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Salat / Salah - The Second Pillar of Islam: The Theological Origins

Updated on June 11, 2016

CONTENTS OF SUBJECTS COVERED

  1. Summarising The Second Pillar Of Islam - Salat / Salah
  2. What Is The Origins Of Salat / Salah?
  3. How Did Muhammad (saw) Learn Of Salat / Salah?
  4. How Salat / Salah Became Obligatory Upon All Muslims – Isra-Wa-Miraj
  5. Was The Isra-Wa-Miraj A Physical Journey Or A Dream?
  6. Why Did Allah Show / Take Muhammad (saw) On The Isra-Wa-Miraj?
  7. A Portion of Muhammad (saw) Conversation With Allah is Recited During Salat / Salah
  8. What Was The Mood Of Muhammad (saw) Critics And Friends Regarding The Isra-Wa-Miraj?
  9. Did Muhammad (saw) See Allah During The Isra-Wa-Miraj?
  10. What Does God Look Like?
  11. How Does One Reconcile Three Possible Answers To The Question Of - What Does God Look Like?
  12. What Is THe Reward For Praying Salah / Salat And The Consequence Of Missing Salat / Salah
  13. What Is So Special About The Asar (And Fajr) Salat / Salah?
  14. The Spiritual Importance Of Wudu
  15. The Physical Significance Of Wudu
  16. How To Attain Tranquility And Serenity During Salat / Salah?
  17. What Is The Origins Of The Adhan – The Muslim Call To Prayer?
  18. What Was The Prayer of Jesus (as) According To The Bible?
  19. Concluding The Second Pillar Of Islam - Salat / Salah

1) Summarising The Second Pillar Of Islam - Salat / Salah

Salat / Salah is the Second Pillar of Islam and is therefore a cornerstone of a Muslims life. Salat / Salah is a set of five daily rituals which became mandatory upon all Muslims, when Muhammad (saw) went on a miraculous night journey towards Jerusalem, and then on-wards towards Heaven where he met with the Prophets of old before finally meeting God.

2) What Is The Origins Of Salat / Salah?

The five daily Salats / Salah can be traced back to the previous Prophets of old.

…O Muhammad! (saw) These are the times (of prayers) of the Prophets before you….’

— REFERENCE: SUNAN ABU DAWUD, 393, HASAN [1]

The Fajr Salat / Salah was first performed by Adam (as) whose repentance was accepted at dawn; as a show of gratitude Adam (as) offered two Rakats of ritual prayer, and this became the Fajr Salat / Salah.[2]

The Zuhr Salat / Salah was first performed by Prophet Ibrahim (as) who performed four Rakats of ritual prayer in the afternoon upon being blessed with his son Ishaaq (ra); and this became the Zuhr Salat / Salah.[3]

The Asar Salat / Salah was first performed by Prophet Uzayr (ra). Uzayr (ra) was resurrected after a century and was asked: ‘How long did you remain (in this state)?’ He replied, ‘A day or part thereof.’ Thereafter, Uzayr (ra) offered four Rakats of ritual prayer, and this became the Asar Salat / Salah. [4]

…Allah kept him dead for a hundred years, then gave him life, (and after that) asked: ‘How long (have) you stayed here (after dying)?’ He said: ‘I stayed for a day or (only) part of a day.’ Allah said: ‘(Nay,) you kept lying for a hundred years.…

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-BAQARAH 2:259 TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [5]

The Maghrib Salat / Salah was first performed by Prophet Dawud (as) and Uzayr (as). The Prophets Uzayr (as) and Dawud (as) were granted forgiveness at sunset. They intended to perform four Rakats, but due to weakness and tiredness, they sat in the third cycle (being unable to complete the Salat / Salah). Thus, the Maghrib Salat / Salah consists of three Rakats of ritual prayer.[6]

The Isha Salat / Salah was first performed by Prophet Muhammad (saw).[7]

An alternative view on the origins of Salat / Salah is that the Fajr prayer is the prayer of Prophet Adam (as); the Zuhr prayer is the prayer of Dawud (as); the Asar prayer is the prayer of Prophet Sulayman (as); the Maghrib prayer is the prayer of Prophet Yaqub (as); and the Isha prayer is the prayer of Prophet Yahya (as). All of these prophetic prayers have been gathered together to form a part of a Muslims five daily prayers.[8]

3) How Did Muhammad (saw) Learn Of Salat / Salah?

The first verse of the Quran to be revealed[9] was:

Read! In the Name of your Lord Who created. He has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-ALAQ, 96:1-5 TRANSLATED BY: SAFIUR-RAHMAN AL-MUBARAKPURI [10]

After the first revelations (Surah Al-Alaq – 96:1-5)[11], there was a period of time that passed[12] until the following revelation came:

O you enveloped in garments! Arise and warn! And magnify your Lord! And purify your garments! And keep away from Ar-Rujz! And give not a thing in order to have more. And be patient for the sake of your Lord!

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-MUDDATHTHIR, 74:1-7 TRANSLATED BY: SAFIUR-RAHMAN AL-MUBARAKPURI [13]

On the second day after this revelation (Surah Al-Muddaththir – 74:1-7), right after Muhammad (saw) understood himself to be a Prophet; the Angel Jibra'Il (Gabriel) [as] came down and taught Muhammad (saw) about the five daily Salats / Salahs. For the early followers of Muhammad (saw), Salat / Salah was an optional act of worship undertaken generically prior to the Al-Isra-Miraj (The Night Ascension), however, after the Al-Isra-Miraj (The Night Ascension), the five daily Salats / Salah became obligatory acts of worship upon all Muslims. Notwithstanding, for Muhammad (saw), prayer (and wudu) were compulsory acts of worship from the very beginning of Islam.[14]

4) How Salat / Salah Became Obligatory Upon All Muslims – Isra-Wa-Miraj

In the year 619/620AD, the same year Muhammad (saw) wife Khadijah (ra) died, the Prophet (saw) went on a miraculous night journey[15] accompanied by the Angel Gabriel (as)[16] on Al-Buraq; [17] whereby they travelled a distance of approximately 2,000km from Makkah to Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem and returned within the space of one-night.[18]

Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque…

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-ISRA, 17:1 TRANSLATED BY: ABDULLAH YUSUF ALI [19]

When Muhammad (saw) reached the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, a ladder with steps was bought to him[20] that enabled the Prophet (saw) (accompanied by Gabriel [as]) to reach the first heaven; and so on and so forth until Muhammad (saw) accompanied by Gabriel (as) traversed all the heavens and reached the seventh heaven. Along the way at each of the seven heavens, Muhammad (saw) was welcomed and greeted by a number of the previous Prophets as listed below.

