The Purpose of the Wilderness Tabernacle: The Copper Laver
In the introductory article of this series, we took a look at the value and importance of examining this Old Testament structure of the wilderness tabernacle as it pertains to our New Testament life. It was discussed how Jesus is central to every detail and lesson that we will learn from it.
In the next part, "The Temple of Creation", it was discovered that the wilderness tabernacle reveals to us a larger spiritual temple concept that has been the blueprint of worship from eternity. From a creation perspective, the material world/universe exhibit began in Genesis chapter one. Adam was the first vice regent king and the high priest over the territory of Eden on earth in fellowship and under the Lordship of God the creator of all.
In part three, "The Relational Component", It was examined how the tabernacle was designed to also demonstrate the relational purposes and components of God's plan for uniting with us using male and female forms as illustrative tools. The tabernacle was about God dwelling with his people.
The fourth part of this series, "It Begins With a Gift", began with the very first instructions for the construction of the "Wilderness Tabernacle" and it all started with giving.
In part five, "The Metals and Their Meaning", we learned that giving is not random. God asks specifically for certain items and lying resident within the symbols of each is a rich lesson concerning God's lavish provision. The three requested metals of gold, silver, and copper and their symbolic meanings of God's redemption through judgment were discussed.
The sixth portion of this series, "The Three Colors of Thread and the White Linen", concerned textiles of the Tabernacle.
. . . blue, purple, and scarlet thread, and fine linen.
— Exodus 25:4
Much like the metals, the colors and fabric had much to say as it concerned the details of salvation and richly displayed the Son of God (blue) who became the Son of Man (scarlet), which in combination made Him the King of Kings and Lord of Lords (purple) over all of heaven and earth.
In the seventh part of this series, "The Covering Materials", we studied the four layers that covered the Tabernacle. These consisted of the linen, goat hair, ram's skins dyed red and porpoise skins. Each layer had something to say about how Christ covered our sin as well as gave us a few glimpses and connections with the creation narrative.
Part eight, "Wood, Oil, Spices, and Onyx Stone", concluded the section of this study concerning the construction materials that would be needed to build the Tabernacle. The list is ended with the reason for God's request.
And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.
— Exodus 25:8
God provided the first sanctuary of Eden. Now He invites mankind to show Him that they want a relationship with Him too.
The final four listed items that God asked the children of Israel to contribute to this meeting place between God and His people were the Shittim wood, oil, spices and onyx/chalcedony stone, all of which pointed to the sweet-smelling sacrifice of Jesus Christ who through His suffering, death, and shedding of His blood made it possible for us to dwell with God. The Onyx/chalcedony stone, last on the list, spoke of Christ's overcoming becoming ours.
To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne.
— Revelation 3:21
Part nine "The Ark of the Covenant", of this series studied the three spaces and furnishings of the Tabernacle, along with their order and significance in relation to Christ's fulfillment in God's salvation plan beginning with the Ark of the Covenant. It all begins with God
The tenth study, "The Table of the Bread of Presence", illustrated the New Testament Table of Communion at which both acceptance and affliction were elements.
Part eleven, "The Word of God and the Tabernacle Menorah", studied the Menorah in great detail. The connection is made with Word of God, the Light of the World, and the illumination of the sacred space of the Holy Place.
The twelfth installment, "The Altar of Incense", covered the spices that were used with this item of furniture as well as this furnishings connection with emotion and prayer. This station showed Jesus our intercessor.
The thirteenth part, "The Copper Altar of Sacrifice", discussed the place where God's judgment upon sin took place. It is this furnishing that illustrated for us what Christ did for us by becoming the required sacrifice on the altar of the cross. He was the only sufficient substitute that could reconcile us to God.
This fourteenth installment of the Tabernacle teachings will discuss the final furnishing in this series. As was with all the other furniture, every detail of the Copper Laver will reveal particulars of our great Salvation in Christ Jesus.
Jesus told His disciples after His death that this Salvation plan was foretold of in the Law of Moses which began with the instructions of constructing a place for God and man to meet through a sacrificial system.
Then He (Jesus) said to them, “These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.” And He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the Scriptures.
— Luke 24:44-45
The plan and priesthood of the Tabernacle pointed forward to its fulfillment of the meeting of God with man, in the Lord Jesus Christ.
