may be around 4.5 to 13.7 billion years, respectively. Age of the universe and earth that are calculated and described by geological research and astronomical calculations. Similarly, our Milky Way Galaxy, of which Sun is an average star, located 25,000 light years away from its center; is estimated to be 8.3 billion years old.
So the creationists who believe in a young age earth may not justify young Adam and Eve, compared to hominids, Homo Neanderthals and Homo sapiens whose existence is proved
Science as scientist have discovered many human –like fossils and the age of each fossil is established by radiometric dating plus geological dating of the rock formation where the fossils was found.
Proponent of young earth, often argues that the dating of hominid fossils is not correct, but correlate to the modern humans who were immature and deformed. However, if this assumption is right then the radiometric dating of bones should show otherwise. If the radiometric dating of bones fails to
Prove compliance with young earth assumption, then the fossils in question may belong to hominids – a preferable interpretation of old age earth.
Though a monotheist firmly believes in the creation of Adam & Eve by God, but for non-believers, it does not prove beyond reasonable doubt; as there is no scientific proof of that assumption except the divine messages which support creation by God. In this advance 21st century, people expect to have concrete proof in order to get satisfied about their perception.
Origin of Universe
We often ask the question, who created us, the earth, solar system, galaxies and the universe. The universe is speculated to have come into existence due to Big Bang incident. It is assumed scientifically as well as revealed in the scriptures that there was nothing, no space, no time, no matter, no light & no sound, etc.; only a fireball hanging somewhere that exploded and disintegrated with a big bang and everything came into being including time, space and matter. Big Bang was estimated to have happened 13.7 to 15 billion years ago in a violent way and expended. It took a few billion years for it to cool down and after that formation of stars and planet came into existence.
How the fireball was there in the absence of space is questionable. If the fireball existed then either another super natural power had created it or that power itself was contained within the fireball- maybe God Particle that is being searched through Large Hadrons Collider experiment to re-create
The conditions preset in the universe just after the Big Bang. This experiment is based on the idea proposed by professor Peter Higgs to know how matter in the universe got its mass. He also thinks that there is a sub-atomic particle named after him “The hypothetical Higgs Boson” also known as God Particle. It is assumed that without Higgs Boson, all particles would be without mass. The existence of bosons if proved will be a key confirmation of the String Theory and they could make up the mysterious dark matter (black hole) that holds galaxies together. The validity of the idea of the Big Bang is in agreement with the religious scripts. Consequently, new universes are being created continuously and instead of a universe we conclude that there are multiverse and this concept is based on 3 types of reasoning.
- Internal Inflation
- Dark Energy
- String Theory
The Big Bang came into being as a result of a violent expansion that is being called "Inflation". This is causing expansion of the universe, constantly due to the repulsive gravity that instead of pulling things together (gravity), is repelling everything apart and is the cause of an expanding universe.
Assuming that the universe is expanding, there must be some unknown force that is pushing everything away from each other against the law of gravity, which is supposed to have slowed down the expansion as time went on but the universe is expanding. What is causing this expansion could be due to a force or energy that we can't see and we call it "Dark Energy" which is pushing universes apart and away from each other, supporting the idea of expansion. New universes are being created to support the idea of multiverse. This dark energy is cause of expansion and it being said that 70% of the universe is dark energy, a property of space and this energy is not being diluted as space expand faster and faster. Einstein was first to say that space is not empty, it has amazing properties that we are just beginning to understand..
Investigating the universe on tiny scale will make use of String Theory. We know that inside the atom, there are electron, proton and neutrons. Proton and Neutrons are made up of a small particle known as Quarks, which is a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks are made up with something even smaller, tiny vibrating straps and that is String Theory. It implies that everything that exist is made of small vibrating strings.
From String Theory came the idea of single unified grand theory or M-Theory that can explain everything they way we see it. But for this beautiful theory, there is a catch. Math of string theory requires something that defies the common sense. According to M-Theory our universe and others are created by collisions between membranes in an 11-dimensional space and have completely different laws of physics and anything may be possible.
A feature that will open the door for multiverse extra dimensional space. Up till now we are familiar with three dimensions of space- Height, Width and Depth. Math of String Theory says that these are not the only dimensions, but six to 8 more dimensions are possible, making a total of 9-11 dimensions. These extra dimensions determine the fundamental feature of our universe and are regarded as the DNA of our universe.
String theory leads us to the idea of multi-verse. It gives 105possible solutions and each MA represents a different universe.
Cosmology is the branch of philosophy that deals and investigates the universe as a whole in its structure, origin and development. The cosmological argument implies that the existence of the
The universe must have a suitable cause and a specific time of origin. A scientist suggested that we must allow Evolution, an infinite time to get started. Cosmological argument may be that everything that begins to exist must have a cause. So, if the universe exists, then the universe must have caused.