  • First Heaven – Prophet Adam (as);[21]
  • Second Heaven – Prophet Yahya (as) and Prophet Isa (as).[22] The biblical name of Yahya (as) is John, and the biblical name of Isa (as) is Jesus.[23]
  • Third Heaven - Prophet Yusuf (as)[24] whose biblical name is Joseph.[25]
  • Fourth Heaven - Prophet Idris (as)[26] whose biblical name may or may not be Enoch.[27]
  • Fifth Heaven - Prophet Harun (as)[28] whose biblical name is Aaron.[29]
  • Sixth Heaven - Prophet Musa (as)[30] whose biblical name is Moses.[31]
  • Seventh Heaven - Prophet Ibrahim (as) [32] whose biblical name is Abraham.[33]

When Muhammad (saw) was taken up to the seventh heaven he saw Ibrahim (as) leaning back against the Much-Frequented House (Al-Bayt Al-Mamur).[34] 70,000 new Angels enter the sanctuary called Al-Bayt Al-Mamur located in the 7th heaven everyday where exists another Ka’bah directly above Makkah; therein these Angels worship Allah only to never return until the Day of Resurrection with a fresh batch replacing them the very next day.[35]

Then, Muhammad was taken to Sidrat Al-Muntaha (the Lote tree beyond which none may pass), and its leaves were like the ears of elephants and its fruits were like jugs,[36] and it was covered in gold butterflies.[37] And when it was veiled by the command of Allah, it changed, and none of the creatures of Allah can describe it because its beauty is beyond imagination.

Finally, Allah revealed to Muhammad (saw) fifty prayers to be undertaken every day and night.[38] Muhammad (saw) accepted Allah’s decree of fifty prayers every day and night, but, as he was returning down from the seventh Heaven, he met Moses (as) again on the 6th Heaven who asked: ‘What did your Lord enjoin on your Ummah?’ Muhammad (saw) replied: ‘Fifty prayers every day and night’; to which Moses (as) said: ‘Go back to your Lord and ask Him to reduce (the burden) for your Ummah, for your Ummah will not be able to do that. I tested the Children of Israel and found out how they were.’ [39]

Moses (as) wise advice made sense to Muhammad (saw), so, Muhammad (saw) returned to Allah and said: ‘O Lord, reduce (the burden) for my Ummah for they will never be able to do that.’ Some say Allah reduced the burden by five[40] to forty-five, and others say Allah reduced the burden by ten[41] to forty, and others say Allah reduced the burden by half[42] to twenty-five. Muhammad (saw) traveled to and fro between Allah and Moses (as) until the prayers were eventually reduced to five and equal in reward to fifty, because each of the five daily prayers are equivalent to ten.[43] Once the five daily prayers had been decreed and agreed by God, Muhammad (saw) came back down to Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, and the Prophets that he had met along the way came down with him, and Muhammad (saw) led in prayer all the previous Prophets at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Some believe Muhammad (saw) led the Prophets in prayer in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem prior to his ascension to heaven; and a further group believes Muhammad (saw) led the prayer of the Prophets in heaven. At the conclusion of his journey, Muhammad (saw) returned to Makkah in the darkness of the night riding Al-Buraq [44] after having been personally summoned by Allah to bring us the glad tidings of Salat / Salah as an opportunity for man to converse with God.[45]

5) Was The Isra-Wa-Miraj A Physical Journey Or A Dream?

Some say the Isra-Wa-Miraj happened in a dream. Others say, Muhammad (saw) was fully awake and went on a physical journey. A further group believes, the Isra-Wa-Miraj was merely a mystic vision which was shown to Muhammad (saw).[46] All we know for certain is that the Isra-Wa-Miraj happened because the event is mentioned in the Quran; but exactly ‘what or how it happened’ is open to scrutiny. I am of the view that it was a physical journey because I believe God is able to do anything and everything.

6) Why Did Allah Show / Take Muhammad (saw) On The Isra-Wa-Miraj?

Muhammad (saw) physically witnessing the grandeur and splendor of the afterlife during the Isra-wa-Miraj with all his senses was perhaps needed so as to quell any self-doubt the Prophet (saw) may have had. Muhammad (saw) physically witnessing the grandeur and splendor of the afterlife during the Isra-wa-Miraj also enabled the Prophet (saw) to have the self-belief and conviction he (saw) needed to convince his followers on the reality of the afterlife.

Smell, Vision, Taste, Touch and Hearing are all senses by which animals, which includes humans, experience reality and the world around us. If you physically experience something with your own senses, then that experience becomes a reality and an unshakable truth within your own mind. I believe, that during the Isra-wa-Miraj, Muhammad (saw) had a sensual experience whereby all his senses were triggered and activated. This activation of all senses led Muhammad (saw) to believe without any doubt, that the Isra-wa-Miraj was an actual physical journey. Allah planned the Isra-wa-Miraj to activate and trigger Muhammad (saw) senses, so as to convince Muhammad (saw) that the Isra-wa-Miraj was real, and not a mere dream. For example, during the Isra-wa-Miraj: Muhammad (saw) was offered a chose of drink;[48] and the Prophet (saw) chose milk.[49] Taste and Smell are twin senses that work together,[50] therefore, the Prophet (saw) sense of taste and smell would have been activated when he tasted the milk. Muhammad (saw) would also have held the vessel of milk[51] from which he drank the milk, therefore, the Prophet (saw) sense of touch would have been activated as soon as he held the vessel containing milk. Muhammad (saw) also heard the Angel Gabriel (as) commend the Prophet (saw) chose of refreshment (milk), whereby the Angel Gabriel (as) said to Muhammad (saw): “You have chosen the Fitrah (natural instinct)”.[52] Therefore, the Prophet (saw) sense of hearing would also have been activated as soon as he heard the Angels voice. Muhammad (saw) would also have seen the milk and honey, or milk and wine, or milk and water[53] so as to distinguish between each beverage. Therefore, the Prophet (saw) sense of vision would also have been activated when he saw the choice of drinks on offer.