The Position of the Copper Laver
The Copper Laver was located in the uncovered portion of the Tent of Meeting called the Outer Court. It was between the Copper Altar of Sacrifice, and the covered portion of the Tent of Meeting called the Tabernacle that included the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies.
He set the laver between the tabernacle of meeting and the altar...
— Exodus 40:30
Both Outer Court furnishings, The Copper Laver and the Copper Altar of Sacrifice, are very connected and will be mentioned together throughout this lesson.
A note before we continue; The diagram above will be useful throughout the remainder of this study in terms of The Copper Laver's relationship to other furnishings in other spaces.
Copper and Judgment
The instructions for the materials and construction of the laver were as follows.
“You shall also make a laver of bronze (copper), with its base also of bronze (copper)...
— Exodus 30
The Tabernacle (Holy of Place and Holy of Holies) furnishings all included gold representing Godliness and glory in connection with faith tried and tested by fire. The Outercourt furnishings contained copper which is connected with judgment, as was studied in the metals portion of the Tabernacle study.
A significant example of this occurs with "copper's" several usages in Jeremiah chapter 52 in reference to an occasion of judgment as it concerned Israel's captivity in Babylon. This suggests that both Outer Court objects, the Copper Altar of Sacrifice and the Copper Laver, were places that dealt with the judgment of sin.
The judgment of sin, in terms of these last two Copper items, took place outside of the most sacred spaces of the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. There could be no meeting with God without judging the sin that separated us from Him. It is in these very connected objects that He separated sin from us and reconciled us to Himself.
Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ...God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them...For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
— II Corinthians 5:18-21
The root of the Greek word translated "reconcile' means to exchange one thing for another. Jesus exchanged His righteousness for the judgment of our sin on the cross represented by the Copper Altar of Sacrifice. At the Copper Laver, we are cleansed from sin. The first represents justification (the debt of sin paid) the second speaks of sanctification (being cleansed from sin).
While the Copper Altar of Sacrifice spoke of Justification through the substitutionary death on our behalf, the Copper Laver will speak of Sanctification and the cleansing effect of what Christ has done for us.
"The altar spoke of blood; the laver spoke of water. The altar suggests this verse of Scripture, 'Without shedding of blood there is no remission of sin.' The laver points to this: 'Without holiness no man shall see God."
— J. Vernon McGee2
"Here the fountain of life is combined with the cleansing waters of death and judgment. Baptism is a type of these two things—death and resurrection—judgement and life—salvation, but salvation through destruction."
—Henry W. Saltou6
Examine and Judge Yourself
There is a two-fold aspect to the issue of judgment as represented by these two copper items.
- The Altar of Sacrifice was where God's judgment of sin took place.
- The Laver was the place were self-judgment took place.
This is symbolized by the fact that the copper for this furnishing was obtained from the looking glasses of the women who willingly contributed to the building project.
M.R. Dehaan, in his book "The Tabernacle" comments:
"Now, a mirror reflects the natural features of the individual person looking into it. Looking glasses were for the glorification of the flesh, and the gratification of the old nature. They are a symbol of human vanity and pride...The laver, then, speaks of separation from the flesh and from the world, and from the old nature with its pride and lusts, habits and sins " 1
What once was a mirror used for the purpose of vanity would now become an instrument for humble self-examination.
He made the laver of bronze (copper) and its base of bronze (copper), from the bronze (copper) mirrors of the serving women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle of meeting
— Exodus 38:8
Failure by the priesthood to reflect and wash at this station would result in death.
"...for Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet in water from it. When they go into the tabernacle of meeting, or when they come near the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to the Lord, they shall wash with water, lest they die...”
— Exodus 30
The Psalmist declares that only those with clean hands and a pure heart are granted an audience with King.
...who may stand in His holy place?
He who has clean hands and a pure heart...
— Psalm 24
This is interestingly linked with a case of self-examination in connection with judgment, death, and issues concerning communion in the New Testament.
...whoever eats this bread or drinks this cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For he who eats and drinks in an unworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body. For this reason, many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep (a euphemism for death). For if we would judge ourselves, we would not be judged.
