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The Foundational Elements of a Biblical Worldview
I think first we should address what are the elements of a worldview. I like Paul Hiebert's definition of worldview so allow me to quote him: A worldview is "the foundational cognitive, affective, and evaluative assumptions and frameworks a group of people makes about the nature of reality which they use to order their lives." So basically at the end of the day are the things that people assume to be true. They don't even question whether or not it is true. Everything in a worldview is assumed to be true and therefore the individual is able to function given those assumptions. Other things may be questioned, but a worldview is so true it is not even evaluated. When talking about a theological worldview you must frame truth from God's Word.
I feel there are four quintessential assumptions in the Bible (the whole Bible is truth but these are what I feel to be the foundational ones) First and foremost God. Not just the fact that there is a God, but the God described in the Bible. God is assumed to be true; He is assumed to be real. Every attribute given to God is foundational to who He is. The omnipotence, omnipresence, omniscience, immutable...etc This is essential.
The second is man. Who is man? Man is a created being, has a soul, designed for relationship with God, lived in paradise, damaged the perfect relationship with God, cursed in Genesis 3, incapable of saving himself, promised salvation, and because of Christ has the opportunity to have relationship with God once again.
The third essential is Origins. Where did everything come from? God is eternal. Man is created. Earth and the Universe spoken into existence. Satan also created and fallen.
The last essential is Destiny. What is the destiny of all things? For God He is eternal. The heavens and earth will be destroyed by fire and a new one created. Man falls into two categories. The redeemed will spend eternity with God, the unredeemed will spend eternity separated from God.
For more info on worldviews I would highly recommend Paul Hiebert's masterpiece book Transforming Worldviews