The point I am making about senses, is that to experience something with one’s own senses; leaves little or no room for doubt, because to experience something with your own senses leads one to truly believe in an experience. Therefore, Muhammad (saw) witnessing the grandeur and splendor of the afterlife during the Isra-wa-Miraj with all his senses was perhaps needed, so as to enable the Prophet (saw) to have the self-belief and conviction he needed to convince his followers on the reality of the hereafter. As for the followers of Muhammad (saw), it was a testimony of faith to believe in the Prophet (saw) experience of the Isra-wa-Miraj.

Lastly, faith is ultimately blind unless Allah decides to activate your senses via a dream, vision or otherwise miracle in which you see, hear, touch, smell or taste something for yourself. If you are blessed enough to have had a sensual experience from Allah, then, such experiences become unshakable truths that is personal to you. Muhammad (saw) as well as the previous Prophets of the past, would also have held some niggling doubts concerning the spiritual-realm. Ultimately, it is Allah that removes doubts from the hearts and minds of people and replaces hesitancy with wisdom and faith. Muhammad (saw) doubts were quelled on the day of the Isra-wa-Miraj when the Prophet (saw) heart was physically cleansed of any uncertainty, and was instead instilled with wisdom and faith.

…"While I was at Makkah, the roof of my house was opened and Jibril (Gabriel) descended, opened my chest, and washed it with Zamzam water. Then he brought a golden tray full of wisdom and faith and having poured its contents into my chest, he closed it. Then he took my hand and ascended with me to the nearest heaven…

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI, HADITH NUMBER: 349 [54]

Likewise, Abraham (Ibrahim [as]) too went through a phase of questioning, doubt and uncertainty in his mind concerning the spiritual realm. To quell Abraham (Ibrahim [as]) uncertainty and doubt; Allah showed Abraham (Ibrahim [as]) the miracle of bringing dead animals back to life so as to instil Abraham (Ibrahim [as]) with faith.

"And (also recall) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said: ‘My Lord, show me how You bring the dead to life.’ Allah said: ‘Do you not have faith?’ He submitted: ‘Why not! (I do believe,) but (I wish) my heart is blessed with gratifying calm.’ Allah ordained: ‘Well, take four birds and tame them to feel attached to you; then (slaughter them and) place a piece of each of them on each hill; then call them. They will come to you at high speed. And know that surely Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise." REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-BAQARAH 2:260, TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [55]

In essence, I am saying, Muhammad (saw) was shown the Isra-wa-Miraj so as instil the Prophet (saw) with unshakable faith.

7) A Portion of Muhammad (saw) Conversation With Allah is Recited During Salat / Salah

According to certain commentators of hadith, the ‘Tashahhud’ recited at the end of Salat / Salah is a repetition of the words mentioned on the occasion of ascension (Miraj).

They say that Muhammad (saw) praised Allah by saying, “At Tahiyyatu Lillahi Was Salawatu Wat Tayyibat” (“All devotions offered through words, bodily actions and wealth are due to Allah”).

Thereafter Allah responded to this by saying, “As Salamu Alaika Ayyuhan Nabiyyu Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatu” ( Peace be upon you, O the Holy Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings”).

Thereupon Muhammad (saw) said, “As Salamu Alayna Wa Ala Ibadillahis Salihin” (“Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of Allah”).

Thereafter the Angel Jibra'Il (Gabriel) عليه سلم hastily declared the Shahadah by saying, “Ash Hadu Alla Ilaha Illalahu Wa Ash Hadu Anna Muhammadan Abduhu wa Rasuluh” (“I testify that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah and I testify that Muhammad (saw) is His servant and messenger”)[107]

8) What Was The Mood Of Muhammad (saw) Critics And Friends Regarding The Isra-Wa-Miraj?

Muhammad (saw) critics mocked[56] and did not believe the Prophet (saw) night journey,[57] and some Muslims whom after having accepted Islam, began to disbelieve[58] in the prophethood of Muhammad (saw).

…The Prophet (saw) said, “When the people of Quraish disbelieved me [concerning my [Al-Isra (Journey by Night)], I stood up in Al-Hijr (the unroofed portion of the Ka’bah) and Allah displayed Bait-ul-Maqdis in-front of me, and I started describing it to them (Quraish) while looking at it.”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI, HADITH NUMBER: 4710 [59]

On the night of the Isra-wa-Miraj, Muhammad (saw) himself woke up the next morning feeling anxious and sad for he too knew that the people would not believe.[60] However, the Prophet (saw) closest friend, Abu Bakr (ra), remained steadfast with an unequivocal and unshakable level of faith.[61] Muhammad (saw) critics probed and questioned and asked the Prophet (saw) to describe Bait-ul-Maqdis; the Prophet (saw) began describing Bait-ul-Maqdis until Muhammad (saw) reached a point whereby he was unsure about some of the details of Bait-ul-Maqdis. Then, a mirage of Bait-ul-Maqdis appeared to the Prophet (saw),[62] a vision which only Muhammad (saw) could see - whereby he was able to describe Bait-ul-Maqdis as if he was looking at Jerusalem whilst standing in Makkah. Those of Muhammad (saw) critics that were present at the meeting whom had also seen and visited Bait-ul-Maqdis for themselves, concurred that the description of Bait-ul-Maqdis that Muhammad (saw) had depicted was true.[63] Furthermore, Muhammad (saw) was also able to describe a Quraish caravan that he had seen;[64] but nonetheless, the Prophet (saw) critics still disbelieved and accused Muhammad (saw) of lying[65] and scaremongering.[66]

9) Did Muhammad (saw) See Allah During The Isra-Wa-Miraj?

