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The Fourth Day of Creation
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for season, and for days, and years: and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; he made the stars also. And God set them in the firmament of heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from darkness: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
What follows is a possible account of what happened on the fourth day.
The Language of the Fourth Day
The language of verses 14-19 of Genesis 1 indicates that God created (asah) the heavenly bodies on the fourth day. This was not an age in which they developed, nor a revealing of an already created universe. The word “appear” (ra’ah) is used in verse 9, where the dry land appears out of the water. This was a pre-existing land that had been covered by the water until God gathered the waters together on the third day. On this fourth day, the stars were not appearing from behind cover, they were being newly made. The heavenly bodies did not exist until this time.
How Did God Create the Stars?
Dr. Russell Humphreys believes that God created all heavenly bodies, stars, planets, moons, etc., out of water. From 2 Peter 3:5 we learn that “by God’s word the heavens existed and the earth was formed out of water and with water.” At the instant in which he created them, all the charges of the hydrogen atoms were lined up and created the magnetic field that is measured in each of the bodies.
The galaxies would have been created in a similar manner. God gathered water to equal the mass of a galaxy into one place. This would have caused a black hole. The black hole would have broken down the atoms of water into quarks, with the resulting energy release turning the black hole into a pulsar. The jets of the pulsar would become the arms of a spiral galaxy. The stars would then be formed in the arms of the spiral, but formed by God and not by any natural process.
The Sun was created before the Milky Way and directly from water. Our sun provides us with light and heat. The energy from the sun provides the energy for life on Earth. The sun is so bright that it blots out most of the heavenly bodies during the day. The moon, Venus, bright comets, and the occasional super nova, can be seen during the day. The sun is definitely the greater light ruling the day. The position of the sun gives us a limited ability to tell time. In the Northern Hemisphere, the sun moves from the left to the right. Place a stick in the ground between you and the sun, if the shadow from the stick is on your right it is morning, if it is on the left it is afternoon. The sun changes the position in which it rises and sets each day. In summer, it will rise a little more to the north than it does in winter, and it will set more to the north as well.
The Moon has no light of its own, it reflects sunlight. When it was created, the Moon had no craters, these would come during the Flood. The Moon rotates at a speed which matches its orbit around the Earth, causing one side of the Moon to constantly face the Earth. The dark side of the Moon isn’t really dark, it just never faces the Earth, the sun lights it when the side facing us is dark. The Moon causes the ocean tides. The gravity from the Moon pulls on the ocean water (it pulls on the ground too, but the ground doesn’t move) causing the water to move with it. This will cause a high tide every twelve hours. If you like fishing, fish feed at moonrise and moonset, especially during the New Moon and Full Moon. Fish at those times and you will catch more fish.
- Fishing By Moon Phase
Learn about fishing by moon phase, a sure way to increase your catch.
In the course of a month, the Moon will move through four phases, New Moon, First Quarter Moon, Full Moon, Second Quarter Moon. It takes the Moon twenty-nine and a half days to pass through these phases, which means that a lunar year is shorter than a solar year. The ancient Hebrews used lunar months, but there is another way to mark the passage of the year.
The stars in the Bible include the planets of our solar system, and the galaxies far out in space, they include all of the heavenly bodies that are not the Sun and the Moon. All of the stars were made on the fourth day of creation, including the stars in other galaxies (creationist astronomers allow for star formation by the processes that God set in motion, but those processes are unknown). As the Earth orbits the Sun, the stars in the background change. Some of these stars appear to move together, these stars are called constellations. Through the course of a year the Sun will rise with a different constellation in the background. There are twelve of these constellations and they are known as the Zodiac and are useful as calendar markers.
Certain stars and groups of stars also serve as event or seasonal markers. The ancient Egyptians noted that the star Sirius, would disappear for about seventy days, it would reappear shortly before the Nile river started to flood. They would use this observation about Sirius to prepare their farms for the annual flooding of the Nile. The Pleiades are a star group that have also been used as a seasonal marker, for some people their appearance marks the beginning of summer, for people in other parts of the world, the beginning of harvest.
Light Travel Time
One of the most common questions faced by a young earth creationist is, if the stars were only created 6,000 years ago, how does the light from stars billions of light years away, reach us today?
