- Religion and Philosophy»
The Concept of Yam-yum or Eternal Embrace in Tibetan Buddhism
The home of Buddhism is Bihar in India. this is the state where the Buddha took birth, renounced life and sought 'nirvana'. Buddhism spread from this place to the entire Southeast Asia and also to Tibet and China. All these nations have a common denominator in the Buddha, but have distinct strains of this religion.
Buddha was born a prince in a high class Brahmin household. the Brahmins are the highest caste in Hinduism. Buddha studied the Vedas and Hindu books and thus much of his philosophy is heavily borrowed from Hinduism. He is also regarded as the 9th Avatar of Vishnu.The 7th and 8th Avatars being the god Ram and Lord Krishna.
The strain of Buddhism that spread to Tibet is often referred to as " Tibetan Buddhism" and has a distinct ethos of its own. Tibetan Buddhism also believes in Tantra and this in turn is heavily borrowed from ancient Hindu books like the Puranas.
The Puranas are a 18 volume work and at no stage the buddha said anything against the Puranas or the vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism cardinal angel is Bodhisattva Vajrapani. He is a direct incarnate of the Buddha and much of tantra and the art of Yam-yum or union between a man and a woman is based on his concept of tantra, which is borrowed from Hindu philosophy.
Just to recap Hinduism recognizes 4 paths to god and salvation and one path is through practice of tantra and a union between a man and woman. In Hinduism this is personified by the God Shiva and his consort Shakthi. In Buddhism it is personified by the Bodhisattva Vajrapani and his consort. Numerous figurines are available in the temples of the tantra embrace between Vajrapani and his consort. this is generally recognised as a celestial embrace.
The Essence of Yam-yum
In Buddhist mythology Vajrapani is the holder of the Vajra (thunderbolt scepter). With this scepter, he is the savior of the entire human race. Vajrapani has a fierce appearance in Buddhist art and is normally depicted with . 3 faces and six arms. In one of his hands he holds Vajra( thunderbolt) and and with his other hands holds his consort in a sitting pose. This is the classic pose for achieving eternal bliss and nirvana. This union is referred to as Mahacakra.
In the process of the act he subdues snakes and reptiles called Nagas..This aspect of Buddhist thought and art is heavily borrowed from Hindu Tantra sex rituals. When he points the vajra at the sky it symbolises getting closer to absolute nirvana..
The essence of a union of yam-yum is to get closer to eternal bliss and achieve salvation. this is a Hindu concept and borrowed from tantra in Hinduism
The Classical Concept
In Tibetan Buddhism the Bodhisattva wears a crown of 5 leaves and his ankles and arms are adorned with pearls, bracelets, jewels and ornaments His consort is also similarly attired , but she is generally portrayed as slim with ample breasts and when she is in a tantric embrace with the Bodhisattva she hold a chopper( Katrika ) in her hand. This is supposed to symbolize destruction of perverse desire and concentration on achieving salvation.
As per mythology she is supposed to give a cup filled with blood to Vajrapani and this again is a concept borrowed from Hindu tantra..
Tibetan Buddhism follows the images of the god Shiva and his consort Shakthi and these are transformed to the Bodhisattva and his consort. Most temples will this classical pose of Yam yum in In Buddhism like the image of Shiva and his consort Shakti in Hinduism represent power and road to salvation , so also in Buddhism this image of a sexual union represents the union of the masculine (upaya)with the feminine( prajna) and both are supposed to fuse into one on the path of salvation. Tantra is an essential part of Tibetan Buddhism and is often referred to as Yab-yum. displayed. Generally senior Lamas who have reached a high degree of intellectual light will follow this practice with a much younger consort.
Buddhism as practiced in Tibet is now under threat with the Chinese communist party discouraging such practices.