Did Muhammad (saw) see Allah during the Isra-wa-Miraj? I am not sure but I am inclined to say ‘no’. Muhammad (saw) during the Isra-wa-Miraj met and conversed with God at the Sidrat Al-Muntaha. The Sidrat Al-Muntaha is a Lote tree and the furthest possible point of the heavens beyond which none (other than those Allah permits) may pass.[67] Muhammad (saw) was asked by his companions whether he saw God, and the Prophet (saw) responded: ‘light, how could I see Him?’ or ‘I saw light’.

"…I asked the Messenger of Allah (saw): ‘Did you see your Lord?’ He said: ‘Light, how could I see Him?’…

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM, HADITH NUMBER: [443] 291 – (178) [68]

"…I saw light…"

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM, HADITH NUMBER: [444] 292 [69]

Muhammad (saw) chose to respond rhetorically to the very direct question of: ‘did you see your Lord?’ Muhammad (saw) could have responded concisely with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ but instead, the Prophet (saw) chose to say: ‘light, how could I see Him?’ or ‘I saw light’. What is this light? Is this light, Allah? Or is this light a veil that screens Allah? I am not sure because you can argue both points. Those that say the Prophet (saw) saw Allah, and that Allah is the light will point to the evidences that suggest God is light:

"…O Allah, to You be praise, You are the Light of the heavens and Earth …”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM, HADITH NUMBER: [1808] 199 – (769) [70]

However, those that say God’s light is a veil that conceals his face, will point to the evidences that suggest; had Allah removed his veil (i.e. the light) so as to enable Muhammad (saw) to see God, then, the splendor of Allah’s face would have burned all of creation so as far as God’s sight could reach. Hence I believe, Muhammad (saw) could not and did not see Allah because had the Prophet (saw) seen Allah, it would have caused destruction. Also, the nature of Muhammad (saw) rhetorical response to a very direct question of: ‘did you see Allah’ to which Muhammad (saw) responded, ‘light, how could I see Him?’ or ‘I saw light’ indicates to my mind that the light is a veil that conceals Allah therefore none knows God’s image.

"…His Veil is the Light…And according to the report of (one of the narrators) Abu Bakr: (The Prophet said: His veil is) ‘Fire’ – ‘and if He were to remove it, the splendor of His Face would burn all of His creation, as far as His sight reaches”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM, HADITH NUMBER: [445] 293 – (179) [71]

A further evidence to suggest the devastation that would occur should God reveal himself, can be understood from the story of Moses (as). Moses (as) during his lifetimes desired to see God, when God appeared a mountain shattered causing Moses (as) to fall unconscious.

"And when Musa (Moses) came at the time (set) by Us and his Lord spoke to him, he (ardently aspired to behold Him out of the pleasure of hearing Allah’s Word and) submitted: ‘O Lord, show me (Your Beauty) so that I may savour Your Sight.’ Allah said: ‘By no means can you look upon Me (directly), but look towards the mountain. So if it stays firm in its place, then soon will you behold My beauty.’ When his Lord unveiled the Light (of His divine beauty) on to the mountain, (He) crushed it into sand particles (with the intense divine radiance) and Musa (Moses) fell down unconscious..." REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-ARAF 7:143, TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [72]

In summary, did Muhammad (saw) see Allah during the Isra-wa-Miraj? I believe the Prophet (saw) saw the light which is a veil that conceals God. However, it can also be argued that the light which Muhammad (saw) saw is God.

10) What Does God Look Like?

I am aware of three possible answers as to what God may look like. As there is more than one possible answer to what God looks like, implies that Man does not really know what God looks like. I say Man does not really know what God looks like because, if Man did know what God looked like, they’d perhaps be only one possible answer? Below I have illustrated the three possible answers as to what God may look like.

1. God looks like ‘light’ because during the Isra-wa-Miraj, Muhammad (saw) saw ‘light’ when the Prophet (saw) spoke with God.

2. God looks like Man (or Man looks like God) because Man (i.e. Adam) was created in Gods image.

…Allah created Adam in His Image sixty cubits (about 30 metres) in height…

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI, HADITH NUMBER: 6227 [76]

"…If one of you fights his brother, let him avoid the face, for Allah created Adam in His image”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM, HADITH NUMBER: [6655] 115 – (…) [77]

3. Man does not know what God looks like because God is incomparable.

…There is nothing like Him and He alone is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH ASH-SHURA 42:11 TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [78]

Furthermore, the verses of Surah Al-Ikhlas were revealed in response to a group of Jewish people that had claimed God had described Himself in the Torah. Muhammad (saw) was asked by the group of Jewish people to describe Allah in terms of what is God made of? And to which species does God belong to? Is God made of gold, copper or silver? Does God eat and drink? [79] God’s response was as follows:

(O Esteemed Messenger!) Proclaim: ‘He is Allah, Who is the One. Allah is the Transcendent of all, the Protector and Far-Superior to all. He has not begotten any, nor is He begotten. Nor is there anyone equal to Him.’

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-IKHLAS 112:1-4 TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [80]

11) How Does One Reconcile Three Possible Answers To The Question Of - What Does God Look Like?

Does God look like light? Or Does God look like Man? Or do we not know what God looks like? I believe Muhammad (saw) saw light when the Prophet (saw) spoke with God during the Isra-wa-Miraj; but that light which Muhammad (saw) saw was not God but a veil which conceals God.

In terms of human imagination in our attempts to visualize God, picturing light is the furthest Man can confidently imagine God. Trying to picture God beyond the light and veil, is to see God, but Man will only see God on Judgement Day and not before.

…“O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection?” The Prophet (saw) said, “Yes…”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI, HADITH NUMBER: 4581 [82]

I also believe Allah created Man (i.e. Adam) in Gods image, yet, I also believe Allah is incomparable; and herein is seemingly a contradiction because I have compared Man to God whilst simultaneously stating Allah is incomparable.