— I Corinthians 11:27-32
This pattern is seen in the priestly protocols of the Tent of Meeting. The Copper Laver prepared the priesthood for the next visited station which was the Table of the Bread of Presence located inside the Holy Place. This table hosted both bread and wine that foreshadowed the Communion Table.
The placement of the Laver is significant according to J. Vernon McGee.
"The laver stood between the altar and the Holy Place. The cleansing of the believers by confession stands between the cross and the communion of the children of God"2
Out of Christ's side flowed blood and water.
To eat and drink in an unworthy manner as described in the above incident was connected with not remembering the greatness of Christ's sacrifice and perhaps discounting the need for His salvation. The writer of Hebrews warns us about this type of complacency as well and explains what it is we are to remember and be mindful of in terms of the cost of His cleansing work on the cross.
By this will we have been sanctified (set apart and made clean) through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all...this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God...For by one offering He has forever perfected those who are sanctified...“Their sins and lawless deeds will I remember no more.”...let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled to cleanse them from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water...Anyone who despised Moses’ law died without mercy in the presence of two or three witnesses. How much more severe a punishment do you suppose he deserves, who has trampled under foot the Son of God, and has regarded the blood of the covenant that sanctified him to be a common thing, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?
— Hebrews 10
M.R. Dehaan again concludes this section with the following quote.
"It (the laver) speaks of self-judgment and a yielding to God for His service alone." 1
Water and Sanctification
Besides copper, Water is the only other key element of this furnishing.
You shall put it between the tabernacle of meeting and the altar. And you shall put water in it.
— Exodus 30
The Greek definition of sanctification used in the New Testament means to separate from profane things and dedicate to God. This concept of separation in connection with water is used in the very beginning.
Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” So God made the expanse and separated the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse.
— Genesis 1:6-7
We see God connecting the idea of water and separation in the parting of the waters in Exodus when He separated His children from Egypt, the parting of the waters of the River Jericho when He separated His children to Himself in the land of promise.
It is at this station that God asks us to recognize what doesn't belong and forsake it of our own volition.
Draw near to God and He will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
— James 4:8
Paul gives us a New Testament instruction that can give us an understanding of this concept using the example of a Husband and wife. He compares the cleansing work of the word of Christ to His bride the church to a husband who cleanses his with God's Word.
Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her,(Copper Altar of Sacrifice) that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word (Copper Laver), that He might present her to Himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that she should be holy and without blemish
— Ephesians 5:25-27
At this station, we are to be separated from sin and separated to God for divine service.
Commonalites of Water and Copper
There are commonalities of water and copper that are related to the purpose of the Copper Laver and in conjunction with both judgment and cleansing.
Both water and copper naturally have cleansing properties. Water is considered to be a universal solvent because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid.3 It literally carries impurities away. Copper has antimicrobial qualities that resist and destroy bacterias, viruses, molds, fungi, algae, and more. In Combination, the ancients actually used copper containers for storing water.
Comparing the two courtyard furnishings, the Copper Altar of Sacrifice was filled with fire and the Copper Laver was filled with water. Both are elements of judgment and cleansing that include separation. Water separates clean things from unclean things. Fire does this as well especially as it concerns metals. Malachi the prophet presents both of these ideas together.
But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap:
And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness.
— Malachi 3:2,3
Another New Testament interpretation of this Old Testament observance is that of foot washing. The connection is easily made with the protocol instructions for this station.
...So they shall wash their hands and their feet...
— Exodus 30
With the New Testament event of Jesus washing the feet of His disciples in mind, we observe that The inauguration of the priesthood began with Moses washing the priests.
Then Moses brought Aaron and his sons and washed them with water.
— Leviticus 8:6
We see Christ do the same with His disciples in a sort of dedication/inauguration between the communion (Table of Bread) and the Passover (Copper Altar of Sacrifice).
Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands and that He had come from God and was going to God, rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself. After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded.
— John 13
After the initial cleansing, the priesthood was responsible for their own cleansing.
and Moses, Aaron, and his sons would wash their hands and their feet with water from it. Whenever they went into the tabernacle of meeting, and when they came near the altar, they washed, as the Lord had commanded Moses.
— Exodus 40:30-31
As was discussed earlier, the Old Testament issued a warning for neglecting this phase of the journey towards God.
So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not
— Exodus 30
Jesus similarly warns Peter that he must not resist this part or he could not have a part in Him.
