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The Birth and Spread of Islam

Updated on December 10, 2019

In the following revelations, he was ordered to invite his relatives to Islam.

When Muhammad began his mission to spread Islam, he faced resistance from the Quraysh tribe in Mecca. Osman, Uncle Hamza and Hazrat Umar are there. 622. Thus, a new era began in the history of Islam.

When the Prophet Muhammad began to spread Islam, the leaders of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca met with resistance. The Quraysh people began to oppress the Muslims, in turn, Islam spread among the medinals, the Muslims of the Medina, hz.muhammed invited to their city, hz.muhammed first, then sent the Muslims near to the medina, then he, next to him, although hz.ebubekir [622] thus entered a new era in the history of Islam.

The Prophet Mohammed organized the Muslims in the medina, eliminated the forces sent by the idol worshiping Mecca, the Muslims began to strengthen in a short time, Mecca was conquered exactly eight years after the immigration 630] Kaaba 632] Islam, Hijaz and Yemen in the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula Was completely spread out.

The Islamic armies gained considerable success in the four caliphs. Islam spread to Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Syria and Iraq.

In the time of the caliph Hz.omer, the Islamic armies conquered all of Iran, defeating them in the battles of Qadi (635) and nihavevdi [641].

The borders of the Islamic state spread to the blue rivers and the Caucasus.

This spread has been largely conquered by Muslims, the armies of the Byzantine and the Sassanid states of Iran, repeatedly defeated, and as the state's borders expand, those who live in the conquered lands join the Islamic community.

Qibla of the Muslim world


Islamic armies have achieved significant success in the era of the four caliphs

The Islamic armies gained considerable success in the four caliphs.

Islam spread to Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran

During the reign of Omar, the Islamic armies defeated the Sassanids in the battle of Nihavendi 641 in Kadisiye in 635. They conquered all Iran. The borders of the Islamic state spread to Maveraünnehr and Caucasus.

The first encounter between Turks and Muslims

During the birth of Islam, there was no remarkable affinity between the Turks and the Arabs. The Turkish and Arab countries were far from each other. Among these countries, the vast territory of the Sassanid Empire stretched.

In spite of all these, the military qualities of the Turks were known by the Arabs. During the period of ignorance before Islam, some poets mentioned about the Turks in their works.

Muslims go to the Kaaba during the pilgrimage season

East and West Göktürk states

630 were destroyed, there were small city-states in the Maveraün River, some of which were ruled by Turkish families. In the Islamic state, the clash of hz.Ali Muaviye had started and external rebellions had also reached significant dimensions.

All this was slowing down the Islamic armies, so until the beginning of the 8th century, the encounters of Turks and Muslims remained in the extent of the border movement.

A miniature showing the Sassanid army, where Turkish and Arab soldiers gather.

War miniature
War miniature

Turkish-Islamic relations during the Umayyad period

The commander of the Khorasan region, Kuteybe bin Muslim 730, one of the few soldiers of that period, the Islamic armies under the rule of these commanders, dominated the blues of the river, in the east they started to invade up to the length of the Talas River, but they faced the armed resistance of the Turks, especially the Turgishes, and the armed resistance of the Turks. Had to be stopped.

The movement in the Caucasus direction was against the Caspian, the Caspian Khanate was a powerful state and they prevented the Umayyad armies from advancing in the north direction.

For this reason, there was a violent struggle between the Umayyad and the Caspian, the Umayyad army was pushed to the Caspian capital, but they were repulsed, then the Caspian troops attacked and attacked the Caspian lands in the first half of the 8th century. Failed in spite of fierce struggles both sides could not obtain land.

A representative convention

Turkish-Islamic relations in the Abbasid period

During the Umayyad period, the important duties were mostly those of Arab origin, and among the Arabs, the Umayyad family were kept in the foreground, the Umayyads were pursuing very Arab politics in Islamic politics, they did not give importance to the non-Arab descendants, and this situation led to a general discontent. The descendants of Abbas, who was his uncle, also claimed that the caliphate should belong to their own families.

Increasing dissatisfaction led to the revolution, secret preparations were made The uprising that started under the rule of a Muslim named Abu Muslim Horasani was successfully completed, the Umayyad State was destroyed, the Abbasid State was established.

Turkish-Islamic relations intensified, the Umayyad gold coin

A face of Umayyad gold coins
A face of Umayyad gold coins
Another side of the Umayyad gold coin
Another side of the Umayyad gold coin

During this period, the power of the Uyghurs began

When the power of the Turks fell, the Uyghur power began in the old Turkish homeland, the Karluk Khan was the left ruler of the Uyghur state and was made responsible for the administration of the western regions.

With the establishment of the Abbasid state, the struggle against the Turks came to an end, the danger of China from the east, broke the political balance, the Chinese historic silk road to control, thus wanted to increase its share in international trade, for this was necessary to establish dominance in Turkey, blue river In order to take advantage of the mixed situation and want to take advantage of China, a large army sent to the Turkish provinces in 747.

The Chinese entered into a harsh attitude during their advancement, took the prisoner of tashkent bagatur tudun, then killed them, in the face of the horrors scattered by this new enemy, the Turks asked for help from the Muslims, the powerful man of the newly established abbasi state, eu muslim welcomed this request, A strong army sent on, the Turkish-Islamic united armies, the Chinese troops on the bank of the Talas River was defeated, the Talas war was held in 751.

The city of Samarra located near Iraq, Baghdad

The city near Baghdad is a kind of Turkish military families.
The city near Baghdad is a kind of Turkish military families.


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    The collapse of the Abbasid state

    In the first half of the 10th century, two Turkish commanders, bechkem and charter were brought to the emir'ülümere, the real place of power in the caliphate.

    In the Abbasid state, the Turkish commanders had an impact on the caliphs, and the changes in power also played an important role, so the struggles between them were not lacking, the Shiite buhvehis who took advantage of the peace situation caused by disputes and conflicts, conquered Baghdad and the Abbas Caliphate. 932.

    During the Abbasid period, both of the Turkish governors of Egypt declared their independence and established a state.


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