Let me explain: physically in terms of face and limbs there is a possibility that God resembles Man, but one cannot be entirely sure because one does not really know whether Man and God are physically alike because no one has ever seen God. However, Man does resemble God in terms of some personality traits and characteristics because if you read and understand God’s speech in the Quran, a picture of Gods personality emerges that is somewhat similar to Man; because, Man was created in Gods image. The point I am making is that physically, we cannot be sure as to how much God resembles Man (or Man resembles God) because no one has ever seen God; however, we can be certain of resembling some of Gods personality traits because Man has heard and read about God in the Quran. Hence, Man was created in Gods image more so in terms of personality than in physique. An example of a Godly personality that is found in Man is ‘mercy’.

"…Allah has one hundred (parts of) mercy, of which He sent one part down among jinn, humans, animals and insects, because of which they show compassion and kindness to one another…

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM HADITH NUMBER: [6974] 19 – (…) [86]

In summary; the furthest Man can confidently imagine God, is to visualize light, notwithstanding, light is not God for the light is the veil that conceals God. As for God’s physical characteristics, this is unknown with a possibility that God may resemble Man in some way, shape or form. Even though we do not know what God physically looks like, we can at least be certain of having received some of God’s personality traits that is inherent within mankind, such as mercy.

12) What Is The Reward For Praying Salat / Salah And The Consequence Of Missing Salat / Salah?

There are five prayers every day and night, and for every prayer there is the reward of ten, so they are like fifty prayers.[87] The reason there is the reward of ten prayers for each of the five prayers is because Allah had initially decreed fifty prayers every day and night; [88] but after negotiating or toing and froing between Allah, Muhammad (saw) and Moses (as) on the night of the Isra-Wa-Miraj, the prayers were reduced to five but the reward value was maintained at fifty.[89] In essence, you gain the same reward of fifty prayers that God had intended for mankind but by doing only five. It is Allah’s generosity that the reward of five prayers still equates to fifty prayers whilst simultaneously not overburdening mankind with fifty prayers. Such is the goodness of our Lord who agreed to having each of the five daily prayers equivalent to ten, whilst maintaining the reward value at fifty. In summary, the reward for each of the five daily prayers is equivalent to ten deeds, thus enabling man to earn fifty good deeds per day via Salat / Salah.

Furthermore, if one intended to pray Salat / Salah but for some valid reason was unable to do so, then, there is one good deed recorded for him/her.[90] What constitutes a valid reason not to pray having intended to pray is open to interpretation and a fiqh issue whereby each school of thought has its own ruling. A valid justification for not praying having intended to pray could be that the devil made you forget to pray, or it could be a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle, or it could be an unexpected medical alert thus rendering you immobile or unconscious? I don’t know, but what I do know is that be careful of the excuses you make in your mind concerning the delaying of prayers because you risk deceiving yourself into believing you had every intention of praying, but in truth, they could have only been just lazy excuses to not pray? I say this because if you are questioned on the Day of Judgement about your deeds, there is some evidence that suggests the first question will be about your prayers, and if you are dishonest about your intention, it may be picked up by God? If God decides to question you about anything, including Salat / Salah, then there will be no escaping your true motive on the Day of Judgement concerning whether you really intended to pray or not, or whether you were only trying to trick God into believing you had every intention of praying? In summary, the consequence of not praying your Salat / Salah could lead you to be questioned by God on the Day of Judgement concerning Salat / Salah, and if you are questioned by Allah, you will have no valid excuses as to why you did not pray. May Allah forgive us all.

“…The first action that a person will be accounted for will be his prayer…”

— REFERENCE: SUNAN ABU DAWUD, HADITH NUMBER: 864 GRADED: DAIF [91]

13) What Is So Special About The Asar (And Fajr) Salat / Salah?

The Asar Salat (in the middle of the afternoon) seems to have had a specific mention in the Quran whereby it has been described as the best or the most excellent prayer. However, there is some difference of opinion regarding the meaning of ‘the middle prayer’ [108] as some jurists consider it to signify the congregational Friday prayer (jumu’ah), or the Id prayer, or even the five prayers together; whilst others maintain that the identity of the ‘middle prayer’ is unknown.[109] Notwithstanding, the majority opinion seems to be in favor of interpreting the ‘middle prayer’ as the Asar Salat.[110]

Guard strictly Your (habit of) prayers. Especially the Middle Prayer…

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-BAQARAH, 2:238 - TRANSLATED BY: ABDULLAH YUSUF ALI [111]

A few reasons as to ‘why’ (in the worldly sense) that Man should perhaps be specifically mindful of the Asar Salat / Salah, is because this is a time in which many people are busy with their professional life [112] - particularly in Europe during the shorter Winter months when Asar Salat / Salah commences between 14:00 – 16:00. The ‘middle prayer’ therefore is often neglected as it falls in the midst of the afternoon, during a period of time in which many people are occupied and busy with work. Therefore, Mans occupation during the midst of the afternoon is perhaps ‘why’ Allah reminded and instructed Man to be specifically mindful of the Asar Salat / Salah; whereby adjustments needs to be made so as to accommodate and prioritize the Asar Salat / Salah in exchange for work chores for the benefit of our soul.

In the spiritual sense, the Asar Salat / Salah too has significance because it is the period of time in which your personally assigned angels rotate and change shifts. In other words, those Angels that came to you during Fajr Salat / Salah, leave during Asar Salat / Salah; and the Angels that come to you during Asar Salah / Salat, leave during Fajr Salat / Salah. A new batch of Angels arrive to replace those that leave during Fajr and Asar, and those Angels that have left - return to their Lord and report on your deeds. When the Angels return to Heaven, Allah asks the Angels (even though God knows), "In what state did you leave my slaves?" The angels reply: "When we left them they were praying and when we reached them, they were praying." I do not know whether the Angels respond differently if they were to find you sleeping, working or sinning and not praying; perhaps they find an excuse to protect you in God’s sight or they tell the truth? Allah knows best.