Peter said to Him, “You shall never wash my feet!”
Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me.”
Simon Peter said to Him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!”
Jesus said to him, “He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet but is completely clean
— John 13:2-10
It is also notable that, although the Copper Altar of Sacrifice was the first furnishing to confront the common sinner, the Laver was the first attended by the priesthood.
and Moses, Aaron, and his sons would wash their hands and their feet with water from it. Whenever they went into the tabernacle of meeting, and when they came near the altar, they washed, as the Lord had commanded Moses.
— Exodus 40:30
It is Christ our heavenly High Priest who goes before us and demonstrates every necessary element of presenting us spotless before the throne of God.
Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless (without spot or blemish) before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy,
To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen
— Jude 24-25
The idea of dedication and cleansing can also be viewed through the lens of baptism. The personal examination aspect comes in the form of sin confession. The cleansing component, like with the laver, is connected with water.
John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.
— Mark 1:4,5
Jesus Himself links confession with cleansing.
If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
— I John 1:9
In connection with Jesus washing the disciple's feet and commanding them to do this for one another, James gives us a personal and relational application as it concerns confession.
Confess your faults (sin, misdeed, offence) one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much
— James 5:16
Matthew links the topics of fire, water, judgment, separation, and the Holy Spirit in his account of the baptism of Jesus.
I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly clean out His threshing floor, and gather His wheat into the barn; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”
— Matthew 3:11-12
J.V. Fesko, in his book Christ and the Desert Tabernacle, writes in reference to the Copper Laver's connection, notable for its water, to the Copper Altar of Sacrifice, notable for the fire that burned within it.
"When the Old Testament priest entered the confines of the tabernacle, he entered not only by the shedding of blood but also by the washing of water. Well, for anyone who enters the church, he enters by the shed blood of Jesus Christ and its application by the Holy Spirit, which is visually represented in the sacrament of Baptism."4
The book of Acts narrates the New Testament revelation and Christ fulfillment of baptism in terms of water, fire, and the Holy Spirit in the lives of the believers. The following scene illustrates that once judgment took place, and the price had been paid, these forgiven vessels were made fit for the indwelling empowerment of the Holy Spirit. The fire that symbolized judgment was now the fire that symbolized their being filled with the Holy Spirit.
...John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”...When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
— Acts 1:4-5, 2:1-4
A connection can also be made with the experience of the new birth in Christ. Water the Spirit and the new birth are combined in Jesus conversation with Nicodemus.
There was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. This man came to Jesus by night and said to Him, “Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with him.”
Jesus answered and said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.”
Nicodemus said to Him, “How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born?”
Jesus answered, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.
— John 3:1-5
Immediately following this event. John the Baptist is baptizing and preaching Christ. Much like the New Believers spreading the Gospel to the four corners of the earth.
The Laver and the Menorah
Like the Golden Menorah in the Tabernacle, the Copper Laver was made entirely of metal. All the other furnishings were, at their core, wood which spoke of Christ's perfect humanity thus connecting these two items with the things of the Spirit.
The Menorah was filled with oil. The Laver was filled with water. Both of which are used throughout Scripture in connection with the Holy Spirit.
Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward.
— I Samuel 16:13
We see the connection with water and the Holy Spirit in the very beginning.
The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.
— Genesis 1:2
This is also seen at the Baptism of Jesus.
When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him
— Matthew 3:16
Much like the Menorah in the Holy Place, The Laver doesn't come with any dimensions. Spiritual things cannot be measured.
The first two mentioned elements of creation were water and light. The Copper Laver was a vessel for water and the Menorah was an instrument of light. In this, we see a connection with God's redemptive plan through the sacrificial system including the idea of a new creation.
Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.
— II Corinthians 5:17
A new Spirit-filled life resurrected from the waters of death is an image we can draw from these connections and apply to our Christian walk.
Therefore we were buried with Him through baptism into death (Copper Laver), that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life (Menorah).
— Romans 6:4
The Number Ten
There is, also, a numeric connection with Copper Laver that relates to obedience to God's commands, creating, and recreating.
God speaks ten times in the creation narrative. Water is also given ten mentions. The Copper Laver filled with water is used ten times in connection with the Tent of Meeting.