Even Einstein also suggested that there is a need or necessity for a beginning and eventually the presence of a supernatural power to control every aspect of the universe, that we can call the creator or God, but he never accepted the reality of a personal God. Rational argument and our consciousness imply that there is an intelligent designer behind the operation of the universe that controls natural laws.
Stephen Hawking has said, “The actual point of creation lies outside the scope of presently known laws of physics. Another scientist also believes that the “instant of creation still remains unexplained” in reality only the creator knows what happened at the very beginning.
Reconciling Creation with Evolution
We live in the 21th century with tremendous scientific & technological advancements in various disciplines, but in spite of that there is neither compelling correlation between the concept of creation and scientific evolution, nor any unanimous consensus on this subject. The time difference between the two modes of creation is not explainable and we have not yet acquired sufficient knowledge to declare categorically what perception is right; be it creation or evolution and why we are here and who created everything in the world.
The world that we live in, demands proof to satisfy the curiosity of humans. The believers have been encouraged through scriptures to gain knowledge and explore whatever is in the earth and sky to better understand every aspect of life and use it for the betterment of human lives. Hence human quest of unveiling the cause of creation or find creator is not against the teaching of the faith but unfortunately believers of creation have resentment in accepting the idea of evolution as a mean of creation because, if they concur with that then the concept of God becomes questionable.
Neither creationist nor an evolutionist want to budge on this subject. The only way one can have some sort of reconciliation on this subject would be to consider that
1. Modern human seems to be a hybrid production of evolution and creation. God may have first created modern humans by the natural process of evolution after the incident of Big Bang and then later on around 6000 years ago, created Adam and Eve as a special creation different from already existing Homo sapiens & sent them to earth to be the spiritual representatives of all anatomically created modern humans who interbreed and interacted with others to start current human population on earth?. This complies with theory of intervention by God that gives mankind a dual ancestry as it suggests evolution of animals up through Homo erectus followed by intervention by God (in the form of Adam & Eve) to the appearance of modern man, his uniqueness and spirituality.
2. This proposal may also support the Quranic verse 2:36/24; in which Allah says to Adam and Eve that they will be sent to earth where they will find habitation (inhabitants). This indicates that possibly there might have been humans on earth before the arrival of Adam & Eve. Dwelling or abode (from abiden to abide), may relate to the residents already in existence on earth.
Apart from above the existence of humanity prior to Adam and Eve, may also be questioned with respect to the story of Adam’s sons Cain, Abel. It is being speculated that Adam & Eve had 4 sons (Cain, Abel, Seth and the 4th one with no name) & no daughter. When they grew up Cain and Abel found a girl and both got interested in her. Consequently, they fought with each other on this issue and one killed the other. If this story is valid, then where this girl did come from?
Contrary to that, if we consider evolution as the source of human origin: it will not satisfy the concerns of creationists and the ambiguity that exists between the two schools of thought, will never be reconciled unless we explore & acquire further knowledge to prove otherwise.
It is difficult to bridge the time gap between the two views of creation and reconcile the biblical creation of Adam & Eve with the existence of hominids and Homo sapiens. Though the proposed assumption does not support the young earth concept, but it may justify creation of Adam & Eve around 6000 YA accepting the existence of Homo sapiens prior to Adam & Eve.
Religious conflicts, racial discrimination & biased perception that prevail in the world, are leading us to destruction, jeopardizing our lives on the earth. Whether, religion is an opium of the minds, a cynical facade for power struggle or a divine reality, irrespective of that, more than half the population of the world believe in one God and attribute all creation & suffering to that power (God) for help and salvation. However, belief in creation or evolution, is one’s prerogative and is of negligible importance provided one consider the complexity of living species on earth, milky way galaxy, 240 billion projected galaxies and the universe in all.
The existence of a super natural power, sprit, God or creator seems to be apparent. Regulation that prevails within the universe is not a random and irregular phenomenon, but an indicative of a regulatory power that controls every aspect of the universe. For creator, it is possible to create, or let things evolve through a set of natural process and then create mankind and merge them to gather for intended purpose, not known to mankind. What lies in the universe is beyond our comprehension due to lack of acquired knowledge.
Whatever one believes in, it is incumbent upon each of us to be human first in order to serve the humanity, promoting peace in the world. Creator of such a big and complex universe may not care in what shape and form we perceive the creator, but if one wants to comply with the religious perception for salvation then we have to come out from the constraints of religious barriers and
Avoid creating tension among ourselves on the basis of our belief in creator & purpose of life. We need a change of heart to promote tolerance and live in peace and harmony with all people irrespective of color, creed & affiliation with any group. Let the subject of creation or evolution be left with the creator to deal with in the hereafter if it exists. In my personal opinion creation is not totally out of phase with evolution.
I hope this may serve to provide some understanding of the subject for all of us to promote tolerance among us. If I succeed in persuading the reader that division on the basis of faiths, purpose of life in term of creation and evolution and ultimate destiny are of personal concerns that should not be imposed on others to create unrest in the world; I will feel that I have done my obligation of promoting tolerance.