…Angels come to you in succession by night and day, and all of them get together at the time of the Fajr and Asar prayers. Those who have passed the night with you (or stayed with you) ascend (to the heaven) and Allah asks them, though He knows everything about you, “In what state did you leave my slaves?” The angels reply: “When we left them, they were offering Salat (prayer) and when we reached them, they were offering Salat.”

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI - HADITH NUMBER: 555 [113]

Lastly and perhaps more potent of all is the statement of Muhammad (saw) whereby he said: “whoever omits the Asar Salat all his (good) deeds will be lost”.

…Whoever omits the Asar Salat all his (good) deeds will be lost.

— REFERENCE: SAHIH BUKHARI - HADITH NUMBER: 553 [114]

14) The Spiritual Importance Of Wudu

Wudu is a prerequisite of Salat / Salah,[92] and Wudu literally means ‘purity or cleanliness’. It refers to the ablution made before performing the prescribed prayers. Wudu serves as an act of physical cleansing as well as a precursor to the mental and spiritual cleansing necessary when in the worship of God. If clean water is unavailable, a ritual purification known as Tayamum, which involves symbolically touching clean earth, may be substituted.[93]

O believers! When (you intend) to stand for Prayer, then, (for ablution,) wash your faces and hands up to the elbows, and pass your wet hands over your heads and (also wash) your feet up to the ankles…

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-MAIDAH 5:6 TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [94]

I will not discuss the manner in which wudu is physically performed or the nullifiers of wudu because there are various valid opinions and arguments and counter-arguments amongst the different schools of Islamic jurisprudence. For example, according to Sunni Shafi’i jurisprudence, if a man merely touches a woman whilst in a state of wudu, his wudu is nullified. However, according to Sunni Hanafi jurisprudence, only if a man sexually touches a woman (whilst in a state of wudu) is his wudu nullified.[95] Each school of thought has its valid understanding and practises which I will not dwell into; instead I will try to elaborate on the therapeutic properties of water as well as the spiritual significance of wudu.

…”The key to Paradise is Salat / Salah, and the key to Salat / Salah is Wudu”

— REFERENCE: TIRMIDHI, HADITH NUMBER: 4 GRADED: HASAN [96]

During wudu, touch, feel and play with the water and come to the ‘present’ by asking yourself where am I? Observe your surroundings. You are already physically in the bathroom in front of a basin of warm water, but, mentally come to the bathroom in front of the sink by touching the water and feeling it’s texture and warmth and listening to the sound of trickling water whilst looking at the water. Your mind along with your senses should only be telling you to think and experience the water you are touching, hearing and seeing. Or are you mentally thinking about something else other than the water you are touching, hearing and seeing? Try not to think about anything else other than the water you are touching, hearing and seeing. If you are able to blank your mind and empty your thoughts of all worldly matters such as work, school and general life whilst doing wudu; then, this act of purification with water will allow you to be mentally as well as physically ‘present’ in your Salat / Salah when you stand and face the Qiblah[97]. If wudu is done correctly with a spiritual understanding, and, if this understanding is carried through to Salat / Salah, then, your conscience and conscious thoughts should either become mute or clear depending on what stage you are on, on your spiritual journey towards attaining a grade of Ihsan.[98]

…”Al-Wudu is half of faith…”

— REFERENCE: TIRMIDHI HADITH NUMBER: 3517 GRADED: SAHIH [99]

15) The Physical Significance Of Wudu

Al-Wudu literally means ‘purity or cleanliness’[100] and it is the encouragement of hygiene; for good hygiene promotes good health. Muhammad (saw) intended to make hygiene (via Al-Wudu) an integral aspect of Muslim life. Below is one such example on the importance levied by Muhammad (saw) concerning oral hygiene and general cleanliness.

“…Whoever comes to Friday (prayer), let him take a bath and if he has perfume then let him put some on. And upon you (I urge to use) is the tooth stick.”

— REFERENCE: SUNAN IBN MAJAH HADITH NUMBER: 1098 GRADED: HASAN [101]

16) How To Attain Tranquility And Serenity During Salat / Salah?

Salat / Salah is a form of worshiping God, and concerning this worshiping of God; Muhammad (saw) described a state of mind called Ihsan. Ihsan is the ability to worship Allah as though you can see Him, for although you cannot see God, know that God sees you. In essence, Salat / Salah is to be mentally in the presence of God so as to create a feeling of calm, comfort, tranquility, serenity, and zen, or perhaps even fear?

… ‘Tell me about Al-Ihsan.’ He (saw) said: ’It is to worship Allah as though you can see Him, for although you cannot see Him, He indeed sees you.’ …

— REFERENCE: SAHIH MUSLIM HADITH NUMBER: [93] 1 – (8) [102]

If you have the time and are fortunate to do so, have a warm shower and thoroughly cleanse yourself prior to Salah. Alternatively, if time is unavailable for a shower or if a shower is inconvenient or impracticable before Salah, then, do a thorough and lengthy wudu with warm water. Whilst in worship say to yourself that ‘God and the Angels are watching me as I pray’ because they are; also, close your eyes and imagine the light that is the veil that conceals God. Pray every Salah in a manner as though it is your last prayer before death.

As you stand in Salah, gently dig and push your right toe into the ground and breathe in via your nose and out via your mouth. Concentrate on your breath. Salah is a form of meditation similar to that of other religions, therefore, because you are meditating, your mind needs to be blank; and by concentrating on your breath and digging your right toe into the ground, this helps with blanking the mind and quietening your thoughts. If you are unable to quieten your thoughts and blank your mind during Salah, then, know that it is Satan who is whispering ideas in your mind during Salah in order to digress. Salah is not the time to be thinking about the world of money, bills and worries etc. for Salah is the time to meditate.

Read the entire Salah in your head without moving your tongue. Place and press your tongue behind your front teeth without lifting it from your teeth. If done properly you should read a lot slowly because it is unnatural for your brain to recite rapidly whereas your tongue is a muscle that can move hurriedly. After you’ve finished praying, hear the first thought in your mind and note it down as one voice will be from Allah and the other will be from Satan. Therefore learn to distinguish between your good thoughts that are from God, and your bad thoughts that are from the Devil.