Ten in the Bible is most often used in concert with man's responsibility and loyalty to God and His commands. This is why there are ten commandments. God's good plan only functions properly through the cooperation and obedience of His creation.
We failed our test which subsequently separated us from God into death as is represented by the chaotic waters of Genesis. When Jesus comes up out of the baptismal waters the Spirit of God comes upon Him. Jesus becomes clothed in the Holy Spirit. This illustrates for us what Adam lost when he found himself naked upon his disobedience to God's command in the garden narrative.
Immediately following the baptism Jesus is driven to the wilderness, in contrast to Adam's Eden, to be tested. Jesus passed the test on our behalf that we might be resurrected to a new life.
For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience, many will be made righteous.
— Romans 5:19
Adam was surrounded by the abundance of blessing and provision yet he disobeyed. Jesus was in a wilderness with no provision and yet He obeyed.
The following verse gives us an application and observes how connected with fellowship being cleansed and in the light is. very much like we learned with the foot washing.
if we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin.
— I John 1:7
John Ritchie, in his book "Tabernacle in the Wilderness"5, combines all of these ideas of walking in the light, self-judgment, testing, and cleansing which all are in connection with the Word of God when he writes...
"there must be a walk in the light, self-judgment, and a continual testing and cleansing of all our works and ways by the Word of God, if we would walk with Him. The Word of God is the means by which the Lord keeps His people clean and in condition for communion and service. 'by what means shall a man cleanse his way? By taking heed thereto, according to Thy Word' (Psalm 119:9). 'Sanctify them through Thy truth: Thy Word is truth' (John 17:17)"...When we come to that Word with honest hearts, prepared to do whatever it commands, and to renounce whatever it condemns, He applies it to us, and thus we are separated from every evil work and way and cleansed from all unrighteousness. If we refuse to allow Him to separate evil from us, by the cleansing Word, He will tell us, as He did of old, 'If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me,' and thus it is that communion is broken; the conscience becomes clogged, and open fall ensues."
The previous parts of this series followed the spaces from God's perspective beginning with the Most Holy Place in keeping with the idea that it is God who reached out to us.
There is none who seeks after God.
— Romans 3:11
God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.
— Romans 5:8-11
In the final article, we will examine it from the human perspective beginning at the gate of the Tent of meeting and see how each furnishing draws us near to God through the Lord Jesus Christ.
This concludes the furnishings of the Tent of Meeting in the Tabernacle series of articles. There will be one more concluding article that will discuss the remaining undiscussed parts and pieces of this structure.
Credits and Sources
6"The Holy Vessels and Furniture of the Tabernacle" by Henry Soltau Published by Kregel Publications in 1971. Originally published in 1851 by Yapp and Hawkins, London, England.
2"The Tabernacle: God's Portrait of Christ by J. Vernon McGee. Published by Van Kampen Press in Wheaton Illinois.
"The Tabernacle of Moses" by Kevin J. Connor. Published by City Christian Publishing in Portland Oregon. Copyright 1976
1"The Tabernacle" by M.R. Dehaan, M.D. Published by Zondervan Publishing House. Copyright 1995
"Portraits of Christ in the Tabernacle" by Theodore H. Epp. Published by The Good News Broadcasting Association. Copyright 1976
"Seeing Christ in the Tabernacle by Ervin N. Hershberger. Published by Vision Publishers. Copyright 2007
"Spiritual Application of the Tabernacle" by Witness Lee. Published by Living Streams Ministries. Copyright 1987
"Temple Treasures" by Steven Fuson. Published by Bridge-Logos. Copyright 2010
"The Tabernacle: Shadows of the Messiah" by David Levy. Published by The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry Inc. Copyright 1993
"The Tabernacle: Its Priests and Its Services" by William Brown. Published by Hendrickson Publishers. Copyright 1996. Originally published in 1899 by Oliphant, Anderson, & Ferrier, Edinburgh, and London.
4"Christ and the Desert Tabernacle by J.V. Fesko. Published by EP Books, Everdale North, Darlington, DL3 OPH, England. Copyright John V. Fesko 2012
5"Tabernacle in the Wilderness" by John Ritchie. Published by Kregel Publications 1982. Originally published: New ed., rev. and enl. Kilmarnock, Scotland. J. Ritchie, 1891
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