ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Nature of Reality, Newcomb’s Cosmological Argument

Updated on January 28, 2015

A Cosmological Argument

The question that is often asked is, “Can you Prove God Exists?”

The short answer is, Yes.

One your journey to understanding reality and setting or changing your worldview, you need to deal with the idea of there being a superior being.

Just for you that are not Christians, here I will not argue for Christianity here, only for the necessity of there being a God, and there being one God, and so this will work for Muslims, Jews, and Christians.

This is a cosmological argument, which simply means it deals with the difficulty that something exists, and seeks to answer why this is so. Why is it that something exists as opposed to nothing existing? You could use the word existential or ontological, we will stick to the convention.

A Bit of Logic

First you need to understand the nature of logic. Logic is a method of determining truth, and as is true with many things, there are both strong and weak ways of doing this.

Now, here is the horse pill: Science deals in inductive logic. Inductive logic is a weak way to argue. Why? Because you induce and answer, you cause the answer, or come to the conclusion but this means you overlay your worldview, or normative postulates into the thinking. One false test and any scientific theory is (supposed to be) falsified. This is a tenant of science, that a theory, specifically because it is arrived at by induction is subject to falsification.

Deduction operates under a much different set of rules. It is the only manner we have to come to a conclusion that must be true, that is it cannot be false if the rules are followed. In general, that the major premise be true, that the minor premise fits within the major premise, and that the conclusion follows from the major and minor premises. There are rules to building arguments that falsify one of the three basic points that I have stated, the structure must be correct, as stated, and the premises true, and so forth.

So I will use a deductive argument and to date no one has pointed out any kind of error in this argument.

The Structure of My Argument

My argument is a series of either-or arguments with the long form containing parenthetical arguments supporting the alternative option (“or”) then concluding each. It then compiles these conclusions. This is a stack of arguments, or sorites syllogism of somewhat unique character. It pushes you one step at a time to a conclusion.

In each case I will make an either-or argument and in all but one of these, it is either one way or the other, and there is no middle ground. You are forced to accept on. In the case where there are three alternatives and middle argument is really there to be complete. Lastly, the last statement is the true statement, so the first (or first and second) is always the false statement, which is done for smoothness of the argument flow.

To depose this argument it is truly bad thinking to simply ignore it or say, as one professor did, the equivalent of “I don’t like it,” or deny it by an absurd statement such as “you can’t prove God exists, which is obviously false, that is exactly what I do here. Logic doesn’t care if you like it or not. It is either true or it is false. If it is true and you are honest, then you are forced by honesty to accept it. If you will not be honest, then no one should listen to you, because you are dishonest.

If it is false, then disprove one of the points.

No one has been able to do that yet, but many simply deny the points, that is, break from reality and pretend the statement isn’t true.

I can’t help you if you are willing to jump into mysticism.

If it is true, then you are compelled by logic to accept the conclusion under the pain of dishonesty.

There are both long and short forms of this and I will extend the long form with a little more explanation.

Lastly, since this argument builds one step at a time I have created illustrations that do the same just so you can follow step by step.

The Long Form

So here is the long form, and, as you see, I start with a graphic and then present the point. The long form contains arguments for each point, as you will shortly see.

Argument 1: Either Nothing Exists or Something Exists

Either nothing exists or something exists. While wrestling with this idea of nothing existing, Descartes concluded, “Cogito ergo sum,” or, “I think, therefore I exist.” He realized that if nothing existed, he could not think about it. It is self-evident that something exists. Ergo, something exists.

Argument 2: Either it had a Beginning or it did not

If something exists, then, either it had no beginning (ergo, a necessary thing) or it had a beginning (ergo, contingent thing). However, all physical things are contingent, that is, their non-being is possible, actually highly probable, and there was a time when things existing now did not exist. Having no beginning also contradicts the 2nd law of thermodynamics, for something to run down, there must be something to organize the matter in the first place so it can run down. Most religions, science, and philosophy all support that the physical universe had a beginning of some type, the argument shifted seven decades ago from the constant state model, which even Einstein gave up, to the universe having some kind of beginning. It is reasonable (logical/rational) to conclude the universe had a beginning. Therefore it is irrational to believe otherwise. It is illogical to believe the universe had no beginning. The laws of science demand this also.

