- Religion and Philosophy
Qusayy As the ruler of Mecca
Qusayy As the ruler of Mecca
Qusayy As the ruler of Mecca
iii. Qusayy As the ruler of Mecca
Hundreds of years before the birth of Prophet Muhammad Qusayy. known as someone who is very intelligent, brave and has a high administrative ability and sticking in the ranks of the political arena city of Mecca. Taking avail of Byzantine interests in Mecca at that time, he asked for their help in the control of the city of Mecca with the exclusion of the influence of Byzantine by ignoring the interests of the region them.28
Figure 2.1: The origin of descent Qusayy in singkat.29
Qusayy married bint Hulail Hubba, the daughter of the head of Khuza'i tribe in Mecca; his death provides an opportunity to climb the throne of power and hand over maintenance of the city of Mecca on posterity keturunannya.30 Quraish tribes scattered throughout the territory that eventually all entered the city of Mecca and united under the command kepemimpinannya.31
iv. Mecca: A Community kabilah
Although referred to as a city state, city-state, Mecca remains a tribal society until the end of his conquests at the time of Prophet Muhammad. The system is built according to the tribe community population where the children of the tribe are considered brothers who have ties of blood relationship. An Arab can not understand the idea of nation-state but rather in the context of the tribal system (tribes),
"It is the relationship between the state of nationality which binds families into tribal, a state based on the blood relations of meat as well as nation states built on the lineage. It is kinship that binds all individuals into the country and unity. It is regarded as a religion nationality and legal laws which they have agreed. "32
Each member of an asset throughout the tribes in which the emergence of a famous poet for example, an intrepid war, famous people in the goodness in one tribe, will make the honor and reputation of the entire lineage. Among the main tasks is to maintain the ethnicity of each supporter not only of its members but all those who are temporarily as guests were present under the banner of the tribes. Give protection to them is an honor that is achieved. Therefore, the city of Mecca as the city state is always ready to welcome any newcomers attended the celebration, performing Hajj, 33 or even just passing by berunta group. Giving service this demand requires security and adequate facilities, and, therefore, the institution then built in the city of Mecca (where some of them by Qusayy alone): 34 as Nadwa (institute of urban), Mashura (council's advice), Qiyada (leadership ), Sadana (holy city administration), Hijaba (maintenance Kaaba), Siqaya (provision of drinking water for the pilgrims), Imaratul-bait (maintaining the sanctity of the Kaaba), Ifa`da (those entitled to authorize the The first step in the celebration), Ijaza, Rice (institutsi calendar adjustments), Qubba (making tents collect donations for emergencies, A'inna (in control horses), Rafada (tax to help the poor pilgrims), Amwal muhajjara (alms for purity), Aysar, Ashnaq (manufacturer's estimate of financial liability) Hukuma (administration), Sifarah (embassy), `Uqab (standard setting), Liwa (banner) and Hulwan-unnafr (mobilization welfare).
Heavy duty is the responsibility posterity Qusayy descent. Descendants 'Abdul-Dar for example, take over the task of maintaining the Kaaba, institutional halls, and the rights of raised banners on all of the staff at the time peperangan.35' Abd-Manaf regulate foreign relations with the Roman authorities, and the prince Ghassan. Hashim (the son of man 'Abd-Manaf) entered into an agreement and is said to have received orders from the emperor gives the authority to the Quraish to travel through Syria in a safe state. "36 Hashim and his group retains his duties as head of the arrangement of food and drinks to pilgrims . His fortune has been given the opportunity to serve the pilgrims with the greatness of a pangeran.37
During a trade mission to Medina, Hashim captivated by a noblewoman Khazarite, Salma bint 'Amr. He is married and returned with him to Mecca, but when she is pregnant she chose to return to Medina and gave birth to a son, named Shaiba there. Hashim died in Gaza at the time of the trade mission, 38 and gave credence to his brother Muttalib, in order to maintain putranya39 then, still with the mother. While traveling to Medina, Muttalib Hashim loggerheads with the widow of youth custody Shaiba, which in the end he was on the winning side. Together with an uncle and his nephew returned to Mecca, people misunderstood and thought the boy as a servant Muttalib. Hence, the nickname Shaiba to 'Abdul-Muttalib.40
After the death of his uncle, 'Abdul-Muttalib, inherited the task Siqaya (provision of drinking water for the pilgrims) and Rafada (collecting financial aid for poor pilgrims) .41 Having rediscovered the eye Zamzam water goes down and forgotten under the set sand a few years, he gained honor and height became governor of the city of Mecca. Some years earlier he had a vow that if he was given ten sons, he would sacrifice one of them for the sake of an idol. Now, after being given
v. Until the past Qusayy Muhammad
blessing with a number of men as desired, 'Abdul-Mutallib seeks to fulfill his promise to ask the opinion of Azlam42 to choose which of them to be sacrificed. The name of the youngest children (the most popular), 'Abdullah, it turns out that they appear. Kemunisaan sacrifice was considered an unpopular among the Quraish, he contacted interpreter magic, according to the forecast, 'Abdullah will be exchanged with a camel. Azlam again contacted, and the value of the lives of young children was estimated at a price of one hundred camels.
Because ecstasy saw the event 'Abdul-Muttalib brought his son,' Abdullah, to Medina to visit some relatives. That's where `Abdullah marry Amina, Wuhaib female cousin who is the host, and have origins descendant tribes (brother Qusayy Zuhra establish tribes descendants of the tribe Wuhaib). 'Abdullah enjoy the peace in the family for some time before starting a trade mission to Syria. Unfortunately along the way fell ill. He returned to Medina and died at the start of pregnancy when Amina Mohammed.
vi. Religious conditions in the Arabian Peninsula
By the time the prophethood of Muhammad, the Arabian Peninsula did not feel familiar look of all forms of religious reform. Since centuries the worship of idols remained undisturbed, both in the presence of Jewish settlements and the efforts of Christianization emerging from Syria and Egypt. William Muir, in his book, The Life of Mahomet, reasoned that the presence of Jews or their presence helps to neutralize the spread of the Gospel through two stages. First, by strengthening ourselves in the northern border of the Arab, and for that, they create a barrier, barrier, between the Christian expansion to the north and the occupants of the idols in the south. Secondly, the pagan Arabs had to compromise with the Jewish religion in order to finish entering the legendary story of strange religions demand Kristen.43 I can not accept this argument theory altogether. According to the Arab nation, in fact, remnants of the monotheistic religion of Prophet Ibrahim and Isma'il were amended by superstition and ignorance. The story is usually owned by the Jews and the Arabs generally the result descendants of a common ancestor.
Christian teaching 7th century itself sinking dalatn changes and false myths and trapped in stagnation in total. Formerly Arabs who follow Christianity caused not by persuasion but rather due to the cruelty of power politik.44 There is no power that can paralyze the pagan Arabs where polytheism gripping so strong. Five centuries of Christianization effort to fruition nil. Displacement toward Christianity is limited to the tire! Harith from Najran, Hanifa descendants of Yamama, and some of the children of tayy in Tayma'.45 In the past five centuries, history does not record the presence of any incident concerning the attitude of persecution of Christian missionaries. Sarigat here is different from the fate suffered by since the beginning of the first followers of Muhammad in Mecca where Christianity is seen as a troublesome thing and got a tolerant attitude, otherwise Islam is regarded as an institution that is harmful to the idolatrous Arabs.