In summary, in order to attain tranquillity and serenity during Salah, do the following:

1) Have a warm shower or lengthy wudu with warm water prior to Salah;

2) Say to yourself prior to commencing Salah that ‘God and the Angels are watching me’, or, believe this prayer to be your last before death;

3) Close your eyes and imagine light;

4) Gently dig and push your right toe into the ground as you stand;

5) Breathe in via your nose and out via your mouth whilst concentrating on your breath;

6) Read the entire Salah in your mind without moving your tongue.

17) What Is The Origins Of The Adhan – The Muslim Call To Prayer?

When the Muslims first arrived in Madinah, some would gather and attempt to guess the times of the five daily prayers (Salat) because in the 6th Century there were no clocks to accurately measure time.

…”When the Muslims arrived in Al-Madinah, they used to assemble for Salat / Salah, and guess the time for it. There was no one who called for it (the prayer). One day they discussed that and some of them said they should use a bell like the bell the Christians use. Others said they should use a trumpet like the horn of the Jews…”

— REFERENCE: TIRMIDHI HADITH NUMBER: 190 GRADED: SAHIH [103]

In the 6th Century it was not feasible to agree set times for Salat / Salah because there were no clocks, thus it was not practicable to expect worshipers to gather at the mosque at the same time and place for congregational prayers. The Muslim leadership needed to appoint responsibility to an individual or a select committee to agree among themselves the correct time for each of the five daily prayers (Salat / Salah). Once an individual or select committee had come to an agreement on the Salat / Salah time, then, that decision and information needed to be mass communicated to the general public. In order to signal and notify to the general public that Salat / Salah time had been agreed and is now due, the Muslims introduced the Adhan as a way of mass notification to the community of Muslims that prayer time is due.

The Muslim community discussed a number of options and ways of notifying the Muslim community that Salat / Salah time is due. One option discussed was the use of a bell similar to the Christians, another option considered was the use of a horn similar to the Jews. In the end it was decided that a vocal call to prayer such as the Adhan would be the best option. The idea of the Adhan can be attributed to Abdullah bin Zaid (ra) and Umar (ra) both of whom saw the same dream concerning the first Adhan which led to the creation and wording of the Adhan. Muhammed (saw) on becoming aware of Abdullah bin Zaid (ra) dream, instructed Abdullah bin Zaid (ra) to teach the Adhan to Bilal (ra). Bilal (ra) upon learning the Adhan from Abdullah bin Zaid (ra) became the first person to mass broadcast the Adhan to the Muslim community residing in the State of Madinah (English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah - Hadith 706, Hasan). [104]

18) What Was The Prayer of Jesus According To The Bible?

According to the Bible, Jesus (as) prayer resembles that of the Muslim prayer, and this is something for the Christians to ponder.

“Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed…”

— REFERENCE: BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION MATTHEW 26:39 [105]

According to Islamic theology, all the Prophets of the past, including Jesus (as) were Muslim. Therefore, Jesus (as) falling with his face to the ground in prayer, much like how Muslims pray, is perhaps an indication that Jesus (as) was indeed a Muslim.

Later, when ‘Isa (Jesus) sensed their disbelief, he said: ‘Who are my helpers in the way of Allah?’ His sincere companions submitted: ‘We are the helpers of (the Din [Religion] of) Allah. We have believed in Allah and bear witness that we are surely Muslim.

— REFERENCE: QURAN, SURAH AL-IMRAN 3:52 TRANSLATED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR-UL-QADRI [106]

19) Concluding The Second Pillar Of Islam - Salat / Salah

Salat / Salah is the Second Pillar of Islam and is therefore a cornerstone of a Muslims life. Salat / Salah is a set of five daily rituals which became mandatory upon all Muslims, when Muhammad (saw) went on a miraculous night journey towards Jerusalem, and then onward towards Heaven where he met with the Prophets of old before finally meeting God.

REFERENCES:

[1] ASHATH, Imam Hafiz Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin (2008). In: ZAI, Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair, et al. (eds.). English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud. First ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.246 vol.1.

[2] Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad. Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility. Ed. Maya Naz, et al. First. London: Minhaj-ul-Quran, 2013. p25.

[3] Ibid., p.26

[4] Ibid.,

[5] (altafsir.com)

[6] (Tahir-ul-Qadri, Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.26) op. cit., note 2

[7] Ibid., p.27

[8] Ibid.,

[9] KATHIR, Ibn (2003). In: AL-MUBARAKPURI, Safiur-Rahman (ed.). Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged). Second ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.532 vol.10.

[10] Ibid.,

[11] Ibid.,

[12] Ibid., p.240, Vol. 10

[13] Ibid., p.239, Vol. 10

[14] Qadhi, Yasir. Shaykh Dr. Yasir Qadhi's Official YouTube Channel. 19 March 2014. 23 November 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fe1E7DFEcg>.

[15] AT-TIRMIDHI, Imam Hafiz Abu Eisa Mohammad Ibn Eisa (2007). In: ZAI, Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair Ali, et al. (eds.). English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi. First ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.583, vol.6

[16] MUHAMMAD AASHIQ ELAHI MUHAJIR MADANI (2005). In: ELIAS, Afzal Hussain and FAKHRI, Muhammad Arshad (eds.). Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran (TafsirAnwarul Bayan). First ed., Karachi, Darul-Ishaat, p.249, Vol.3.

[17] Al-Buraq – A white animal having wings, bigger than a donkey and smaller than a horse (English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.559 Vol.6) op. cit., note 15,

[18] Ibid., p.583, Vol. 6

[19] ALI, Abdullah Yusuf (1989). In: THE PRESIDENCY OF ISLAMIC RESEARCHES, IFTA, Call and Guidance (ed.). The Holy Quran - English translation of the meanings and Commentary. Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, King Fahd Holy Quran Printing Complex, p.774.

[20] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.572, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[21] Ibid., p.553, Vol. 5

[22] Ibid.,

[23] Nadwi, Sayyed Abul Hasan Ali. “Stories Of The Prophets.” Leicester: UK Islamic Academy, 1990. p.4.