Argument 3: Either it was self-caused, or it was Uncaused, or it was Caused by an Agent outside of itself

If the universe had a beginning, then, either it was self caused (but to create something, the causative agent must first exist, and, it cannot both exist and not exist at the same time, ergo it cannot create itself, so this is irrational and rejected), or it was uncaused (Cause and effect: all contingent things have a cause, the universe is continent, ergo it had a cause, this argument is rejected), or it was created by an agent. The only logical possibility is that the universe was created by some kind of an agent.

Argument 4: Either This Agent was A Natural Agent, or a Supernatural Agent.

If the universe was created by an agent, then, either that agent was either a natural agent (but we have dealt with tis idea above, as above, nature would have to exist in order to create something, ergo this is not a logical possibility, this argument is irrational), or it was a super-natural creation (the law of first causes insists on this, that is, ex nihilo nihil fit (From nothing, nothing comes) or, nihil fit ex nihilo (Nothing comes from nothing), either way, as Oscar Hammerstein wrote: “nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever could.” Things that create always create other things, not themselves, ergo is always an outside agent for every contingent thing. The agent which created nature must be outside of nature, the very meaning of “super” natural. Therefore, the creation of the universe was necessarily caused by a super-natural agent. That is, an agent outside of itself. We have no examples that suggest otherwise, only unproved theories.

Argument 5: This Supernatural Agent was Either Intelligent or Unintelligent

If the creation of the universe was the creation of a supernatural agent, then, either that agent was an unintelligent agent or it was an intelligent agent. However, every experience of man in ordered systems shows highly ordered systems such as the universe are ordered by a being no less intelligent that what the being ordered, the very basis of intelligence theory itself, and there are no known exemptions to this, that is, no cases where a highly ordered system was made by a being of less intelligence than that which was ordered: Teleological arguments demand a designer, we cannot explain our concepts of beauty without an intelligent agent, and so forth. Intelligence itself requires that the creator be intelligent. Order requires an intelligent agent. The higher the order, the more intelligent the agent. We worked on a component for the F/A-18, which took more intelligence than my kids toy wagon. That is the nature of reality as it related to intelligence theory.

Argument 6: This Agent was Either Personal or Impersonal

If the creation of the universe was caused by an intelligent agent, then, either the agent was impersonal or a personal agent. The law of first causes or teleological arguments require a cause for personality, that is personality does not simply spontaneously arise from chemical interactions. A personal agent best describes reality and all we know from science. Personality of contingent beings requires the creator be an intelligent personality.

7: Conclusion

Reason demands that something exists; the universe had a beginning; that beginning was caused by an agent; that agent was super-natural, intelligent, and personal. This intelligent, personal, supernatural creator is what we call “God.”

Ergo, God necessarily exists.

The Short Form

A short form can be written thusly:

1) Either nothing exists or something exists.

2) If something exists, then, either it had no beginning, or it had a beginning.

3) If it had a beginning, then, either it was self caused, or it was uncaused, or it was created by an agent.

4) If it was created, then, either it was a natural creation, or it was a super-natural creation.

5) If it was a supernatural creation, then, either it was an unintelligent agent or it was an intelligent agent.

6) If it was an intelligent agent, then, either the agent was impersonal or a personal agent.

7) Reason demands that something exists; the universe had a beginning; that beginning was caused by an agent; that agent was super-natural, intelligent, and personal. This intelligent, personal, supernatural creator is what we call “God.”

Comments

Submit a Comment

No comments yet.

working

This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

Show Details
Necessary
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Features
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Marketing
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Statistics
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)