Gravitational Time Dilation
Dr. Russell Humphreys first proposed in 1994 that Time Dilation could affect the length of time it takes for starlight to reach Earth. Originally proposing a White Hole Cosmology, Dr. Humphreys, in solving a metric for Relativity, has now abandoned that theory for a Universal Gravity Well. Proposing that God created the universe from water, Dr. Humphreys has suggested that God created an amorphous sphere of water 2 million light years in diameter. On the second day, God expanded this sphere to 24 billion light years in diameter. This shell created a gravity well that slowed time. As God created the galaxies, the Earth was driven deeper into the well, into a timeless zone. The mass of the galaxies also moved them into the timeless zone. Once God had finished creating the galaxies and stars, he stretched them out to lift them out of the timeless zone. As the timeless zone collapsed, light followed immediately behind it, becoming visible on Earth on the fourth day.
All of the heavenly bodies, planets, stars, and galaxies, were created on the same day, but being in a timeless zone, nothing happened until God stretched out the heavens (Isaiah 40:22) lifting them out into a zone of time. The galaxies at the outer edge are the first to leave this zone and their light begins to travel. The timeless zone collapses inward toward the Earth at the speed of light until finally, Earth itself was pulled out of the timeless zone. Note that the Earth did not enter the timeless zone until the galaxies were created on the fourth day, and Earth left the timeless zone while it was still the fourth day. On Earth, time was paused while God created the heavenly bodies.
How Many Stars?
In Genesis 15:5 God says to Abraham, “Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.” Abraham lived before the invention of the telescope, on a clear night he would have been able to see about two thousand stars, not really a big number, yet the passage indicates a large number is to be expected. Even if all the stars of both hemispheres were visible at the same time, there would still only be about six thousand stars. Later, in Genesis 22:17, God tells Abraham that “I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore”. Now there is a lot of sand on the sea shore, but there were still only two thousand stars visible to Abraham, so what did God mean?
What God knew is that there are more stars than there is sand on the sea shore. With the aid of telescopes it has been estimated that there are between 200 billion and 400 billion stars in our galaxy alone. The average galaxy is believed to have 100 billion stars. The promise that God gave to Abraham exceeded that which was visible.
God versus Goldilocks
In the evolutionary scheme of things, there are things that appear to be just right for life. For creationists this is because God made them that way to support life on Earth. For evolutionists they are the product of chance.
In order for the universe to have formed at all, according to the Big Bang Model, gravity had to be just right. A stronger gravity would have caused a massive black hole. A weaker gravity would have allowed dust to simply swirl around without coalescing into anything meaningful. I believe that God created Gravity as it is to maintain the life he was going to create.
2, Galactic Habitable Zone
Were our solar system closer to the center of the Milky Way, it would be subjected to much higher levels of radiation. In an evolutionary scheme, this would prevent the formation of life. It would also make it impossible for us to live on any planet outside of this habitable zone.
3. Stable Star
Our sun is a stable star. Among the stars that have been observed there are two problems that we don’t have to worry about. Many stars are variable stars, that is, the amount of light and heat they generate varies a considerable amount. A variation of ten per cent is enough to cook our planet, or freeze it. God gave us a stable star to support life on Earth.
There are stars that give off large coronal mass ejections. These are ejections of the actual mass of the star. The energy and mass of these ejections would destroy life on Earth (as was shown in the movie Next). We can be thankful that our Sun is a quiet star.
4. Solar Habitable Zone
Earth’s orbit is in just the right spot to maintain life. If Earth were closer to the sun, it would be too hot, like Venus. If it were further away, it would be too cold, like Mars. Earth is in just the right orbit to sustain life.
5. The Right Sized Sun
Were the sun smaller and cooler, Earth would have to orbit in a much smaller orbit to stay warm. This could cause the Earth to become tidally locked, forcing only one side of the planet to face the sun and becoming incredibly hot, while the other side always faced away, becoming incredibly cold.
It has often been stated by cosmologists that we live on a not very special planet, orbiting a not very special star in a not very special galaxy. In their opinion, there is nothing special about our place, our planet, or our person. The information strongly suggest otherwise. We live in a special place in our galaxy, we live in special place in our solar system, orbiting a special star, and we live on a special planet. That also leads me to believe that we are special to God, each and every of us.
The initial creation of matter in the universe was miraculous. From that point, creation scientists have been able to provide a possible method of how our solar system and later, galaxies, were formed. All of the heavenly bodies were created from water (2 Peter 3:5), and then transformed into the objects that now exist. As the galaxies were created, Earth was found in a deep gravity well which stopped time. God stretched out the heavens (cosmological expansion) lifting Earth out of the timeless zone. Light from the farthest galaxies, which were created on the fourth day, traveled while Earth was in the timeless zone, arriving here on the fourth day. The apparent "Goldilocks factors" exist because God created the Universe to support life on Earth, therefore, all the physical laws, and the position of our planet, and our solar system, should, and do, reflect God's purpose.
The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handiwork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. Psalm 19:1-4