[24] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.553, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[25] (Stories Of The Prophets p.4) op. cit., note 23

[26] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.553, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[27] (The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.867) op. cit., note 19

[28] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[29] (Stories Of The Prophets p.4) op. cit., note 23

[30] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[31] (Stories Of The Prophets p.4) op. cit., note 23

[32] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[33] (Stories Of The Prophets p.4) op. cit., note 23

[34] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[35] KATHEER, Ibn (2010). In: MUJAHID, Abdul Malik and RESEARCH DEPARTMENT OF DARUSSALAM (eds.). Early Days (Stories Of The Beginning Of Creation And The Early Prophet From Adam to Yoonus) Taken From Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah. First ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.281

[36] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[37] Ibid., p.570

[38] Ibid., p.555

[39] Ibid.,

[40] Ibid.,

[41] Ibid., p.561

[42] Ibid., p.563

[43] Ibid., p.564

[44] Ibid., p.573

[45] (Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran (Tafsir Anwarul Bayan) p.251 Vol. 3) op. cit., note 16

[46] Maududi, S. Abul A'la. The Meaning of the Quran. Ed. Ch. Muhammad Akbar and A.A. Kamal, M.A. Lahore: Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Limited, 1972. p.589, Quran 17:1

[47] (The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.774) op. cit., note 19

[48] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.573, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[49] Ibid., p.570

[50] Geographic, National. I Didn’t Know That Food Tasters. n.d. Video. 28 December 2015. <http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/i-didnt-know-that/idkt-food-tasters?source=relatedvideo>.

[51] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.553, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[52] Ibid.,

[53] Ibid., p.573

[54] AL-BUKHARI, Muhammad Ibn-Ishmaiel (1997). In: KHAN, Muhammad Muhsin, et al. (eds.). The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English. 2nd ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.237 Vol.1.

[55] (altafsir.com)

[56] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.568, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[57] Ibid., p.565

[58] Ibid., p.566

[59] (The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p186, Vol. 6) op. cit., note 54

[60] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.568, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[61] Ibid., p.565

[62] Ibid., p.569

[63] Ibid.,

[64] Ibid., p.566

[65] Ibid., p.569

[66] Ibid., p.566

[67] Ibid., p.555

[68] AL-HAJJAJ, Imam Abul Hussain Muslim Ibn (2007). In: ZAI, Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair Ali, KHALIYL, Abu and AL-KHATTAB, Nasiruddin (eds.). English Translation Of Sahih Muslim. First ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.285 vol.1.

[69] Ibid.,

[70] Ibid., p.291 vol.2.

[71] Ibid., p.286 vol.1.

[72] (altafsir.com)

[73] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.285 Vol.1) op. cit., note 68

[74] Ibid.,

[75] Ibid., p.291 vol.2.

[76] (The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p138, Vol. 8) op. cit., note 54

[77] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.476 Vol.6) op. cit., note 68

[78] (altafsir.com)

[79] al-Wahidi, Ali ibn Ahmad. “Asbab al-Nuzul.” Ed. Mokrane Guezzou and Yousef Meri. Amman: Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, 2008. p.168.

[80] (altafsir.com)

[81] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.286 Vol.1) op. cit., note 68

[82] (The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p90, Vol. 6) op. cit., note 54

[83] (The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p138, Vol. 8) op. cit., note 54

[84] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.476 Vol.6) op. cit., note 68

[85] (altafsir.com)

[86] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.127 Vol.7) op. cit., note 68

[87] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.555, Vol. 5) op. cit., note 9

[88] Ibid.,

[89] Ibid.,

[90] Ibid., p.556, Vol.5

[91] (English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p510, Vol. 1) op. cit., note 1

[92] Qadhi, Yasir. Shaykh Dr. Yasir Qadhi's Official YouTube Channel. 19 March 2014. 23 November 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fe1E7DFEcg>.

[93] (English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.648, Vol.6) op. cit., note 15

[94] (altafsir.com)

[95] Naik, Zakir. YouTube.com. 28 August 2010. 24 November 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQo9BrupQBc>.

[96] (English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.36, Vol.1) op. cit., note 15

[97] Qiblah – The term used in reference to the direction Muslims face during prayers. The focal point of the Qiblah is the Ka’bah, the house of worship located in the city of Makkah.

[98] Ihsan – When you worship Allah or do deeds, consider yourself as if you see Allah; and if you cannot achieve this feeling or attitude, then you must bear in mind that Allah sees you.

[99] (English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.230, Vol.6) op. cit., note 15

[100] Ibid., p.648, Vol.6

[101] AL-QAZWINI, Imam Muhammad Bin Yazeed Ibn Majah (2007). In: ZAI, Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair Ali, et al. (eds.). English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah. First ed., Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, p.169 Vol.2.

[102] (English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.95 vol.1.) op. cit., note 68

[103] (English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.215, Vol.1) op. cit., note 15

[104] (English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.463, Vol.1) op. cit., note 101

[105] (biblegateway.com)

[106] (altafsir.com)

[107] (Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran (Tafsir Anwarul Bayan) p251, Vol. 3) op. cit., note 16

[108] (The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.106) op. cit., note 19,

[109] The Study Quran. Ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, et al. First. New York: Harper Collins, 2015. p.104

[110] (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p668, Vol. 1) op. cit., note 9

[111] (The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.106) op. cit., note 19

[112] Shafi, Maulana Mufti Muhammad. Ma'ariful-Quran. Ed. Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Trans. Prof. Muhammad Hasan Askari and Prof. Muhammad Shamim. Karachi: Maktaba-e-Darul-'Uloom, 1995. p.612, Vol. 1

[113] (The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p332, Vol. 1) op. cit., note 54

[114] Ibid., p.333 vol.1.

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    • lawrence01 profile image

      Lawrence Hebb 

      2 years ago from Hamilton, New Zealand

      Interesting. I'd read about the journey and the negotiations that went on but not the meaning of each prayer.

      Lawrence

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